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Mnted by Nichols^ Son, and Bintl&y, 
Red Don Passafe, Fleet Street, Londim. 






















JtlAMAZZINI (BernarDIn), iLn ttatlan physician, Waa* 
born of a citizen^s family at Carpi near Modena, Nov. 5) 
1633. When be bad laid a foundation in grammar and 
classical literature in his own country, he went to Parma 
to study philosophy ; and^ afterwards applying himself to 
physic, took a doctor^s degree there in 1659. Then his 
•went to Rome, for the. sake of penetrating still further into 
his art; and afterwards settled a& a. practitioner in the duchy 
of Castro. After some time, i^l h<^1tb/obltged him to re*- 
turn to Carpi for his native aiir)r*j!>vhere hfe jnsrried, and foU 
lowed the business of bis prc^^iion r ^Ull^ 1671, at the 
advice of some friends, he removed to M^dena. His bre-^ 
thren of the faculty there conceived ^t Ifrst but meanly of 
bis learning and abilities ; but, when he had undeceived 
them by his publications, their contempt is said to have 
been changed into jealousy. In 1682, he was made, pro* 
lessor of physic in the university of Modena, which was 
just founded by duke Francis II. ; and he filled this office 
for eighteen years, attending in the mean time to practice^ 
aud not neglecting polite literature^ to which he was always 
partial, and wrote a very elegant Latin style. In 1700^ he 
went to Padua upon invitation, to be a professor there r 
but the infirmities of age began now to -come upon him. 
fie lost his sight, and was forced to read and write with 
other people's eyes and hands. The senate, however, of 
Venice made him rector of the college in 1708, and also 
raised him from the second professorship in physic to the 
first He would haverefused these honourable posts ; but, be^ 
ing overruled, performed all the funcjtions of them very dili- 
gently to the time of his death* He died Nov. S^hh birth* 
Vol. XXVI. B • 


day, 1714, aged eighty* one. Ramazzini was a member oi 
several of the a«cademies of science established in Ger- 
many, Berlin, &c., and left several works ; the principal 
of which, and one which will ever be held in estimation, i» 
his treatise 09 the diseases of artist» and manufacturers, 
entitled ^ De Morbis Arti6cum Diatriba/' first published 
in 1700, and frequently reprinted, and published in Eng-' 
lisfau He also, published some tracts relative to certain 
epidemics, both among meri and cattle; some '^Epheme- 
rides Barometricss ;" a work on the abuse of Peruvian bark ; 
and several orations delivered in his professorial capacity. 
All his works have been ooUected and published together 
at Padua, Geneva, London, and Naples; the edition of 
London, 17^6, 4to, is the most correct.^ 

RAMEAU (John Phiup), chevalier de St. Michel^ com- 
poser to the king of France, and to P Academie Royale de 
la M^isique, or serious opera at Paris, was born at Dijon ia 
1683« He went early in his life to Italy, and at bis re* 
turn was appointed organist i^^ Clermont en Auvergne, 
where his /^ Trait^ d^ la Musique^' was wcitten, in 1722. 
He was afterwards elected organist of St Croix de la Bre* 
tonuerie at Paris. Here bis time was chiefly employed in 
teaching; however, he published barpsicbord lessons, and 
several other theoretical wocks^ without distinguishing hiisL« 
self much as a vocftl composer, till 1733, when, at fifi^ 
years of age, be produced bis .first opera of ^^ Hippolite et 
Aricie.*' The music of this drama excited professionai 
envy and national discord. Party rage was now as. violent 
bettjireen the admirers of Lulli and Rameau, as in England 
between the friends of Bononcini and Handel, or, in mo** 
deicn times, at Paris, between the Gludkists and the Pk^ 
cinists. When the French, during the last century, were 
so contented with the music of LuUi, it was nearly as good 
as that of otbex countries^ and better patronized and anpf 
pprted by the most splendid prince in Europe. But tfafs 
nation, so frequently accused of mo£e volatility and caprice, 
than their neighbours, have manifested a steady perse- 
vering constancy in their music, which the strongest ridic 
euleand contempt of other nations could never vanquish. 

Rameau only answered his antagonists by new produc- 
tions,- which were still more successful ; and, at length, he 
was acknowledged by his countrymen to be not only supe- 

1 moj^ Dict« Hist. d« MedicifBe.^Fabroni VitaB Itaioroiii. 

tt A M B A a 

rior to dll competition at Paris, but sole monatth o^th^ 
musical world. From 1733 to 1160 be composed twenty* 
ODQ oper94, of wbich tiip names and dates are annually 
publisbi^iiil.^ V Spectacles de Paris/* aad in many othev 
periodical works« Rameatt*s style of compositioDi wbich; 
eontinped in fatour almost unmolested (ot upwards of forty 
years, tboiigb formed upon that of Lulli» is more rich ia 
bannony, an4 varied* in melody. The gewrif however dis^^ 
pleasing to all ears but those of France, wbich bad been 
t)urse4 io it, was carried by the learning and genius of 
BameaM to its acme of perfection; and when that it 
achieved in any style, it becomes the business of subse« 
queot composers .to invent or adopt another, in which * 
sopaetbing is still left to be done, besides servile imitation^ 

The q>era of ** Caatov and Pollux*' having been long 
regarded in Frmice as the master-piece of this composer,^ 
Dr.\3uri\qtbas entered into a strict critical examination 
of it, for wbich we refer to his History. He concludea 
w^tb observing, tBil, though the several merits of this mu-^ 
sician bave been too mucK magnified by partisans and pa«-' 
triots \n France^ and too muck depreciated by the abettora 
q£ other ^ysjtems and fAhw styles, as well as patriots of 
ptbf r countries, yet Hameau was a great man ; nor can 
the professor of any art or science mount to the summit of 
fame, and be elected, by his countrymen supreme dictator 
in bis particular faeuUy, without a large portion of genius^ 
and abilities. 

The successful revival of bis opera of <' Castor aad Pol-^^ 
lux'* ip 17i54, after the victory obtained by his friends' 
over the Italian burletta singers who had raised such dis« 
tuibanjpeby their performance of Pergolesi's intermezzo, 
llie^* Serva Padrooa,'' was regarded as the most glprious 
event of bis life. The partisans for the national honour 
could never hear it often enough. <^ This beautiful opera," 
says' M* de la Boi'de, ^^witfaout any diminution in the ap- 
plause; or pleasure of the andience, supported a hundred 
represe/itations, charming at once the spul^ heart, miad^ 
eyes, ears, and imagination of all Paris.'' 

From this asra to the time of bis death, in 1767, a( 
^bty^four years of age, Rameau^s glory was complete.* 
Toe loyal academy of music, who all regi^rded themselves 
as his children, performed a solemn service in the cburcb. 
of the oratory, at bis funeral. And M. Philidor had a masis 

B 2 

4 • 1ft A M L S R. 

p«ti^m^m at the cbufch of the CartxieHtes, in bonoor of 
a man whose talents be so mtich revered.^ 
' RAMLER (Charles Wiluam), a German poet of great 
celebrity in bis own country, but little known bere, was 
born in 1725, at Kolberg, and became prbfessor of betles 
lettres in a military academy at Berlin. In concert with 
Lessing, be tbere edited two ancient poets of tbe Germians/ 
Logau and Wernilie. His Lyrical Anthology contributed 
mticfa to improve tbe taste of bis countrymen, by those 
ilsbanges of diction which almost every poem received- front 
bis pen. Sixteen odes of Horace be translated with great 
felicity, and composed many originar imitations of them. 
His oratorios, which Graunset to music, would baVe been 
warmly admired, but in tbe country of Klopstock. In 
1774, be translated the critical works of Batteu:?, wbtcb 
be accompanied with considerable additions. 

■ Ramler's odes were first coUected apart in 1772; they 
had 'beenr composed on several occasions^ during the pre- 
ceding fifteen years. Their character is pecaliarly Hora-* 
lian, but they have too much the air of close imitation, 
yet tfaey hsk^re procured bim the name of the German Ho*- 
race» / He sang, the praises of tbe king of Prussia with as 
much spirit as Horace did those of Augustus, but with less 
flattery. ' He died March 19, 1798. • , 

. RAMSAY .(Alla»>), one^of the .extrabrdifnary instafices 
of the power of uncultivated genius, was born at Lead-^ 
bills*, Oct. 13, 1685 f. His father, John Ramsay, de- 
^scendedof tbe Rann^iys of Coobpen, an ancient and re- 
spectable family in Mid** Lothian^ was fttctor to tbe earl of 
Hopeton^ and superintendant of his fead-mines. His ma^ 
tfaer, Alice Bower, was daughter of Allan Bower, a gen- 
tleman of Derbysbine, who, on account of his great skilE 
in mining, bad- been invited by sir James Hope of Hope- 
ton to set his valuable mines in motion. 

• When Allan Ramsay was about a y^ar 014 bis father died, 

and bis mother being but ill provided for, soon after mar- 
ried a second husbami in tbe neigbbouthood, by whom she 

• • . ' ■ 

.. * The f ^ographieal situation of bis more, born, id Lead>bil1,'^ &c. 

native pUce is tery poefically de- f There is an ode addressed to his 

tiiribed Id the beginning of an 6de for - fi-iend sir Alexander Diclc of Cprstor- 

llis 9dmissiOB into a club of Clyds^ phii>, written o» bis- seveattetk bktlw 

dale gentlemen, printed in the first vo- day, and dated Oct. 15, 1155, 

iume of his poems; <* Of Crawford - 

' ^ Bqrnay's Hist, of Music— 4iud life of Ramean in Rees's Cyclopaedia. 
s Pict. Hiit — Maty*s Review, to^. YJIl. from a German biography. 

K A MS AY; « 

bad several* cbiUreti; ' In tbts 'Mta|iti0'n yoQt)g^ B-a,m;iay 
conld not be fkupposed to have maeb carer or expense 
bestowed upon bim : be bad, however^ a<;QeB8 to ail the 
learning a vilhige-scbool could afford, and it was during 
this period, the first fifteen years of bis life^ that he bad 
an opportunity of storing bis mind with those rural images 
whicb were afterwards so agreeably esbibited in byi 

' About the year ITOO, bis mother died: be was now 
completely an orphan; but was come to an age when it 
'Was proper for bim to do something for bis own subsistence. 
His own wish, as be was often beard to say, was. to have 
been bred a painter, and be bad even attempted to copy 
prints be found in books, before be left the country, 
Wbat were the particular causes wbicb -prevented this wish 
ffom being gratified, have not cpme to our knowledge ; but 
his step-Aiitber, being exceedingly desirous of getting rid 
of bim at any rate, carried bim to Edinburgh, and. bound 
him apprentice to a-wig«maker *, probably believing it to 
be the most profitable trade of the two. 

But, although young Ramsay was of that happy temper 
'wbieb readily agcommodates itself to accidental circum* 
stances, yet, poor as be was, be.coiild not ^ heartily re* 
eoocile himself to an occupation in which bis active and 
liberal mind found no tskercise that w^s. fit for it. He 
therefore thought how be might procure for himself a de- 
cent fl^aintenaoc^ by some means more connected yrUh his 
poetical gienius atid growing p^s^ion for literary know* 
ledge; AU tbid he accompliiBhed by turning bookseller, ia 
which employment he -. succeeded very much to bis satisr 
faction, publishing sometin^s bis own works^ sonietimes 
those gof other aatbors, as they pqcasionally presented 

The 'first pf his own writings were given to the public! 
in detached pieces; buli upon finding that these ipe( with 
approbation from people of the best taste, bqtif in Scotland 
and England, it oncQuraged bim ^o open a subscription for 
a volume in quarto, which came out in 17219 and produce4 
him a very consideirable 9uin of money. . 

In 1728,. he published a s0cpnd volume in quarto; and 
^bese two volumes, whicb have been otten reprinted in 

* Not « barber^ at bas be^n a(ivanc«d in somfe London publicationt. 

$ Jl A M S A Y, 

octavOy contain all his printed works which he has thongbl 
fit to acknowledge. The longest piece among th^m, and 
the on^ which has been the most universally read and ad* 
vaired, is a pastoral comedy, tailed the ^* Gentle Shep« 
berd," which, though it presents only that mode of coun* 
try life which belongs to the cpmer of Scotland where he 
llimself was born, yet is every where filled with such jost 
sentiments and general imagery as will insure it approba^ 
tion in every country where its langu&ge cap b0 either un- 
derstood or translated,* 

• The first scene, between Patie and Roger, of this dra- 
na, was written early, and published first by itself, and 
afterwards in his first volume in 1121^ as an independent 
eclogue. ' In that volume is likewise tdbe found the dia-^ 
logue song between Patie al^d Peggie, afi^rwards intro-- 
duced into the second act. After the publication of thisi 
JSrst volume, he put forth another eclogue between Jenny 
and Peggy, as a sequel to Patie and Rqg;er, and which 
|iOw stands the second scene in the *^ Gentle Shepherd/^ 
At what particular time betweefn 17^1 and 1728 he con*r 
teived the idea of forming a complete drama, of which 
those two were to serve as* the opening, is npt precisely 
known ; but it was not, probably^ till after publishing the 
last mentioned eciogne ; for be had more skill d>an to wea? 
kto the efiect of a complete work, b? giving it to th^ pub«c 
lie in detached scenes, andatstich different periods. 

Soon after the first edition, in octavo, of this pastpral 
was published^ and about thie time of the publication of 
bis second volume in qupirto, the ^^ Beggar's Opera*', mad^ 
its appearance, with such success that it soon produced i^ 
great number of other pieces upon the same mi|sical plan. 
Amongst the rest, Ramsay,- who chad always been a great 
admirer of Gay, especially for his ballads, was so far car- 
tied away by the current as to print a new editipn of his 
pastoral, interspersed with songs lulapted to the common 
Scotch tunes. He did not reflect at the time that the 
^- Beggar's Opera" was only meant as ^ piece of ironical 
satire, whereas his ^* Gentle Shepherd'^* was a simple imi- 
tation of nature, and neither a mimickry nor mockery of 
any other peifformance. He was soon, However, sensible of 
bis error, and would have been glad to have retracted those 
songs; but it was too late ; the public was already in pos- 
session of them, and as the number of singers is always 
greater than that of soi|nd critics, the Qiany editions sinc(^ 


printed of that p&storal have been almost uniformly in this 
vitiated C|i$te. He comforted himself, however, with the 
thought that the contagion bad not infected bis second vo* 
lume in quarto, where the " Grentle ShepberdV is still to be 
found in iu original purity. 

, He had made himself very much master of the French^ 
language ; and his imitations <if the ESables of La Motte are 
excellent. He much lamented his deficiency in the Latin, 
of which, however, he had picked up so much, as by the 
help of Dacier, to catch the spirit of tbe^Odes of Horace, 
which, even by this twiitgbt, he above all writings ad- 
mired, and supplying, by congenial iancy, what he wanted 
in erudition, has imitated some of them with a truly Hor 
ratian felicity. 

Before he left Leadhillshe had no opportunity of read« 
ing any books but such as were in the hands of the country 
j>eople all over Scotland* Amongst thos^ were the history 
in verse of king Robert the Bruce, the exploits of sir WiU 
liami Wallace, and the poems of sir David Lindsey *, a fa* 
vouirite of king James V. which coming at an early period 
to one not distracted by a variety of studies, made a deep 
impression upon his miod^ and gave a cast to all his after 
sentiments, particularly with regard to the dignity and in- 
dependence of Scotland, in the history and antiquities of 
which lie became very knowing. In the *^ Ever Creea,'^ 
a collection of old Scottish poems, published by him in 
}724, there are two pieces of his own, one of them called 
*^ The Vision,'* said to have been written in Latin, about 
1900, and translated in 1524, and which has for its subject 
the sufferings of Scotland under Edward L and the Baliol 
faction. It consists of twenty pages, and is fuU of poetical 
imagery. What were bis motives for writing so long a 
poem without reaping any fame from it, is not eMsy to guess, 
perhaps it was only for the aake of amusing himself with 
the profound remarks of learned critics and antiquaries 
upon it ; perhaps some political ideas not very orthodox 
had their share in the concealment But whatever might 
be his reason for concealing himself at this time, he cer- 
tainly did not mean that this ^ould continue dways a 
secret, as appears by bis communicating it to bis son, from 

* His early liking to these books printed ; s» that after be was seventy 

carried bim so far as to retain, daring years old, be used Uf read Chaucer in 

life, a partiaKty for the Saxon or black that type in preferenct to the modeni 

Jetter, in which th#y happened to be editions. 

R A M S A Y. 

I t 

ivhhm the writer of this article bad the information i and 
by his. putting, by way of name to the end of it, A R. Scot. ^ 
which, though it appears at first sight to mean Archibald 
Scot, is no other than the two initials of Ivs own name, 
with his country added to them. His notions about the 
independency of' Scotland hnd made him, for some time, 
consider the union of the two crowns as a hardship: an 
opinion which he held in common with many worthy men 
and sincere friends of their country in those days ; and there 
is a poem of his in print called ^^ The Tale of the Three 
Bonnets,*' in which the manner of bringing about that treaty 
is handled with a great deal of satirical humour: but hid 
good sense and observation getting, atiength, the better 
of those early prejudices, this poem never obtained a place 
in any of his two volumesj^ and is now 'diflBcult to be met 

To those who look upon poetry as an affair of labour and 
diflBcuIty, it must appear very strange that any man should 
compose so much of it, with so little view either to fame 
or profit. But the fact is, that writing verse cost Ramsay 
no trouble at all, and as it lightly came it ligktb/ went 
In the " Ever Green," already mentioned, there is what 
is called a ^^ Fragment of Hardiknute," of /which almost 
one half made its first appearance in that publication. 
But this was a forgery which could not be supposed to lie 
▼ery heavy upon his' conscience, as^he knew that the origi*. 
nal ^'Fragment" so justly admired, was not of above ten 
or fifteen years greater antiquity than his owif additions to 
it. For it bad been ushered into the world' by a lady Ward- 
law, who produced it, by two or three stanzas at a time, 
saying she had taken th^m ' down in writing from an old 
woman, who sung them while she was spinning at her dis- 
taff. But as lady Wa^dlftW had given sufficient proofs of 
her poetical genius, by several smaller compositions, and 
as this spectre of an old woman bad never appeared to any. 
body but herself, none of her acquaintance ever doubted 
of her being the true author. What p^rts of this prc'v 
tended fragoPient, as printed in the '^ Ever Green," were lady 
. WsM^dtaw^s, and what were Ramsay's, his son, from whom we 
likewise had this anecdote, could not precisely remembei?, 
and said, that they were all too nnuch of the same texture 
for his critical skill alone to make the distinction ^ but that 
it was a point which might be easily ascei^tained by com- 
paring whsitt is in the '* Ever Gr^ep" with ^he copies o% 

R A M S i( Y. 9 

^ Hardiknute/* printed before 1724. In the ^< Ever 
Green," the whole of this poem is printed in the spelling 
of the 15th century, which, though the flimsiest of all dis* 
guises, has a wonderful effect in imposing upon the bulk 
of readers. 

As to his person, be was of a middle stature, or some- 
what less, but well shaped and active, and enjoyed per- 
petual health, except that in his latter years, he was now 
and then troubled with the gravel. His disposition was 
cheerful and benevolent ; and what is not often the lot of 
men of lively imaginations, he was blessed with an equality 
of mind, free from impatience or anxiety, and little ele<» 
vated or cast down with any thing prosperous or adverse 
that befell him. 

'Having acquired by business what he reckoned a suSi- 
cient fortune, that is, an independent subsistence of the 
plaiirest kind, he retired, about 1739, to a small house 
he had built in the midst of a garden on the north side of 
the Casde-hill of Edinburgh. There he passed the last 
twenty years of his life in the conversation of his friends, 
in reading a few chosen books, in the cultivation of h;s lit- 
tle garden, and in other innocent and healthful amuse- 
ments. Although he had no further desire of attracting 
the notice of the public, he continued to write epistles, 
and other occasional pieces of poetry, for the entertainment 
of his private friends. When urged by one of them to 
give some more of his works to the press, be said, *^ that 
he was more inclined, if it were in his power, to recall 
much of what he had already given ; and that if half his 
printed works were burnt, the other half, like the SybilPs 
books, would become more valuable by it.'* He bad even 
formed a project of selecting as many of his princips^l 
pieces as would fill one volume ; leaving the rest to perish 
by neglect But this was never executed. 

Great part of pyery summer he passed with his friends 
in the country, but chiefly with sir John Clerk of Penny- 
cuik, one of the barons of the Exchequer, a gentleman 
emiuent for bis learning and taste in the polite arts, and 
who bad known and esteemed Mr. Ramsay from the time 
of bis first appearance. The death of this valuable friend, 
in 1756, was a great grief to him; which was, however, 
mueji alleviated by the continuation of the same friendship 
\n his son and successor, sir James, who, upon Mr. Ram-* 
l^^'s deatb^ wbicjb happened. Jan. 7, 173.S, erected oear 


bi9 seat of Pennycuik, » statefy obeliak of hewn storie it 
\^s mpmory, wUb this inscription : 

Alftfio Ramsay Poets egregio, 

. Qui latis concessit VII Jan. MDCCLVUL 

Amico paterno et suo, 

Slonumentum inscribi jus^it 

D. Jacobus Clerk, 


KAMSAY (Allan), son of tbe preceding, and a distin* 
guisbed portrait-painter, was born at Edinburgh in 1709^ 
and having devoted himself to painting, went at an early 
period to study in Italy, where he received some instruct 
tions from SoUmene, and Imperiali, two artists of great 
celebrity there. After bis return he practised for some 
time in Edinburgh, but chiefly in London, and acquired 
a considerable degree of reputation in his profession, and 
piuch esteem from all who knew him, as a scholar and a 
gentleman. By the interest of' lord Bute, he wa3 intro-r 
duced to bis present majesty, when prince of Wales, whose 
portrait he painted both at whole Iehgtb» and in profile^ 
apd both were engraved| the fornier by the unhappy Ry-r 
land, and the latter by Woollett. There are alsq several 
mezzotinto prints after pictures which he painted of some 
of the principal personages among bis countrymen. JHe 
practised with sucpess for many years, and, at the death 
of Mr. Shakelton, in March 1767 was appointed principal 
painter to the crown/ a situation which he retained till hiii 
death, though he retired from practice about eight years 
after his appointment* He visite4 Rome at four diflPerent 
times, ^^ i^mit,^' as Mr. fuseli says, *^ with ti^e love of cisusic 
lore, to trace, 4>\i dqbious vestiges, the haunts of ancient 
genius and learning. -' On his return froip his Ii^st visit to 
Jfaly, in which he was accompanied by his son, the present 
inajor-general Ramsay, he died a fftw days softer landing 
^t Dover, August 10, i 7 84; 

Mr. Ramsay^s portraits possess a calm representation of 
nature, that much ei^c^eds the mannered affectation of 
squareness, which prevailed among bis conteq^porary ar,- 
.tists; and it piay justly be alloweci, ths^t he was among the 
llrst pf those who contributed to improve the degenerate 
style of portrait paintipg. Walpole says, ^'Reynolds and 
Jlams^y have wanted subjects, not genius/* Mons. Rou-- 

^ From priirate oommunication. Th^ reader may also consult a life pre- 
ixed to lUmsay's Works, 1800, 1^ tqU. Bro« 

. R 4 la B A V, II 

fuet» in bU panipblet, eotitled ^' The preae&t state of the 
Axis in England,'' published in 17^^^ mentions Mr. Ramsay 
^& '* ao able painter, wbo, acknowledgipg no other guide 
than nature, brought ^ rational taste of resemblaace with 
him firoxn ltai\y ; he shewed even in his portraits, that just, 
steady spirit, which he so agreeably displays in his convert 
a^tioo/* Be was a man of nxuqh literary taste, and was the 
foilknder of the <^ Select Society" of Edinburgh in 1754, tq 
which all the eminently learned men of that city belpnged^ 
ile wrote hiniself some ingenious pieces on contro\*erted 
topics of history^ politics, and criticism, published undef 
fhe title of '^ Investigator.'* He wrote also a pamphlet oi| 
th^ subject of Elizabeth Canning, which attracted much 
Attention at the time, and was the means of opening the 
eyes of the public, and even of the judges, to the real 
truth aild e:^planation of th^t mysterious event. Mr. Ram-* 
9^y was a good Latin, French, and Italian scholar, and, like 
Gato^ learned Greek in his old age. He is frequently 
laaeBtioned by Boswell, as being of Dr. Johnson's parties, 
Vho said of him, ** Yoa will not find a i|[)an in whose con* 
?ersatio9 there is more instrpction, more infofmation, and 
mone elegancy than in Ramsay's*"^ 
■ IJAMSAY (Andrew Michael), frequently styled the 
Chevalier Ramsay, a title by which be frequently signed 
)ii8 letters, was a Scotsman p( an ancient family, and was 
born at Ayr in that kingdom, Jpne 9, 1686. He received 
the first part of his education at Ayr, and was then re* 
9)oved to Edinburgh; where, distinguishing himself by 
good parts and uncommon proficiency, he was sent for to 
St* Andrew's, in order to a^^end a son of (he earl of 
Wemyss ia that university. After this, he travelled to 
Holland, aqd went to Leyden ; wher^, becoming acquainted 
with Poiretf the mystic divipe, he became tinctured with 
^is doctrii^s;; and resolved, fo^ farther satisfaction, to 
consult the celebrated Fenelon, archbishop of Cambray, 
who had long imbibed the fundamental principles of that 
theplogy. Before he left Scotland, he had conceived a 
disgust to all the forms of religion in his native country^ 
and had jtettled in a species of deism, which became con- 
firmed during his abode in Holland, yet not without leav- 
ing him soinetimes in a considerable state ' of perplexity* 

1 Edwards's Continuation pf Walpole's Anecdote8.-rrPilti|lStQD} by Fuselk— >• 
*t*ytlcr'ii Life of fCames. — BQSweli'^ Life pf Johnson. 

13 RAMS A»Y. 

On bis arrival at Cambray in 1710, -he was received -whit v 
great kindness by the archbishop, who took him into his 
family, heard with patience and attention the history of his- 
religious principles, entered heartily with him inio a dis^- 
cussion of .them,, and, .in six months' time, is said to have 
made him as good, a catholic as himself. 

The subsequent course of his life received its dtrection- 
fropQ his £riend:ihip and connections with this prelate. Fe-^ 
uelon bad been preceptor to the duke of Burgundy, heir*' 
apparent, after the death of his father the dauphin, to the 
crown of France ;, yet neither of .them came to the posses-^ 
SJQU of it, being survived by Lewis XIV. who was •sue-' * 
eeedfid by his great grandson, son to the duke of Burgundy,* 
and now Lewis XV. Ramsay, haviliig been first governor 
to the dnke de Charteaw-Thiery and tbe.prince de Turenne,* 
was made knight of the order of St. Lazarus ; and after- 
ward^ was invited to Rome by the chevalier de St. George,- 
styled there James IIL king of Great Britain, to take tb^ 
charge of educating fans chjfklren. He went accordingly to 
that court in 1724 ; but the intrigues and dissentions, which 
he found on his arrival there, gave him so much uneasiness, 
that, with the Pretender's leave, he presently returneid to^ 
Paris. Thence he returned to Scotland, and was kindly 
received by the duke of Argyle |ind Greenwich ; in whose . 
family he resided some years, and employed his leisure 
there in writing several of his. works.. In 1730 hebad the 
degree of doctor of iaw conferred on him at^Oxford, being 
adniitted for this purpose of St. Mary hall in April of that 
year,, wd presented to his degree by the Celebrated tory 
Dr. King, the principal of that house. . After iiis return to 
France, he resided some time at Pontoise, a seat of the 
prince de Turenne, dpke de bouillon ; with ;wfaom.becon* 
|;inued in the post of intend^t till his death. May 6,. 1743, 
at St. Germain-en*Laie, where his i body was interred ; 
but bis heart was deposited ii^.tbe nunnery of ^t. Sacva^ 

ipent at Paris. , ' 

pis works are, 1. V Discours sur le Poeme Epique;'*^ 
prefixed to the. later editions of Telemaohus.. 2. >' La Vie* 
de Mr. Fenelon,^' of which there is an^Euglisb translation^ 
3. " Essai sur le Gouvernment Civil." 4. *' Le Psycho^ 
inetre, ou Reflexions sur.les difii^rens cbaracteres de Tes-*^ 
eprit, par un Milord Anglois." These are remarks upon 
lord Shaftesbury's Characteristics. 5. " Les Voyages do 
Cyrus," ia French and English, the only work of his much 


known in this country. It is a professed imiution of Tele- 
machnsj and we can remember was once a very popukr 
boofcr 6. ** L'Histoite de M. de Turenne, in French and 
English.** 7. *^ Poems,** somewhat in th^ mystic and in- 
flated style, printed at Edinburgh, 17:^8, 4to, seemingly 
ikritfaoat hts' knowledge. 8. *'Two Letters in French, to 
M; Racine- th^ son, upon the true sentiments of Mr. Pope, 
in his Essay on Man.*' These were printed after his de* 
eease, in " Les Oeuvres de M. Racine le fils,** tom. IL 
1747, and form a kind of defcDCe of Pope from the charge 
of irreligion in the " Essay.** This is a subject of which 
the chevalier was perhaps a better judge than of philoso- 
phy ; for in one of these letters he calls Locke genie super^ 
ficiely ^* a superficial genius.'* Two posthumous works of 
his were also printed at Glasgrow : 9, ** A plan of educa- 
tion ;^' and, 10. ** Philosophical Principles of natural and 
revealed Religion, explained and unfolded in a geometrical 
order,*' 1749, 2 vols, 4to, neither of which ever attracted 
much attention. The last, bis French biographers seem to 
.be of opinion, must have been either falsely attributed to 
him, or much altered by his editors, as he maiutains the 
doctrine of the metempsychosis, and denies the eternity of 
heli-tonnenta ; and not only contends that these were the 
Benttments of Feoeion, but that they are agreeable to the 
decisions of the church.^ 

. RAMSAY (Jambs), justly celebrated for his philan- 
thropy, was born July 25, 1733, at Frasersburgh, a small 
towo in the county of Aberdeen, North Britain. From his 
earliest years he discovered a serious disposition, and a 
strong thirst for knowledge, and after bis grammatical edu- 
cation,' was inclined to pursue the studies necessary for a 
clergyman ; but the narrowness of his circumstances pre- 
' Ycnted.his going to Oxford or Cambridge, where he might 
be qualified to' enter the English church, in the principles 
of which' be had been educated. Yielding therefore Xo 
necessity, be resolved to study surgery and pharmacy, and 
was with this view bound apprentice to Dr. Findlay, a me- 
dical /practitioner in Frasersburgh.' In the mean time, with 
the approbation of his master, he entered, in 1750, of 
Kiog*s college, Aberdeen, and having obtained one of the 
highest bursaries or exhibitions belonging to that seminary, 
lie was enabled to prosecute his studies with comfcprr, and 

* Biog. Brit.— -J9«ift*8 Workf.--Wartoii's Essty on Pope. 

14 tt A M i A It. 

forthr^e years had Dr. Reid, then one df the pit>ffe88or»^ 
for bis preceptor. T6 that great atid amiable philosopher 
be so recommended himself by his talents, his industry^ 
and his virtues, that he was hondured with bis friendship 
to the day of his death. 

In 1755^ he went to London^ and sttidied surgery and 
pharmacy tinder the auspices of Dr. Macailley ; in vhosm 
family be lived for two years^ much esteemed both by hint 
and his celebrated ladjr. Afterwards he served in his tne^ 
dical capacity for several years' in the royal navy, and by 
the humane and diligent discbarge of his duties, endeared 
himself to the seattien^ and acquired the esteem of his offi^i 
cers» Of his humanity there is indeed one memorable 
instance, which must not be omitted^ Whilst he acted as 
surgeon of the Arundel^ then commarided by Captain (af^ 
terwards Vice-admiral sir Charles) Middleton^, a ^Iave«< 
ship, on her passage from Africa to the West Iudies|, fell \t$ 
with the fleet to yvhich the Arundel belonged. An epi- 
demical distemper^ too common in such vessels, had swept 
itway not only a great number of the unfortunate negroes^ 
but also many of the ship's crew, and among others the 
aurgeon. In this distressed situation the commander of 
the Guinea ship applied to the English commodore for 
medical assistance; but not a surgeon or surgeon's matei 
in the whole fleet, except Mr. Ramsay, woiild expose 
himself to thie contagion of so dangerous a distempen 
Prompted, however, by bis own innate benevolence, and 
fully authorized by bis no less benevolent commander, thd 
surgeon of the Arundel, regardless of personal danger,* 
wept on board the infected ship, visited all the patientS| 
and remained long enough to leave behind him written di- 
rections for their future treatment* In this ienterprise he 
escaped the contagion^ but in his return to Uis own ship, 
just as he had got on the deck, he fell, and broke his thigh 
bone, by which he was confined to his apartment for tea 
months, aiid rendered i^ a small degree lame through the 
remainder of his life. 

The humanity which he displayed on this occasion 
gained him the friendship and esteem of sir Charies Mid- 
dleton, which no future action of his life had the smallest 
tendency to impair ; but the fracture of his thigb*bone, 
and his subsequent lameness, determtn^ed him to quit the 

* Afterwards Lord BtriitfH* 


navy, aod once more turn bis thoughts towards tb^ church; 
Accordingly, while the Arundel lay at St. Christopber^s^ 
he opened his views to some of the principal inhabitants of 
the island, by wham he was so strongly recommended to 
the bishop . of London, that on his coming home witlr git 
Charles Middleton, who warmly joined in- the recommen-^ 
datipQ, he was admitted into orders ; after which he knme«^ 
diately returned to St Christopher!s, where be was prc 
aented by the governor to two reetories, valued at 700/. a 

As soon as he bad taken possession of his livings, iti 
1763> he married Miss Rebecca Akers, the daughter of a 
planter of the best family-connexions in the i^and, and 
began to regulate his household on the pious plan incul- 
cated in his *^ E^y on the Treatment and Conversion of 
the African slaves in the British sugar colonies." He sum- 
moned aU bis own slaves daily to the prayers of the family, 
when he took an opportunity of pointing out to them their 
duty in the plainest terms, reproving those that had don^ 
amiss, and commending such as had shewn any thing like 
virtue: but he confessed that his occasions for reproof were 
more frequent than for commendation* As became his 
office and character, he inculcated ufSon others what he 
practised himsdf^ and knew to be equally the duty of alL 
On his first settlement as a mkiister in the West Indies, ha 
made some pahlic attempts to instruct slaves. He begaii 
to draw up some easy plain discourses for their instruction. 
He invited them to attend on Sundays, at particular hours. 
He appointed hours at home to instruct such sensible slaved 
as would of tbeoiselves attend. He repeatedly exhorted 
their masters to encourage such in their attendance, and 
recommended the French custom, of beginning and end-^ 
ing'work by prayer. But inconceivable is the iistlessness 
with which he was heard, and bitter was the censure heap- 
ed oh him in return. It was quickly suggested, and gene- 
rally believed, that he wanted to interrupt the work of 
slaves, to give them time, forsooth, to say their prayers ;f 
and that he aimed at the making of them Christians, to ren- 
der them incapable of being good slaves, &c« That hef 
was hurt by this display of gross ignorance, bigotry, and 
avarice^ cannot be questioned, for be had a mind benevo- 
lent, warm, and irritable ; but be still retained many friends 
among the most worthy members of the community. 

Although his serious studies were now theological, he* 

16 RAM SAY. 

considered himself as answerable for a proper use of ^wry 
branch of knowledge which he possessed. He therefore 
took the charge of several plantations around him in the 
capacity of a medical practitioner ; and attended them with 
unremilting diligence^ and with great success. Thus he 
lived till 1777, when, relinquishing the practice of physic 
entirely, .he paid a visit to the place of his nativity, .which 
he had not seen since 1755. After remaining three weeks 
^n.j^cqtland, and .near a year in England, during which 
time he was admitted into the confidence of lord George 
Germaine9 secretary of state for the American department^ 
he was appointed chaplain to admiral Barrington, then go- 
ing, out to take a command in the West Indies. .Under 
this gallant officer, and afterwards under lord Rodney, he 
^as present at several engagements, where he displayed a 
fortitude and zeal for the honour of bis country which would 
not hsLve disgraced the oldest admiral. To the navy, in^* 
deed, he seems to have been strongly attached; and he 
wrote, at an early period of hi^ life, an ^^ Essay on. the 
Duty and Qualifications of a Sea-officer,'^ with such a 
knowledge of the service as would not have discredited the 
pen of the most experienced commander. Qf the first edi* 
tion of this essay the profits were by its benevolent author 
appropriated to the . Magdalen and British Lying-in hoa*- 
pitals, as those of tjhe. second and third were to the Mari-* 
time-'School^ or, in the event of its failure, to the Marine 

Although caressed by both the admirals..under whom bd 
served, and having such influence with lord Rodney as to 
be able to reader essential services to the Jews and other 
persons whom he thought harshly treated at the capture of 
St. Eustatius, Mr. Ramsay once more quitted the sea-ser<* 
vice, apd retired to his pastoral charge in the island of 
St. Christopher's. There, howeyer, though the fomier 
animosities against htm bad entirely subsided, and his 
friendship was now solicited by every person of conse-* 
quence in. the island, be remained but a little w;hile. . Sick 
of the life of a planter, and of the prospect of the slavery 
around him, he resigned his livings, bade adieu to the 
island, and returned to England with his wife and family 
in the end of 17^1. Immediately on his arrival, he was,. 
through the interest of his steady friend sir Charles Mid-^ 
dleton, presented to the livings of Teston and Nettlesl^adr 
in the county of Kent, . 

K A MSA Y. • t1 

Here be was sood detetauned^ by tbe ad^ce of those 
wfaom be most respected, to publish what bad been written 
BHkny years before, «ii '^ Essay on tbe Treatment and Con« 
vekston of AArican Slaves in the British Sugar Colonies/* 
Tbe controversy in which this publication involved him, is 
probably recent in the memory of many of our readers* 
He defended himself with great ability; but they who 
could not answer bis argaments, could at least invent ca» 
lumnies : and sorry we are to add, that they wei^ not un«- 
successfiil in removing one poweirfiQl advocate for tbe abor 
lition of that abominable traffic, of which all Europe seems 
now. ashamed. The agitation given to his mind by these 
calumnies, and the fatigues he underwent in his endea^^ 
vours to rescue from misery the most helpless portion of 
the human race, contributed to shorten a life in no com- 
mon degree useful. He had been for some time afflicted 
with a pain in his stomach, for which he was prevailed 
upon, though with great reluctance, to try the effects. of 
air and exercise, by attempting- a journey of 100 miles. 
But in London, being seized with a violent vomiting of 
blood, be was unable either to proceed or to be removed 
home; and in the house of sir Charles Middleton he ended 
hi? days, July 20, 1789. He may be justly tfcconnted one 
of the first and most active of those benevolent men' who 
roused the attention of the nation to the degradation of its 
character in continuing the slave-trade, although he did 
not live to witness the. completion of bis wishes. His 
works, besides tbose to which we have alluded, consist of 
a volume of ^^ Sea^Sermons,'' preached on board bis ma* 
jesty's ship the Prince of Wales ; a ** Treatise on Signals,'' 
and various pamphlets in answer to his opponents on tbe 
subject of the slave-trade.' 

RAMSDEN (Jesse), an excellent optician and ckecha- 
nist, was born at Halifax, in Yorkshire, in 1795, and after 
some school- education, served an apprenticeship in his 
native place to the trade of a hot-^presser, after which he 
came to London, and applied himself to engraving. Iti 
the course of this employment, mathemi^tical instruments 
were often brought to him to be engraved, which induced 
hipn to try his genius in that way; and such was his suc- 
cess, th^t by 1763 be made instruments for several of the 
best artists. Soon after his coming up to London he mar* 

^ EncyelopMdia BciUnnicB. 

Vol. XXVI. C 

rt . tlAMSDEU 

ried the dftugbtdr'of'Mr. DoUond, tbe celebrated optieiaa 
of St» Pftut'ftcharcb-yard; by which means be waaintro* 
da<ied to'Che knowlec%e of a profession in which Ms genina 
enabled him to exeell, and attract. the approbation of the 
publici in the same manner as bis private worth endearad 
hioi to society. In 1763 or 176% he opened a shop iii'the 
fiayo)arklet; but in 1775 be removed to Piccadilly, wheve 
be carried on business till his death. 
* Mr. Ramsden greatly improved Hadley^s quadrant, ov 
sextant ; and be invented « curious nyuibine for dividing 
oiatbematical instruments ; for which discovery he receiviad 
a premium from the board of longitude* He. also improved 
the construction of the theodoUtei as well as the barometer 
for measuring the heights of mountains. The pyrometer 
{or measuring the dilatation of bodiies by beat, also employed 
his talents ; and he made many important discosreries ^a^' 
improvements in optics. But his astronomical instrunietitt 
appear to have been the principal of his works. He imh 
proved' tbfe refracting mkromecer^as also the transit instru* 
ment and quadrant He procured a patent for an impnoved 
equatorial. His moral quadrants were excellent, and much 
sought for. J ' ' 

' Mr. Ramsden was chosen a fellow of the royaL society in 
1786. B^ing always of a slender frame of body,: as. well as 
of delicate constitotion, in his latter years his healtbgra- 
duaUy declined ; to recruit which be bad retirbd to Brigfat- 
iielmslone, where he died, Nov. 5, 1800.* 

> RAMUS (Petbr), or La Ramme^b, a celebrated French 
mathematician and philosopher, was born in 1515, in a 
Village of Vermandois, in Picardy, of a family so greatly 
xTeduced by the ravages of war, that his grandfather, iiaviag 
lost all bis possessions, was obliged to turn collier for a. live- 
4ifabod. His father followed husbandry, biit appeanr to 
have been unable to give ai^y education to this son, whose 
early years were spent in mean occupations. At leogthifae 
obtained the place of servant in the college of Navarre, at 
Paris^ where be picked up the rudiments of learning, and 
-became i^cquaihted .with the logic of Aristotle* All his 
ieisaie time, he devoted to study, so that what isreiated in 
tbe'lkst Scaligeraoa of his living to nineteen without learn - 
iog to read, and of his being very^ dull and stupid, is to- 
•taliy ioopnsistent with the truth. On the contrary, ' his 

> fiatton't Diet, new edit. 1S15. 

R A,M U St l^ 

talBtfRi and perseveraace at Ia$t-procuned.him to be regii- 
IsLtly educated in the coHege, and baying finished classical 
leamiiig and rhetoric^ be wetat through a course of philo- 
sophy, which took hiiD up three years and a half. The 
tl^sU 'which be made for bis oiaster's degree denied tbe 
authority of Aristotle, and this be maintained with great 
ability, and very ingeniously replied to^ the objections of 
the professors. This success inclined him to examine the 
doctrine of Aristotle more closely, and to combat it vi- 
l^orously : but be confined himself principally to bis logic. 
All this, bowever, was little less than heresy; and the two 
$rst books he published, the one entitled ** Institutiones 
Dialectioae/' the other ^< Aristotelicie Animadversiones/* 
30 irritated the professors of the uuiversity of Paris, that, 
besides many effusions of spleen and calumny, they prose- 
' cuted this anti-peripatetic before the civil magistrate, as a 
«man. who was at war with religion and learning. The cause 
was then carried befoie the parliament of Paris, but bis 
enemies dreading either the. delay or the fairness of iv 
trial ihere, brought it before the king, Francis L who 
ordered that Ramus, and Antony Govea, who was his prin* 
cipal adversary, should chuse two judges each, to pro- 
nounce on the controversy after they should have ended 
their disputation ; while he himself api^ointed an umpirl^. 
Ramus, in obedience to the king's orders, appeared befbre 
the fiite judjiifes, though three of them were his declared 
enemies. The dispute lasted two days ; and Govea had all 
the advantage he could desire, Ramus's books being pro- 
hibited in all parts of the kingdom, and their author sen- 
tenced not to write or teach philosophy any longer. This 
sentence, which elated his enemies beyond all bounds of 
moderation, was published in Latin and French in all the 
.streets of Paris, and in all parts of Europe, whither it could 
rfaesenc. Plays were acted with great pomp, in which Ra- 
-.r]Dus;wa(S ridiculed in various ways amidst the applauses and 
accIaBiations of the Aristotelians. This happened in l^^S. 
. !rhe^ year after, the plague made great havoc in Paris, and 
ifbrced most of the students to quit the university, and cut 
off .several of the professors* On their returuy Ramus, 
being .prevailed upon to teach in it, soon drew together a 
great number of auditors, and through the patronage and 
protection of the cardinal of Lor rain he obtained in 1547 
from Henry IL the liberty of speaking and writings and the 
royal professorship of philosophy and eloquence in 15-51. 

c 2 • * 

20 RAMUS. 

Tbe parliament of Paris bad, before this, maiatained him' 
in the liberty of joining philosophical lectures to those of 
eloquence ; and this arret or decree bad put an end to se* 
teral prosecQtions, which Ramus and his pupils had suf- 
^er^ d. As soon as be was made regius professor, be was 
fired, with new zeal for inaproving the sciences; and was 
extremely laborious and active, on this occasion, notwith* 
standing the machinations of his enemies. He bore at that 
time a part in a very singular affair, which deserves to be 
mentioned.' About 1550 the royal professot^ corrected, 
^ttaong other abuses, that which had crept into the pro- 
nunciation of the Latin, tongue. Some of the clergy fol- 
lowed this regulation ; but the Sorbonnists were mnch 
offended at it as an innovation, and defended tbe old pro- 
nunciation with great zeal. Things at length were carried 
so far^ that a clergyman who had a good living was ejected 
from his beoefice for having pronounced quisquis^ quanqtimfi, 
according to the new way, instead of kiskts^ kankam^ ac- 
cording to the old. Tbe clergyman applied to the parKa- 
l^ent; and the royal professors, with Ramus among tbem, 
fearing he would fall a victim to the credit and authority 
of the faculty of divines, for presuming to pronounce the 
Latin tongue according to their regulations, thought it in- 
eumbent on them to assist him. Accordingly they went 
k> the court of justice, and represented in such strong 
terms the indignity of the prosecutix)tt, that the person ac- 
cused was acquitted, and the pronunciatiot> of Latin re- 
covered its liberty. 

I(amus was bred up in the catholic religion,, but after- 
wards deserted it, and began to discover bis new principles 
in 1552|^by removing the images from the chapel of bis 
college. This naturally increased tbe number as well as 
btgoity of his enemies, who now succeeded in compelting 
him to leave the university. He still appears to have bitd 
a friend in the king, who gave him leave to retire to Fon- 
tainbleau ; where, by the help of books in tbe royal library, 
he pursued geometrical and astronomical studies; As soon 
as his .euenries knew where he was, he found himself no- 
where safe ; so that he was forced to go and conbeal him« 
tfetf in several other places. During this interval the ex- 
eellent and curious collection of books he bad left in the 
college was plundered ; but, after a peace was concluded 
in 1563, between Charles IX. and the protestants, he again 
took possessionof his employment, maintained hiinself in 

H AM U 13. fl 

it with vigour, and was particularly zealous im promoting, 
the study of the niatbeinatics. This lasted till the seqond 
civil war in 1567, when be was forced to leave Paris and. 
fibelt^ himself among the protestants, in whose i|rmy he 
was at the battle of St. Denys. Peace having been coo* 
duded some months after, he was restored to bis professor«.> 
ship ; biit> foreseeing that the war would soon break oat 
again, h^ obtained the king's leave to visit the univ^sitt#s 
of Germany. He accordingly undertook this journey ia 
1568, and received much respect and great honours 
wherevfer be came« He returned to France after the third 
war ip, 1571 ; and lost his life miserably, in 4he massacre 
of St. Bartholomew's day, 1572. Charpentaire^ a pro^ , 
feasor of mathematics, who had been eclipsed by the vi«« - 
perior talents of Ramus, seized the opportuaity of being 
revenged upon his rival, and employed assassinstto murder 
him. jSamus gave them money in order to procure his 
escape, 'but in vain; for, after wounding him in jyiany 
places, they threw him out of a window ; and, hia bpwetf 
gushing put, in the. fall, some Aristotelian scholars, en^ 
Couraged by their masters, spread them about the- streisls ; 
then dragged his body in a moM ignominious manner, and 
threw it into the Seine. ^ i .. * 

' • Ramus was a man of eloquence, and ofuniversal- learn* 
ing/r lie was free from avarice, sober, temperate,' and 
chaste. Hlis temperance was Tery exemplary* Ha C0a» 
lented himself with only boiled meat, and ate but* little ,at 
dinner : he drank no wine for twenty years, nprtl^n until 
bis physicians prescribjed it. Heiay upomatraw'$ used to rise 
very early, and to study all day ; and -led a^dAgleliSs with 
the utmost purity* He was zealous for the protftstant r^r 
liglouj^ but was ^t < the s^me time an' advocate fpr^tatrp- 
ducieg a damocratioal government' ia the cfaurch-; wbi^h 

design was defeated in a iiational synosd* 
*^'' l^ew persons in the present-day will be ioclined-to dou^t 
IfhelberHamas did aright in attempting 4a qndeimine.ihe 
ffkindaiions pf that anthpritty which Aristotle bad so Jpng 
possessed, in the schools^ and no one .who will lake .the 
ttmtbte lie examine the manner in which be li^id opett^ tb# 
4efM)ta and incons^tencies of the Organon,: will: hesitate >n 
ano^iog him Mosiderable merit in this partjof his/des^(tt» 
lBaM;e«ipf)nganewlogioalinstitute,;Ratnfiswasnot, bowefec' 
e^liiaUy sue<^$8ful. The general outline of )^h. pieiii aeopvdr 
ingM'BrunKer^ is this: ^< Considering dialectics fis^ afief 

23 RAMUS. 

deducing conclusions frora prenoises, he eiideavout^ to im- 
prove this art by uniting it with that of rhetoric. Of the 
several branches of rhetoric^ he considers invetitton and 
disposition as belonging equally to logic. Making Cicero 
bis chief guide, be divides his treatise' on dialectics into 
two parts, the first of which treats of the invention of ar- 
gUQients, the second, of judgments. Arguments he de- 
rives not only from what the Aristotelians call middle 
terms, but from any kind of proposition, which, connected 
with another, may serve to prove any assertion. Of these 
be enumerates various kinds. Judgments he divides into 
axioms, or self-evident propositions, and dianoea, or de- 
ductions by means of a series of arguments. Both these he 
divides into various classes; and illustrates the whole by 
examples from the ancient orators and poets.*' 
',. In the logic of Ramus many things are borrowed from 
^Aristotle, and only appear under new names ; aiid ihany 
Others are derived irom other Grecian sources, particularly 
irom the dialogues of Plato and the logic of the Stoics. 
The author has the merit of turning the art of reasoning 
from the futile speculations of the schools to forensic and 
common use ; but his plan is defective in confining the 
whole: dialectic art to the single object of disputation, and 
in omitting many things which respect the general culture 
of the understanding, and the investigation of truth. Not* 
withstanding the defects of bis system, we cannot, how- 
ever, subscribe to the severe censure which has been 
passed upon Ramus by lord Bacon apd others; for much is, 
we chink, due to him, for having with so much firmness 
and perseverance asserted the natural freedom of the hu- 
man understanding. The logic of Ramus obtained great 
authority in the schools of Germany, Great Britain, Hol- 
land, and France; and long and violent contests isirose 
between the followers of Ramus and those of the Stagyrite. 
T**hese were not, however, sufficiently important in their 
conseiquences to require a distinct relation, and the fame of 
. Peter Ramus vanished before that of Des Cartes. He pub- 
lished a great many books : the principal of those on ma- 
tbenfiatics are, 1. " Scholarum Mathematicarumr libri 31.** 
2. '* ArithrAeticsB libri duo ; Aigebrae libri duo ; Geometriie 
libri 27." These! were greatly enlarged and explained by 
Sehoner, and published in 2 volumes 4to, and there were 
several editions of them. '■ The geometry, which is cbie^y 
practical, was translated into English by ^Uiam Bfedwelli 

& A M U S. 23 

and London, 1636, Ui 4tp. H^ publiihod aisp 
a singular work, Paris 1558, 4to, ti^e l$bpo)Ls,of Euclid, 
contaioiog only.tbe.definitioos.aQd general enunciations, of 
tbe propositions, without diagfams.or d^moiif tratipi»| which 
he. thinks it better for the teacher to suppress* ^ , 

BAMUSIO, or RAMNUSIO (Jqhn Baptist),, a valua,- 
ble coJiector of voyages and travels, the son of Paul Il%- 
musio, Ik lawyer, was born at Venice in 1486. He made 
great proficiency in his classical and philosophical studies^, 
but had a particular turn for politics, and was thought so 
accoQQplisbed in tbe knowledge of public affairs, that he was 
frequently deputed, by the state to Switzerland, Rome, 
and .France. He .was also made secretary of the council of 
ten at Yenice,. and was for fdrty-(hree .years, more or les^ 
employed in that post, or in embassies. When old and 
infirm, he retired to Padua, where he died in July 1557^ 
in the seventy-second year of bis age. His principal wor|L 
was entitled *^ Raccolta delle Navigazioni e de Viaggi,'* and 
was published at different periods in three volumes, foliq. 
Q{ this valuable work complete copies are not |ea§ily to be 
met with. . Brunet recommends the following selection af 
forming the best copy*: vol. I. of the edition 1563 or 1588^ 
vo}, II. of 1583, and vol. III. of J 5^5. To this last volume 
should be added tbe supplement to the edition of 1606, n* 
386—430, which contains ** Viaggip di M. Cesare de Fred^ 
rici neir India-Orientale.'" [ 

RANCE' (DoM. Armand Johnle 3ouTHit.UEa DB}^ 
tbe celebrated abb£ and reformer of the monastery of La 
Trappe, was born January. 9, 1626, at Paris. He was ne^ 
phew of Claudius le Bouthillier de Chavigny, secretary of 
state, and superintendant of the financ^. In classical 
learning he made so rapid a progress that, witl^ some. di- 
rection from his tutor, he published, at the age of twelve 
or thirteen years, a new edition of ^^ Anacreon^^' in Greeks 
with notei^ 1639, 8vo. This qurious volume,^ which wais 
.dedicated to bis godfather Cardinal, Richelieu, , was re^ 
printed in 1647, a^ both editions are now scarce. At. ten 
years old, according to th,e absurd custom then prev&len^ 
he .was appointed canon of Nptre Dame in Paris, and be* 
came possessed of several benefices in a short time. ' H^ 
afterwards, took a doctor of divinity^s degree in the Sor- 
bonne, February 10, 1654, and appearing then in a public 

I'Qen. Diet.— Moreri— NiceroD, vol. XIIl.-*Briiftk«r. 

9 ^Niotron, vol. X3UCV.«-Moreri in Ritmaiifio.— TirabofChi. , 

M ft A N c r. 

' eharacter , soon fceoaihe ^fistingaished no): miljr for taste aid 
poUteneM, bot for those smiable qnalificsdons wkicb we 
of use in sodetj. He was not however without his firailtieBy 
'and it is said that he refiised the bishopric of Leon fmn a 
motive of vanity. He was dieo appointed almoner to the 
duke of Orleans, and made a' shining figoie in the assembly 
~of the clei^gy in 1655, as deputy from th^ second order. At 
length becoming conscious how little splendour and pie- 
eminence avail to happiness, he bad adieu to all, and devoted 
bis days to religious exercises. It has been sMd, that 
this resolution was the consequence of a visit he paid 
to a fevourite lady, from whom he had been absent for 
tbme time^ ^nd whom on entering her apartment hetfonnd 
dead in her coffin, and frightfully disfig«tfed with the small- 
fox. This anecdote is taken * from '* Les veritabies Motifs 
de la Conversion de 1' Abb6 de la Trappe,*' published by 
|>aniel delaBpque, Gologn, 16S5^ 12mo; but some of his 
Mdgraphers treat it as fabulous. One of them, Mavscdlier, 
iritb greater ippeai^nce of prpbabilitgr, attributes his con- 
tertfo^ to his having narrowly escaped being kiHedbythe 
iiall'of a fiffelock, which struck his gibeeiere, 'or poueh, on 
^ich hi3 immediateljr exckimed, ^^ Alas I wheft should I 
Itave bfeen, hadinbt my God badcooipacssion on me." Which- 
eirer bf 'the^c incidents^ was the^cause, it is certain that he 
retired from the world, aod^ refused even to be assistant to 
his uncle, who was archbishop of Touvs. He then founded 
% monastery,' 'tfae^fraterh-ity belonging td whieb practiBdffae 
tatmost ^)f-denia1. Th^ir diet is merely vegetable.^ They 
idlcw not themselves wine, flesh, fish, nor eggs ; they- enter 
iiitono conveniattion whh strangeft, and for some dayaMe 
^olly Mlent. They baVe ' each a separate cell; and wsed 
to .'pass some part of every day in digging their own graves 
liV the garden of the convent De i^c6 placed, this 
new establishment of the 'monks of La Trapper in) the 
liands' of' the lathers of the strict Cist^ian iObservatice. 
He also \sold his estate at Veret for lOO^OOO crowBS, 
Which surjt 'he gave to the H6tel Dieu atParis^ and itook 
the monastic h&brt in the abbey of Notre I>ame de Perseigne^ 
Where he made professrionf,' June 6, 1664. He afterwatrds 
took possesion of the abbey^eta Trappe, and iatrodimed 
those regulktions above mentioned^ which long^ madeit%the 
admhation of all tratellers. In thisireti^at he lived devotsd 
to his austere observance9|. until l695>-wheu b^ died cm his 
straw pallet, in presence of the bishop of Seez, and the 

R A N,C E'. as 

ifAcim commntntff October. 26^^ 1700, aged Ti, leaying 
onmy pioas works ; amoag which the principal are, a book 
*<^deia Saint^ dies Devoirs de TEtat monastique^'* I68d, 
2.'W»ls. 4to; ** EckireiMeniens sur ce Livr^^' 1685, 4to'; 
<^ Explicatioa sorla Regie de S^ Benott,*' l2ino; <f Re- 
flexions morales sur les qoatre Evangiles," 4 volsk. 12bio ; 
^< Coin£6reiiGes sur les Evaogiles^'' 4 vols. L2inay >^ fantruo- 
tioos et MaximeSy'V IStaio ; '^ Conduite Chn^tienney '. writ- 
ton for Mad. de Guise,' ll3nio; a great nomberof. ^^i^piritual 
Letters,'! 2. vols. 12mo ; *^ Accounts of the Lives.and Deaths 
of sonii^ Monks of la Trappe," 4 vob. 12 mo, continued to 
& vols^ lasdjy 'SThe Constitntions and AuIe&oEthe Abbf 
of la Trappe/' 1701, 2 vols. 12mo. His life has been 
written by several Romish authors, .particularly hy M. de 
.Maupeou, M. Marsollier, and Le.Nain, brother of M. de 
TiUemontj 2 vols. 12mo. . . i ' 

Mr.:Seward, in bis ^' Anecdotes.ofdistinguisbed persons,^* 
iias gtvim a nuniile account of theanonisstery of La Tlrappe^ 
to wUchJwe re&r oor readers. ; iDoriog tb^ revolutioiiaiy 
excesses in France, this little establish ment shared the fate 
^f -all other religious houses;* the monks were expelled, 
and the place turned into a fonndery for cannon. The monks 
9t length' found an asylum in England, wh^re, under the 
saD(0tidn of government^ Mr.. Weld of Lulworth castle 
^eeotedot building for them, in which they vesmued their 
lomer austerities, and strictly lollowed all the observances 
«f ..their order.^ . ^ . . 

; RANCONET (Aimab. 0e),^ ja native of Perigueux,- or, 
accosdiBg to M^age, of Rourdeauic, was-4be son 'of an 
advocaete in the last meotioved city. He was well skAIed 
in the Roman laW| philosophy, ,mathematios,> and antiqui^ 
ties; aisd. was appointed president ; of the parlisiment of 
Paris^ after havmg been counsellor to-^hat fof*tBoisrdeaait, 
fiia mode bf life was singular. H.e seldom sead in the day^ 
«ime ; bat used to take a light supper, go, to rest dariy,'afld 
fisev after kis first sleep, about the time that th€r.«Qoiiks^M]f 
mains; then, covering his head like. a capachtni-he^spi^fiFt 
fow^hdgrs in study, and, going to bed again, finished^ after 
mquiet sleep, what be bad iiieditatdd< upon durin]^i^e nighe. 
Qy ibii pleti, he used to say that thei most irapid pri^grtsiiii 
tt be made, in leariung. ' He* wlis an ^ekoelletlt Greek 
scholar; and, if we'tnajr beiieve «M. fiidioKiy it 

1 Moreri in Dick. Hist.-o^ewafa's Aiieeaotc«..^eDt Ma^. LXXXIII. 

26 RAN<?ONET. 

was be wh6 composed the Dictionary which goes imder the 
name of Charles Stephens. Pithou adds| that, when cax^- 
dinal de Lorraine assembled the parliament of Paris to take 
their advice as to the puntshment of heretics, iUniMiet 
was sO imprudent as to read that passage in which Sulpitins 
Severus touches upon the execution of Priacillian ; and the 
cardinal being displeased^ sent him to the Bastille^ where 
he died of grief, 1558, aged above 60. Others, say that 
Ranconet's confinement proceeded from his having been 
falsely accused of a capiul crime. He. left in M& MLe 
Tresor de la Langue Frangoise, tant ancienne que mo* 
derne ;*' which was the foundation of the Dictionaries of 
Nicot and MoneL^ 

RANDALL (John), an English divine, was b<»n at 
* M];ssenden in Buckinghamshire, and sent very St* 
Mary Hall, Oxford, in .1581, whence he.removed to Tri* 
nity college, and took his degree of bachelor of arts. In 
July 1587, he was chosen to a fellowship of Lincoln collegia 
and in 1589 proceeded in the degcee of master of arts, 
^out . this time he was ordained, and .became one of the 
most noted preachers in the. university. In A 598, be ;was 
admitted bachelor of divinity, and the year after resigned 
his fellowship, and was, presented to the rectory of St. An* 
drev» Hubbard, in East-cheap, London. . . Here, Antony 
Wood informs us, ** after some time, he became so gceat « 
labourer in God*s vineyard by his .frequent and constant 
work in the ministry, as^ well in resolving of doubts -aod 
cases of conscience as in preaching and lecturing, that he 
went beyond his brethren in that city, to the wonder of all.'' 
Wood adds that this was the more wonderful, as he was a 
great sufferer by sickness ; and that he fvas f^ accounted a 
judicious, orthodox, and holy man, and by some a ze^ilQUS 
and innocent puritan, of a harmless life and. conversation^ 
and one. that was solely framed to do good acts." He died 
in June 1622, aged about fifty- four, and was buried m his 
<:hurch. By bis will he left a tenement situated in: St. Mary«> 
Hall-lane, to Lincoln college. Besides some single s»^ 
mons, and a collection of *' Eleven Sermons on Romans 
viii." London, 1623, he was the author of the following 
posthumous works: 1. ^^ The great Mystery of Godliness,? 
1624, 4to; and 1640, third edition.' 2. ^'Treatisecooceca^ 
ing the Sacraments,'? 1630, 4to. 3. ^'.Catechistical Leo» 

1 Monri.^J>ict Hist. 

R A N D A L L. 27 

t'ures'' upon *th0 Sacrament of the Lbrd^s Supper,** 1630, 
4to. 4. ** Nine-and-twenty Lectures of the Churcbj for 
the support of the same in these times/* ibid. 1631, 4ta^ 

RANDAL (John), music professor in the university of 
Cambridge, was probably a native of London, where he 
was bom in 1715. He was brought up in the king*s chJEtpel, 
and was one of the children of that choir who first performed 
in Handel's oratorio of Esther, at the house of Bernard 
Gates, master of the bdys in James-street, Westminster, 
on Wednesday* February 23, 1731, when it was performed 
in action, previous to its having been heard in public, or 
any where but at Cannons, the magnificent seat of the duke 
of Chandos, for whose chapel it was composed in 1720)^ 
Dr. Randal was never rated very higb in his prbfession, but 
was regarded as a slight orgau-player, and had never dis^ 
tinguisbed himself as a composer. He obtained bis degree 
at the installation of the duke of Grafton in the university 
of Cambridge, for which he composed the ode written by 
Gray. To the astonishment of all the musical profession^ 
he undertook to have this composition performed by the 
musicians resident in the university, withotit the expence 
of additional hands and voices from London, as Drs. 
Greens and Boyce had thought necessary on . former oc<^ 
casions at Cambridge, and Dr. William Hayes at Oxford. 
As Dn Randal's professional life was unmarked by talents, 
his death, which happened March 18, 1799, in the eighty* 
fdtirth year of his age, was hardly noticed, exeept by the 
candidates -for the professorship, and bis organist's places.^ 

RANDOLPH (Thomas), a statesman in queen Eliza-t- 
beth*s reign, the son of Avery Randolph of Badlesmere in 
Kent, was born in that county in 1523. He was, ac*» 
cording td his own account, a pupil of George Buchanan,, 
but had his academical education at Christ Church, Oxford^ 
ihen newly founded ; where he took the xlegree of bachelor 
oMaw in 1547, about which time he was made a public 
notary. In Nov. 1549, he became principal of Broadgate- 
hall (now Pembroke college), and continued in that office 
nriti) 1553, when the persecution of 4he protestants under 
qu6en Mary, obliged him to retire to France. On the 
aeees&ion of queen Elizabeth, he came into high favour^ 
and'hitf talenia recommended him to be employed in various 
eoibassies, particularly in Scotland during the commotions 

■ AUi. Ox. ▼«!• I. ' * By Dr. Boroey in Reel's Cyclopttdfa. 


tlftiret be was senl thrice to queen Mary, and afterwards 
creven times to ber son and successor James VI. We find 
him also ^eversd times supporting the same character at the 
courts of Russia and France* His first mission to Bt6tland^ in 
15i61, had for its professed object to promote ^ mutual friend^ 
ship between the two nations, and to endeavour that queen 
Mary, who had just }o$t her husband, Francis 11. king of France, 
should not again marry a foreigner ; but according to Sir 
James Melvil and others, his real business was to intrigue 
between the two parties Which then divided Scotland, and 
lUther to increase than allay their animosities. In this plain 
secretary Cecil was supposed to' be the director, xmd Ran«* 
dolpb the executor. By a letter published by Mn Lodge, 
Who says that Randolph was a man of ^^ a* dark Intri- 
guing spirit, futl of cunning, and void of conscience/.' we 
learn that at onie time he was confined in prison at Edin- 
burgh; but probably for a short time, as the circninst^lince 
is not mentioned in any history. In Russia, to wnrie& he 
was sent in 1560, his conduct merits greater approbation, 
fis in the following year, he brought to conclusion 'a. com- 
mercial treaty highly advantageous to the Englishmerchants, 
whcrwere then enabled to establish the **Russia Cawapany." 
His secretary on this en>bas$y was George TurbeuviHe th^ 
poeit, who has described the manners and custom sof tbe 
Moscovitesin some epistles to his friends, which^ire inserted 
iff *Hakluyt's voyages. In 1571, during one of/ hisemibas- 
Sies to Scotland, he had the spirit to chaneng«*iVirac^ the 
iFrench ambassador in that kingdom, who had itaken isome 
liberties with queen Etizabeth^s character and t^fithf hi^ own. 
For all these services the queen is accused' of hairing re^ 
wat'ded Mr. Randolph rather niggardly^ having bestowed 
6n Mna only the order of knighthood, the office ^f cham- 
berlain of the exchequer, and that of postmaster, to neitbair 
bf which last was much profit annexed; and a feiv-small 
estates. Yet with these he is said to'have beenr ccwrte^ 
although he had a large family. 'He died at his house-on 
"St Petef*s hill, near Thames-street, London/ Ju.nd r^ 
1S90, in the sixty-seventh year of his age, aifd ws^ibliriejd 
inithe church of St. Peter, Paiifs wbarf. In his latter :day» 
he appears to have lived retired, ** setting hi^ mind^^* as lie 
expresses it, « upon the heavenly country,' aftfd retoncilfeKg 
himself tfo the divine mericy by a'timely repeMaoesK^^Sot^ 
likewise is the advice h^ gave to sir Francis Walsingham, 
whose sister he had married. He tells him, "how worthy, 



veoj bow necessary a thihgit was, tfaat.tbey should at length , 
bid farewell to the tricks^ he of a secretary, aud himself of 
an ambassador.'* Several of bis letters and dispatches are 
in the Cotton collection in the British Museum, and among 
bishop More's books in the public libinry at Cambridge. 
Two of his letters were published by James Olipbant, 
among Buchanan's Letters, 1711, 8vo, and haye been in- 
serted since in the Leyden and Edinburgh edition of Bucha- 
nan's works, one to Bucbauan himself^ and the other to 
Peter Yonge, schooUmaster to J&mes VI. Thefe are also 
some of his letters, instructions, and dispatches, printed in 
Strype's '^ Annals," Coodall's ^^ £xaminatioQ.of the Let- 
ters said to be written by Mary queen of Scots," and in 
Jlobertson's " History of Scotland," &c.* 

RANDOLPH (Thomas), an English poet, was the son 
of a steward to Edward lord Zouch, and born in Noithamp- 
tonshire (Wood says,, at Newnham, nearDaintry; Laog- 
baine,atHoug)iton)Jane 15, 1605. Hewas educated at West* 
Bsinster-school, whence, being a king's scholar, he was elec- 
ted to Trinity college,Cambridge, in 1623. Here he obtained 
a fellowship, and afterwards commenced master of arts, in 
which degree he was incorporated at Oxford. Very early 
in life he gave proofs of good talents, and was not only 
esteemed and adoiired by the learned at the university, 
but grew in equal favour with the wits and poets of the 
metropolis. His learning, gaiety of humour, and readiness 
of repartee, gained him admirers, procured him admission 
in all companies, and especially recommended him to the 
iotimaey and friendship of Ben Jonson, who admitted him 
as one of his adopted sons in the Muses, and held him in 
equal esteem with Cartwright. 

As a dramatic writer, his turn was entirely to comedy ; 
and Baker pronounces his language elegant, and his senti- 
ments just .and forcible; his characters for the most part^ 
strongly drawn, and his satire well chosen and poignant ; 
and this critic also recommended the altering his pieces, $o 
as to render them fit for the present stage, or at the least 
giving the world a correct and critical edition of them. 

The dramatic pieces he has left behind him, five in num- 
ber^ were published in 1638, by his brother, Mr. Thomas 
Randolph, of Christ-church college, Oxford, along with 
bit po^mSy som^ of which have considerable merit. Qf 

^ Bios« Brit*— Lodge*g Illustrations. 

so R A N D O L P 

his dramatic pieces, the <^ Mmes^ Looking-glass*' is, the 
most generally, admired; in it there is great variety. of 
characters of the passions and vices, drawn with mii<(h 
truth, 'and interspersed with many strokes of natural hu^ 
moun A late critic thinks he has discovered in it the 
ground-work of the <* Rehearsal/' and similar satires. '^The' 
Looking-Glass" was about fifty years ago revived at Co*^ 
vent-garden theatre, and is reprinted in Dodsley's Collec*' 
tion of Old Plays. Had Randolph lived, it is thought be 
<woiuld have produced mdny more valuable pieces ; but, as 
(Aiitony Wood says, being somewhat addicted to libertine 
indulgences, in consequence of keeping too much com- 
pany, and running into fashionable excesses with greater 
freedom than his constitution could bear, be assisted' iti 
shortening his own days, and died Mafch 17, 1634, be- 
fore he bad completed . the age of twenty-nifie years, at 
-the bouse of William Stafibrd, esq. of Blatberwyke la 
Northamptonshire. He was buried, with the ancestor^ of 
the family of Staflbrd,iD an aile adjoining to the church of 
that place, soon after whtch a monument of white marble 
was erected over his grave, at the charge of. sir Christo- 
pher (afterwards lord) Hatton, ofKirby, with an inscrip- 
tion upon it, in Latin and English verse, written by our 
anther's intimate fri^d Peter Hausted.^ 

RANDOLPH (Thomas), archdeaoon of Osford, ^nd 
president of Corpus Christi college, the son of Herbert 
^Randolph, esq. recorder of the city of Canterbury, was 
bom August 30, 1701. He received his school education 
at the king's school in Canterbury, then in great repute, 
under the rev. Mr. Jones. At the early' ageof fourteen, 
being then a good proficient in classical learning, be vas 
^elected into a county 8cholaa*ship in Corpus Chrisli col- 
lege,. Oxford. There he entered upon a course of aba- 
fdemical studies under the tuition of the, rev. Mr. Smith, in 
.which, as well in his whole conduct, he acquitted hims^f 
to the great satisfaction of those who were set over him ; 
rhaving in view throughout the sacred profession, to which 
he had been destined from his early youth. He proceeded 
regularly through the degree of B. A. to that of M. A. fbe 
latter in 1722. In 1724 he was ordained deacon, and in 
the following year priest. At the same time be entered 

1 Biog. Bri^. and Dram. — CibUer's Lives. — EUJs's Specimeni.— A|;b» Oic toL I. 
—Gens Lit. vol. L — Europ. Mag. Jap. 1803, p. 17. 


upon the duty of his profession, and undertook a cure at 
such a moderate distance^ from the universityi as .that he 
might discharge the duties pf it, and not be obliged to 
give up his residence, and the farther- prosecution of. his 
studies there. This course of life he continued for a few 
years j and then returned to a more strict residence in the 
university ; nor was he intent on his oxrn improvement 
only, but occasionally took part in the education of others, 
and in the government of his college^ in which he succeed* 
ed to a fellowship in 1723. He took the degree of B. D. 
in 1730, and that of D. D. in 1735. In the mean time hi» 
reputation as an able divine introduced him to the notice 
of Dr, Potter, then bisbpp of Oxford, who soon after his 
translation to Canterbury, collated him t to the united 
vicarages of Perbam and Waltbam in Kent. He also 
shortly after recommended him to Dr. Rye, regius pro- 
fessor of divinity, as a person fit to act as bis deputy, who 
appointed him accordingly. This appointment will appear 
the more honourable, as the divinity disputations ar^ es* 
teemed a trial of the^ skill and learning of the senior part 
of the university ; and Dr. Randolph acquitted himself in 
suob a manner, that on* a vacancy for the professorship in 
1741, his friends thought- him amply qualified to succeed ; 
but on this occasion the superior : interest of Dr. Fansbaw 
carried the election ; and^ J)r- Randolph retired to his liv- 
ing of Perham. 

About this time several bold and artful attacks were made 
upon the Christian religion, which drew forth many able 
answers from • the divinea of the church of England. 
Amongst other works published in favour of deism and in- 
.fidelity, was that entitled *^ Christianity not founded on 
Argument ;'' which, from the singularity of its positions^ 
attracted much notice. Dr. Randolph was encouraged by 
bis patron, jirchbisbop > Potter, to try bis strength in con- 
troversy ia» aoswer to this plausible writer ; nor. was the 
archbishop disappointed in the hopes he might form : Df. 
Randolph's answer, entitled '^ The Christian's Faith a ra- 
tidnal assent," 1744, was considered as a truly valuable 
acquisition, and met with a most favourable reception. 

The arcbbishap,' still continuing his patronage to Dr. 
Randolph, collated him, in 1746^ to the rectory of Salt- 
wood, with the chapel of Hythe annexed ; bis residence, 
however, stiil. continued at Perbam, until be was elected, 
without his knowledge, or any communication with the 

32 R A N D O L P a 

deetors, pr^sidentofCorpos CbrUti college. Tbis 
election, ;wbicb took place April 23, 1748, enabled him to 
devote the remainder of bis life to tbe place of bis edocar. 
tion, aiid tbe s6ene of bis growing reputation. Oxford be- 
came now the principal place of his residence ; and tbe. 
government of his college, and a share in that of tbe uoi^ 
versity, bis chief employment and concern. Yet haviiog 
naturally an active mind, and being ever vigilant and at<», 
tentive to all the duties of his station, much of bis time was 
still devoted to religious studies, which he considered as 
included in tbe proper duties of bis station, ^nd as their 
highest aim. Many of his sermons preached before the 
university were printed by request, and his larger work 
upon " The Doctrine of the Trinity," in answer to " The 
Essay on Spirit,'* was publisbed iu 1753, and 1754. From 
1756 to 1759 beheld the office of vice-chancellor, in whi<fh 
he wa^ allowed on all hands to have conducted himself with 
temper and ability, at a time when disputes ran high, and. 
tbe business of tbe university was more than common; the 
Vinerian statutes having been settled, and the delegacy of 
the press reformed, during that period. Theseseveral la** 
hours were so well received by the universityi that in 176S 
he was unanimously elected to the Margaret professonsbip 
of divinity on tbe death of Dr. Jenner. In the preceding 
year be bad been promoted to tbe archdeaconry of Oxford 
on tbe resignation of Dr. Potter : which promotion took 
place by the recommendation of archbishop Seeker, ac- 
cepted and confirmed by bishop Lowth, then bishop of 
Oxford ; and may be considered as a testimony borne by 
those eminent prelates to bis merit and character. From 
this time to that, of his death be was again frequently en-> 
gaged in controversy, 'i'be questions now agisted were 
ehiefly, that of subscription to articles of faith, and that. of 
the doctrine of tbe Trinity revived by Mr. Lindsay, end his 
followers. On these he published several tracts, and ajso 
occasionally gave bis assistance to others engaged in the 
same cause. Bodily infirmities be was subject to for many 
years before his death, but tbe facul^es of his mind were 
sound and unimpaired to the very last. Within tbe last 
year of bis life be finished and publisbed a work, which he 
had prepared some time before, on the ^^ Citations frook 
tbe Old Testament in the New.'' Repeated attacks at 
length brought Jaim to a state of weakness, under which 
belaboured for three months, and died March 24, ltS5; 


Me waa budfd in, Corpus Christi ploister^ y^k9xe^, V^oout- 
meni^ 1$. erected tp his .men^ory. 

Pr. H^odolpb^s v^bple attention wi^s cppfin.qd to bU pro- 
fession, 4nd his statiion in the uiiiyersity. Beiqg convince^ 
that th/e province allotted |to. bioi, if its duties were faitb- 
fully discharged, .was suffiqient for hi^ own epiployment^ 
and for .the rendering him s^n useful mi^inber of .society, h^ 
was. not disposed to wander beyond ^t. He wa^ a zqalpu/i 
supporter of the doctrine^ of the church of England, from 
a conviction that they were thojie of the religion of Christ. 
It has sometimes been invidiously urged by the enemies of 
our religious establishment, who wi^h great pi^ofessions of 
liberality are by no means scrupulous of the terms in wbicb 
th^y speak of the doctrines, discipline, or members of ou|r 
cj^urcb,. that its supporters act from interested views. lu 
ana^wer to this charge thrown outagainst himself in commoa 
with others, Dr. Randplph says, in a preface to an inte^de^ 
<Work, ^^ One of tbede writers is now near fourscore yqars of 
^ge* who neither hopes for, nor will solicit for any thing 
farther in this world : he fights under no banner but that 
of bis Lord and Saviour, from whom alone he expects hip 

Dr. Randolph married Miss Thomasina Honywoody 
daughtcfr of William Honywood, esq. of Cheriton, one of 
the family of Honywood in Kent. By this lady, who died 
in Dec. 1783, he had three sons and three daughters, of 
whom there survived him, the three sons, Thomas, Her- 
bert, and John ; and one daughter, Thomasina. 

In 1784^ a collection pf the most valuable of Dr. Ran- 
dolph's works was published, under the title of ^^ A View 
of our blessed Saviour's Ministry, and the proofs of his 
(divine mission arising from thence ; together with a charge, 
dissertations, sermons, and theological lectures,'' 2 vols. 
Bvo. To this is prefixed an account of his life, of which 
we have availed ourselves in the present sketch.' 

RA^fDOLPH (John), the late bishop of London, wa$ 
• the younger son of the preceding, and was bonr July 6, 
1749. He became a student of Corpus Christi college, 
Oxford, and took his degrees at the usual periods ; that of 1774;B. D. in 1782; D.D. by diploma, in 1783. 
In 1776 be was appointed prtelectorofpoptry, and in 1782 
regius professor of Greek. In the same year he was pre*^ 

1 Life as above. 

Vot. XXVI. D 


sented to a prebend of ' Salisbury ; and in 178S became 
canon of Christ cburcb, regias professor of divinity, and 
Tector of Evrelme. In tbe year 1799 be was elevated to 
the bishopric of Oxford ; translated to that of Bangor in 
1807; and thence to London in 1809. He was elected 
F. R. S. in 181 1. He passed a great part of bis life in the 
universi^ of Oxford, and it was generally believed thit 
when he was raised to tbe see of Oxford, tbe university 
was complimented with the nomination by tbe crown. His 
lordship was author of many single sermons, and charges 
delivered on different occasions : also of ^' De Greecse Lin- 
guae Studio Preslectio habita in Scboli Linguarum," 1783, 
and '^ Concio ad Clerum in Synodo Provinciali Cantua* 
riensis Provincise ad D, Pauli," 1790. One of his last 
works was a report of the progress made by the National 
School Society, to which the general committee referred 
in terms of gratitude, at their first meeting after bis lord- 
ship^s decease. They notice his lordship as one *' whose 

. latest employment bad been to state, for tbe information 
of the public, the progress of a work to which he bad con- 
tributed bis . time, his labour, and bis counsels. The 
committee therefore could not fail to entertain a common 
sentiment of profound regret for the loss which they have 
sustained, and to cherish in their minds the liveliest re- 
collection of the service which has been so successfully ful- 
filled by him in this second report. They wish, therefore^ 
to add to this document, designed for general circulation, 
their sense of what is due from the public, and themselves, 
to the memory of one who was a constant and assiduous 
promoter of this salutary institution, from its first esta- 

^ blishment to the last hour of his life. Tbe committee trust, 
that this testimony, though limited to a single object in 
the large field of pastoral duty in which he was incessantly 
engaged, may serve to denote the benefits which have re- 
sulted from his prompt, unwearied, and effectual exer- 
tions.'' The following ir the character drawn of bim by 
Mr. archdeacon Jefferson, and which alludes to his zeal for 
the church, of which he was an active member : *^ Fearless 
now of being censured for mercenary adulation, or re- 
proved by unconscious merit, a just tribute may be paid to 
the character of that departed and exalted prelate, who is, 
and will be, most lamented where he was best and most 
entirely known. This opportunity, therefore, is willingly 
embraced of offering a heartfelt condolence to the ministry 



of the diocese on the affecting and important loss, which, 
in these perilous times of contending sects *and unsettled 
opinion, has arisen to tl^em, and to the church : — -To them, 
in the premature privation of a diocesan, firm in his sup- 
port of ecclesiastical authority, but considerate in its ap- 
plication ; eminently versed in the letter of ecclesiastical 
law, but liberal in its practical construction, reluctant in 
interference, but determined in duty, slow in the profest- 
sion of service, but prompt ini its execution $ disinterested 
in ' p2U;ronage, unwavering in measures, correct in judg- 
ment, attentive in council, and kind and compassionate to 
distress: — ^To the church, in the premature privation of a 
father, diligent in her rites and services, but unosteittatibus 
in piety and devotion ; sound and unrelaxing in her doci- 
trines and faith, but discreet in zeal, and comprehensive 
in charity ; ever vigilant in defending her interests, ever 
forward in asserting her privileges, and ever able in the 
assertion' and the defence." This high character, how- 
ever, has been, thought capable of abatement It waa 
perhaps unfortunate that he succeeded a prelate of the 
mild and conciliating temper of Dr. Porteus, and that be 
undertook the government of a diocese,^ which, above all 
others, requires such a temper. It was, perhaps, not less 
unfortunate that in his first charge to the clergy of th}S 
diocese, he betrayed no little ignorance of the state of 
teligious opinions, and the creeds of those sectaries against 
whom he. wished to warn his clergy. 

Bishop Randolph died suddenly on the 28th of July, 
1 81 3. He was one of the governors of the Charter-house ; 
trustee of the British Museum ; dean of the Chapel roi^^l ; 
visitor of Sion colleoe; and provincial dean'of Canierbury.^ 

RAPHAFX, or RAFFAELLO, whose family name was 
Sanzio, was born in the city of Urbino, March 2S, 1483» 
He was the only child of John Sanzio, a painter, who, 
though of no great professional celebrity, encouraged bis 
sop^s inclination for the art, and after having taught him 
what he could, had the good sense and diffidence in his 
own talents, to place him under the caire of Peter Peru- 
gino, when in his thirteenth year. Perugino, who, from 
his style of design, pronoiinced that he a great 
man, regarded' him with peculiar affection, -and Raphael, 
4uripg the three years that he remained with this iartist, so 

1 Gent. Ma^ toU. iXXXIII. and LXKXIV. 


88 H A P B A E L. 

perfeetly adopted bis mauoer, that bis works wer^ not to 
be distioguisbed from those of bis master ; which was so far 
from creating any jealousy in the mind of the latter^ that 
on the return of Raphael to Perugia, after his visit to Flo*» 
rence, he was the first to admire Iiis works and proclaim 
bis improTemeot 

In 1499, at the age of sixteen, Raphael left Perugia, 
and went with Pinjturtcchio to Siena, to assist him in paint-f 
ing for the library of the cathedral, the history of Pius II. 
which was executed in ten large pictures, of which Ra« 
phael made the greater part, if not all the designs, and 
Insisted in painting them. Before this work was com** 
pleted, he left Siena, probably about 15Q2, to pursue his 
studies at Flprence, where the great names of Leonardo 
da Vinci and Michael Angelo flourished with rival pre-emi-» 
oence, and where h^ immediately became conscious of the 
iofieriority of the style wbich he bad been taught and prac- 
tised. Here be acquired the esteem of some persons of 
eminence, and pursued his studies with avidity until 1504, 
nrhen be Vj^^a obliged lo vi»t Urbino to arrange some 
domestic affairs, and at intervals painted four small pic-* 
iaires for ^e duke of Urbino, which were much esteem-* 
ed. He then went to Perugia to paint several pictures for 
the convents, which were all so much admired, that com-* 
missions pressed upon him ; but his desire to return to Fio« 
renc^ made him leave one which was begun in fresco for 
the monastery of St. Severo, to be terminated by bis old 
piaster Perugino. 

In Florence he again pursued his studies with unremit- 
ting assiduity ; and the Brancacci and Corsiui chapels in 
the church of the Carmelites, painted by Masaccio, were 
bis favourite school ^ but of living artists there was no one 
to whom be was sq much attached as Fra. Bartolo^ieo, by 
whose instruction and example be improved himself ia 
eolouring, and the principles of chiaroscuro ; and in return 
be gave his fiiend som^ information in perspective. The 
work to which his mind was at this time particularly directs 
ed, was a cartoon for a picture, which, when b^ left Peru^ 
gia, he engaged to paint foe the church of St. Francis* 
This picture, which represents the body of Christ borne to 
the sepulchre,, he afterwards painted in Perugia, and it 
obtained so much credit, that his professional rank was 
from that time decidedly established. It shewed the ad- 
yantages he had acq[uired by study, and the benefit he 


derived from the friendship of Fra. Bartolomeo ; f<>r this woi 
the first step he had taken to overcome the restraints of hti 
previous education. When the picture was finished he 
again returned to Florence; was much sought after by 
men of taste, and with accumulated reputation his fiatme 
soon extended itself to the Vatican. Julius II. was theik 
pope, a great patron of the arts, and having heard of Ra- 
phael, invited him to Roine in 1508, and received him 
with the most flattering maAs of distinction. Here being 
immediately commissioned to paint one of the state cham- 
ber^ of the Vatican, which the pope was then ornamenting 
with great taste and splendour, Raphael eMouted bis 
>' School ^f Athens," which gave such entire satisfaction to 
^be pope, that all the pictures by the various masters already 
painted in the different rooms, were ordered to be effaced^ 
and the walls prepared to transmit to posterity bis own uti«- 
rivalled genius. The only work preserved from this j^ene- 
ral destruction was the ceiling of one of these rooms, the 
fourth in the suite, which had been painted by Perugino, 
and was saved at RaphaePs intercession. So amiable a 
trait of character ought not to be forgotten. 

This extensive undertaking, which it was for Raphael 
alone to plan and execute, he appears to have formed into 
one general design to shew the triumph of the Christian 
religion (in the catholic. form), its divine authority, ^nd 
the dependence of human laws on its pervading infltienc^. 
But whether in this arrangement there was any refined 
system of metaphysics, intending to conduct maii from it 
^savage state by the paths of religion and philosophy to a 
more intimate union with the great first cause, must now 
be left to fanciful theorists, as neitber the painter nor his 
contemporaries have left us any written data for specula- 
tion. Of these rooms, which, in honour of his nanij^, are 
called the Stanze of Raphael, the first is a grand salooh 
dedici^ted to the emperor Constantine, in which are repre^ 
sented four principal events in his reigo. The secobd 
stanza exhibits four extraordinary miracles, two front sa- 
cred history, and two from the legends of the churclh. 
The third stanza is dediicsited to those branchei) of know- 
ledge that serve most to elevate the human mind, and dig- 
nify our nature in the rank of created beings, of idiich the 
-principal subjects are poetry, philosophy, jurisprudence^ 
andr theology. The subjects of the fourth stanSa^re tifip 
4ustorioa^ from the life of Leo III. ; 9nd ti^ Mivmi»i»m, 


firom the life of Liso IV. These ar^ all supposed to have 
been executed before 1517, and, with saialier pictures on 
the ceilings of the second and third stanza, are all designed 
by Raphael, and painted in fresco by himself, his scholars 
and assistants ; and three centuries of unsuccessful emula-* 
tion have already made their eulogium. 

Although we see in these the aggregate of his powers in 
poetical conception and execution, this extraordinary ex- 
hibition of talent is not likely at the first view to be impres* 
sive to a general observer. Even sir Joshua Reynolds has 
recorded his disappointment, and the causes of it, but he alsd 
records the way in which his prejudices were at length re- 
moved, and himself compelled to acknowledge that he had 
originally formed a false opinion of the perfection of art, 
and that this great painter was well entitled to the high 
rank which he holds in the estimation of the world. 

On the. death of Julius II. in 1513, Raphael was ho* 
noured with the same favour and esteem by his successor 
Leo X. under whose patronage he continued the great 
work of the stanze. He painted also in the Vatican in 
chiaroscuro twelve whole-length 6gures of the apostles, 
but which, from various causes, have been since destroyed ; 
and he made designs to ornament one of the arcades in the 
grand cprttle of the palace, now called the loggia^ consist- 
ing of fifty-two historical subjects from the Bible, aud ara- 
besque decorations, which were all painted by his scholars, 
or with exceptions too doubtful and uncertain to identify 
any particular part to be of his own hand. For this pontiiF 
he also made a series of large historical cartoons from the 
•acred writings, representing in thirteen compositions the 
origin and progress of the Christian religion, to be executed 
in tapestry, intended as an additional decoration for the hall 
of Constantine. Seveii of these cartoons, from the con- 
currence of fortunate circumstances, are now in the col- 
lection of his Britannic majesty; but the others were most 
probably mutilated of lost, and the tapestries themselves 
were dispersed when the Vatican palace was sacked by the 
French in 1798. 

Raphael, though possessing pre-eininent powers as a 
4>ainter, had not suffered that profession alone to absorb 
bis 'mind; he had studied architecture under Bramante, 
find in chastity of design was not inferior to that distin- 
.guisbed artist, who in full confidence of his abilities, re- 
commended him sus his successor, to conduct the great work 

R A P H A ]§ L. 89 

«f St Petered, to which recommendation his holiness paid 
due attention. According to the popeU brief on this occa* 
sion, dated August 1515, his salary was fixed at three bun« 
dred golden crowns, or 150/. per annum. For so impor- 
tant an undertaking this sum would seem to be a very ina* 
dequate remuneration ; but, as bis biographer observes, in 
our own country, one hundred and sixty years subsequent 
to this period, sir Christopher Wren did not receive more 
than 200/. per annum, for the building of St. PauPs, which 
included draughts, models, making estimates and con- 
tracts, examining and adjusting all bills and accounts, with 
constant personal superintendance, and giving instructions 
to the artificers in every department. St. Peter's, which 
cost more than a century to complete, underwent so many 
changes by the various architects employed, that it would 
be now extremely difficult to particularize with any degree 
of certainty the different parts of it which were executed 
by Raplmel. It^appears, however, that it is to him we are 
indebted for the general plan of the church as it now exists* 
Jn 1515, Raphael went with the pope to Florence, and 
made a design for the fagade of the church of St. Lorenzo : 
and, according to Vasari, he was also the architect of a 
magnificent house for the bishop of Troja, which still 
exists in the street of St. Gallo in that city i but of the 
different buildings designed or executed by Raphael, that 
on which bis reputation as an artist is thought principally 
to rest* is the CafFarelli palace at Rome. The other build* 
ings of Raphael still existing are, a palf^ce for M. Giovauni 
fiaptista deir Aquila, opposite to the church of S. Maria 
della Vallicella, in Rome; a villa for cardinal Julius de 
Medici, afterwards pope Clement VII. ; and for the prince^ 
Ghigi be built a set of stables in the Longara, and a chapel 
in the church of S. Maria del Popolo. This prince was 
a distinguished patron of Raphael, and much employed 
him. For him he painted in fresco, in one of the rooms 
of his Casino in the Longara, now called the Farnesina, a 
picture of Galatea drawn by dolphins, and surrounded with 
tritons, &c. which would appear to have been much ad? 
mired and praised by his friend count Castiglione, from a 
tetter still existing by Raphael to that nobleman, which 
the reader may see in our principal authority. For prince 
Ghigi he painted in fresco, on the spandrels pf an arch in 
fron^ of the Ghigi chapel in the church of S. Maria della 
Pace, a large allegorical subject of Sibyls delirering their 

40 R A PH A E L- 

prpfibiBlbtes fbr the confirmation of the reirealed religion; 
This work was highly esteemed when finished ; but is noW 
unfortunately mucii ibjured, and parts aris entirely effiiced. 
For his Casino in the Longara, Raphael made a •series of 
designs from Apuleius^s history of Cupid and Psyche, 
which were painted by himself and his scholars on a ceiling 
df a spacious hail. What part was painted by himself it 
Would not be easy ^t this time to ascertain^ as the work 
has suffered much by being originally exposed to the open 
air, as the loggia of the Vatican is at present, and by be-* 
ing irepainted and repaired. 

- In the church of St. Aiigustin, Raphael painted in fresco, 
6n one of its piers, the prophet Isaiah, intended as the 
commencement of a series of pictures to ornament that 
ehiirrch, but some dispute arising concerning the expence^ 
the fathers relinquished their design ; a loss much to be 
regretted, as the style of this picture is ^ equal to his best * 
Works. This dispute concerning the price is said to have 
beeii referred to Michael Angelo to adjust, who settled ii 
in 6ne Word, by telling the fathers that the knee alone was 
worth more money. Raphael also decorated his own villa 
in Rome, which now belongs to the cardinal Doria, with 
arabesque ornaments, a group of figures shooting at a 
target, and a small historical subject, called the Marriage 
of Roxana. 

Raphael was not only eminent As a painter and an archi- 
tect, but he was desirous to emulate the reputation of his 
great contemporary, Michael Angelo, in being a sculptor 
also. We are informed that, with his own hand he exe- 
cuted some statues, but one only is referred to by the 
anonymous author of the Milan MS. which was the statue 
of a child, then in the possession of Julio Romano ; and 
of this statue there can be no doubt, as it is also recognized 
by count Castiglione, in a letter of the year 1523-; but 
what became of it is not known. There is, however, in 
the Ghigi chapel in the church of 8. Maria del Popolo, 'a 
statue X)f ' Jdnah from bis own • model, and executed in 
marble, under bis immediate direction, by Lorenzetto, 
which remains an extraordinary instance of the versatility 
of his powers, as this specimen of sculpture may fairly 
rank With the best productions of modern Rome. 

In the midst of his professional reputation, Raphael was 
equally caressed by the learned and the great, many in- 
Itaoc^ of which are given by his late biographer^ Mr, 

RAP HA EL. 41 

DupiXfty wlinse elaborate narraitre we principally follonr. 
Leo^X^ regarded Raphael with the highest esteem ; he wal 
mu^ dboat his ptirson, was made groom of the chamber^ 
and is even said to have had reason to expect the honours 
of th^ purple, which is the alleged cause for his not marry- 
ing tire niece of cardinal di Bibbienai who was desirous of 
the alliance; 

In the meridian of Kfe, and in the full possession of its 
enjoyonents, Raphael became an unfortunate victim to the 
barbarous state of the qaedical knowledge of his time ; and 
from the unscientific manner in which his death has been 
reported, the grossest misapprehensions have arisen as to 
the cuuse of it, and in particular it has been attributed to 
sensual irregularities, for which there seems no foundation 
in fact. He became early attached to a young woman, 
the daugbter of a baker at Rome, and thence called by 
way of distinction La Bella Fornarina, and she became his 
mistress. To her he appears to have been solely and con- 
stantly attached, and left her by his will in a state of inde*- 
pendence. His constitution, however, was delicate, and 
his labours in*his profession so great, as probably to add to 
that delicacy ; and when he was seized with a violent fever^ 
for which ibis itijudicious physicians prescribed copious 
bleeding, we are not to wonder that his constitution sunk 
under such treatment. He became indeed so rapidly re- 
duced, that he had o^ily time to make his will, and conform 
to the lal^t offices of religion, before his death, which took 
place April 7, 1520, in the thirty-seventh year of his age. 
Thus, says his biographer, terminated the life of the most 
illustrious painter of modern times ; and, for any data we 
have to the contrary, perhaps the most eminent that ever 
lived at any period of the world. 

In bis will, after leaving to his mistress a sufficiency to 
live independent, he bequeathed the rest of his property 
to a relation at Urbino, and to two of his scholars, Julio 
Romano, and Francesco Penni; appoiilKng an intimate 
friend Turini da Pescia his executor. His body lay in 
state in the hall of his own house, and the celebi^ted -pic- 
ture of the Transfiguration, which he had just finished. 
Was placed at the head of the room. His remains were 
)after<vards removed with great funeral pomp to the Pan- 
theon, where the last ceremonies were performed, and at 
the request of Leo X. cardinal Bembo wrote an inscription, 
to honour bis memory, and mark the place of his interment. 

42 RAPHAEL. • 

These particulars we have selected from ibe best ]\fe of 
this great artist that has appeared in this country, %^ritien 
by R. Duppa, esq, and prefixed to his splendid publicatioa 
of ^* Hefads from the Fresco pictures of RafEaello in the 
Vatican," 1802, as a companion to bis *^ Heads of Michael 
Angelo." Mr. Duppa concludes with a critical essay on 
the merits of Raphael, too long for our limits, ami too 
valuable to be injured by abridgment. In Sir Joshua 
Reynolds^ lectures are many interesting and important 
observations on the same subject, which in: truth must 
enter deeply into every discussion on the art. We might 
refer likewise to Opie!s lectures, Barry's works, and other 
authors who have professedly or incidentally treated of 
Raphael. The present prpfessor of painting has a note on 
the subject which may not form an improper conclusion to 
our article, as he appears to have on this occasion exerted 
hi$ highest powers of discriminative criticism. / 

'^ The general opinion/' says Mr. Fuseli, ** has placed 
Raphael at the bead of his art, not because he possessed a 
decided superiority overevery other painter in every branch, 
but because no other artist ever arrived at uiliting with his 
own peculiar e.xcelli?nce all the other parts of the art in an 
equal degree with him. The drama, or in other words the 
representation of character in conflict with passion, was 
h\$ sphere ;, to represent this, his invention in the choice of 
the moment, his composition in the arrangement of his 
actors, and his expression in the delineation of tlieir emo- 
tions, were, and are, and perhaps will be uurivall,ed. And 
to this he added a style of design dictated by the subject 
itself, a colour suited to the subject, all the grace which 
propriety permitted, or sentiment suggested, and as much 
chiaroscuro as was compatible with his supreme desire of 
perspicuity and evidence. It is therefore only when he 
forsook the drama, to make ex:cursions into the pure epic 
or sublime, that his forms become inadequate, and were 
inferior to those of M. Angelo : it is only in subjects where 
cplour from a vehicle becomes the ruling principle, that he 
is excelled by T'itian; he yields to Correggio only in that 
grace and that chiaroscuro which is less the minister of 
propriety and seirtiment, than its charming abuse or volup- 
tuous excess ; and sacrifices to the eye what was claimed 
in vain by the mind. 

** Michael Angelo appears to have had no infancy; if 
he had, we are not acquainted with it : his earliest works 

R A P H A E L. 43 

equal in principle and elements of style the vigorous off* 
springs of his virility : Raphael we see in Uis cradle^ we bear 
bim stammer ; but propriety rocked the cradle, and cha- 
racter formed bis lips. Even in the trammels of Pietro 
Perugino, dry and servile in bis style of design, formal 
and gothic in his composition, he traced what was essential, 
and separated it from what was accidental, in figure and 
subject. The works of Lionardo, and the cartoon of Pisa, 
invigorated his eye, but it was the antique that completed 
the system which be had begun to establish on nature* 
From the antique be learned discrimination and propriety 
of form. He found that in the construction of the body, 
the articulation of the bones was the true cause of ease and 
grace in the action of the limbs, and that the knowledge of 
this was the true cause of the superiority of the ancients. 
He discovered that certain features, were fittest for certain 
expressions and peculiar to certain characters ; that such a 
liead, such hands, and such feet, are the stamen or the 
growth of such a body; and on physiognomy established 
uniformity of parts. When he designed, his attention was 
immediately. directed to the primary intention and motive 
of his figure, next to its general nieasure, then to the bones 
and their articulation, from them to the principal muscles 
or the muscles eminently wanted, to their attendant nerves, 
and at last, to the more or less essential minutiss ; but the 
characteristic part of the subject is infallibly the characteris- 
tic part of his design, whether it be a rapid sketch, or a 
more finished drawing. The strokes of his pen or pencil 
themselves are characteristic: they follow the direction and 
texture of the part; flesh in their rounding, tendons in 
straight, bones in angjjiar lines. 

** Such was the felicity and propriety of Raphael when 
employed in the dramatic evolutions of character I both 
suffered when he attempted to abstract the forms of subli- 
mity and beauty; the painter of humanity not often wielded 
with success superhuman weapons. His gods never rose 
above prophetic or patriarchal forms ; if the finjjer of Mi- 
chael Angelo impressed the divine countenance oftener with 
sternness than awe, the gods of Raphael are sometimes too 
affable and mild, like him who speaks to Jacob in a ceiling 
of the Vatican ; or too violent, like him who separates light 
from darkness in the Loggia of the same place. But though, 
to speak with Mcmgs, he was chiefiy made to walk with 
dignity on earth, he soared above it in the c^)nception of 


• r • • • • • 

Christ on Tabor^ and still more in the frown of the sngelic 
coantenance that withers the strength of Heiiodorus. 

*^ Of ideal female beauty, though he himself in his letter 
to count Castiglione tells us, that from its scarcity in life, 
he made attempts to reach it by an idea formed in his own 
mind, he certainly wanted that standard whiph guided him 
in character ; his goddesses and my thologic females are no 
more than aggravations of the generic forms of Michael 
Angelo. Roundness, mildness, sanctimony, and insipidity, 
compose in general the features and airs of his Madonnas, 
transcripts of the nursery or some favourite face. . The 
*' Madonna del Impanato,* the ^ Madonna della Sedia,* 
the ^ Madonna bella,^ share more or less of this insipidity, 
which arises chiefly from the high, rounded, smooth fore- 
head, the shaven vacuity betweei) the arched semicircular 
eyebrows, their elevation above the eyes, and the ungrace- 
ful division and scanty growth of hair. This indeed might 
be the result of his desire not to stain the virgin character 
of sanctity with the most distant hint of coquetry or mere- 
tricious charms ; for in his Magdalens be throws the hair 
with luxuriaht profusion^ and surrounds the breast and 
shoulders with undulating waves and plaids of gold. The 
character of Mary Magdalen met his, it was the character 
of a passion. It is evident from every picture or design, 
at every period of his art, in which she had a part, that be 
supposed her enamoured. When she follows the body of 
the Saviour to the tomb, or throws herself dishevelled over 
bis feet, or ^addresses hini when he bears his cross, the cast 
of her features, her mode, her action, are the character of 
love in agony. ^ When the drama inspired Raphael, his 
women became definitions of grace and pathos at once. 
Such is the exquisite line and turn of the averted half- 
kneeling female with two children, among the spectators 
of the punishment inflicted on Heiiodorus; Iter attitude, 
the turn of her neck, supplies all face, and intimates more 
|han he ever expressed by features.** ^ 

RAPHELENGIUS (Francis), a learned writer of the 
^16th century, and professor of Oriental languages at Leyden, 
N«ras born February 27, 1539, at Lanoy, in French Flanders. 
lie began his studies at Ghent, and after some interruption 
lirom the death of bis father, resumed them at Nuremberg 
and Paris, where he applied with great assiduity to~ the 

* Life by Mr. J)Bppa.— Pilkington by Faieli.— Sir J. Reynolds** Workt. See 
index, fcc» 

R A P H E L EN G I U S. 4S 

Greek and Hebrew langotges, under the tbtest masters, 
Qntil the civilwars obliged hun to/go into England, where 
he taught Greek at Cambridge. After some time he re- 
turned to the Netherlands, and, in 1565, married a daughter 
of Christopher Plan^n, the celebrated printer. Rapbelen* 
gius assisted his father-in-law in eorrecting his books, which 
he also enriched with notes and prefaces, and was particu- 
larfy engaged in the Polyglot Bible of Antwerp, printed 
in 1571, by order of Philip II. king of Spain. In 1585 he 
settled at Leyden, where Plantin had a printing»office ; ]a«> 
boored there with bis usual assiduity, and was chosen, for 
bis learning, to be professor of Hebrew and Arabic in that 
university. He died July 20, 1597, aged fifty <^eigbt, leav* 
ing, ^'Remarks and correctignson the Chaldee Paraphrase ;'* 
8 ^< Hebrew Grammar;** a *< Chaldee Dictionary," in the 
Dictionary to the Polyglot of Antwerp; an ^* Arabic Lexi- 
con,*' 1613, 4to; and other works* One of his sons, of 
the same name, published notes on Seneca's Tragedies, 
and ^* £t6gia carmine elegiaco in imagines 50 dootorum 
firorum,** Ant. 1587, fol.* 

RAPIN (Nicholas), a French poet, was bom atFdnteU 
nai-le-comte, in Poitou, in 1535. He was rice-seneschal 
of his native province, and went afterwards to Paris, where 
Henry III. made him provost of the high-constable*s juris«* 
diction, which office b^ held till 1598. In his old age he 
determined to retire to Fontenai-le^Comte, and ^ died at 
Poitiers, February 15, 1609, aged seven ty-four, leaving a 
family. Hrs biographers differ veryjnuch in their character 
of this author, as may be seen by comparing our authori- 
ties. A considerable part of his Latin poems may be found 
in tomk IILof *^ Les D^lices des Poetes Latins Franks;** 
and his Epigrams are particulariy admired : the beat amcmg 
hitf French ones are, *^ Les Plaisirsdu Gentilbomme Cham- 
p6tre," printed in 1583 ; and those which he wrote on ma» 
demoiselle de Roche's Flea, which are inserted in the' col* 
lection of poems on that foolish subject, printed at Parts, 
in 1 582, 4^0. Rapin also attempted to write French blank, 
verse, in the manner of Greek aind Latin verse ; but soe<- 
eeeded no b^ter than Ba'ff, who had made the same trial 
before him. He was one of those concerned in the famous 
Satire *^ Menipp^e. Ail his works wer« printed at Paris^ 
1610, 4to.» 

1 Niceron,,yo1. XXXVL^-Foppen, Bibl. Belgw-xQeii. Diet.— BulUrt't Acv 
demie dei Sciences, ^ Niceron, toI. XXV.— Gen. Diet— Moreri. 

45 R A P 1 N. 

. RAPIN (BERATtJSy or Rene), a Fi'ench Jesuit, atid an 
able classical scholar, was bom at Touri, in 162],.aod 
entered into the society in 1639. He taught polite lite- 
rature .for nine years, and published various works both 
on that subject and on religion, which made him say to 
the abbs de la Chambre that he served God and the 
world by turns. To Latin he was particularly partial, and 
wrote with great facility and elegance in that language, 
both in prose and verse. Of the latter, he e:iLbibi.ted 
many specimens which were unrivalled in his time, parti- 
cularly his ^' Hortorum. libri quatuor;" a work, which has 
been, much admired and applauded.. It was first printed 
at Paris, in 1663, and afterwards re-printed with alteration^ 
and corrections by the author. In 1780, Brotier edited an 
edition at the Barbou press. An English version of it was 
published at London, in 1673, 8vo, by the celebrated Eve- 
lyn; and again, in 1706, by Mr.. James Gardmer of Jesus 
wliegGf in Cambridge. All his Latin poems, consisting 
of odes, epitaphs, sacred eclogues, and these four books 
upon gardens, were collected and published at Paris, in 
Jl 681, in; 2 vols. 12mo. In French, which be alM> wrote 
with elegance, be published several treatises pn polite lite* 
rature,, at varipus timea, which were, printed collectively in 
168.4, .2 vols. 4to, Paris; and at Amsterdam, in 2 vols. 
Huo^ and translated into English by Basil Kenn^t and others, 
in 1705, in 2 vpls. 8vo, under the title of *^ The Critical 
Works of Mons. Rapin.** The first volume contains a 
comparison between Dej[nosthenes and Cicero for eloquence. 
Homer and Virgil for poetry, Thucydides and Livy for 
history, Plato and Aristotle for philosophy: the second, 
refiectious on eloquence, on Aristptle's poetry, on hi8<» 
toiy, on philosophy. Rapines general design in this work 
was, as he tells us himself, to restore good taste, which 
had been somewhat corrupted by a spirit of profound eru* 
dition, that had reigned in the preceding; age : but, although 
(there are many just observations in his work, it isaiot that 
on. which it would be safe for a student to rely ; nor is his 
•{Keference of the Roman to the Greek writers to be. justi- 
fied. Some of his • arguments on this part of hk subject 
Are .childish. 

He died at Paris, Oct. 27, 1687; and in his euiogium, 
written by father Bouhours, he is represented, there is 
reason to think deservedly, as possessed of all the qualities 
that can adorn a man of probity. Zeal for the honour of 

R A P I N. 4T 

his society made him undertake an <* History of Jansenism^** 
against which he had published a Latin work, in 1658^ 
under the title of ** Dissertatio de nova doctrina, sea £van* 
gelium Jansenistarum.*' He had also a contest with father 
Vavassor, who wrote against his ^* Reflections on Aristotle^s 
Poetics/* yet pretended to be ignorant, as there was no 
name to them, that Rapin was the author.' «^ 

RAPIN DE TuoYRAS (Paiil), an eminent historian, was 
born at Castresio Languedoc,March 25,166 L. Hisfamily was 
originally from Savoy, and is supposed to have removed into 
France upon embracing the Protestant religion. Philibert 
de llapin, his great-grandfather, who was of that persua- 
sion,- .exposed himself so much to the indignation of the 
Roman catholics, and particularly to that of the parliament 
of Toulouse, that his head was struck off in. 1568 by a 
sentence of theirs, at the very time that he came, by the 
king's order, to have the treaty of peace registered there. 
Daniel the historian passes over this fact in silence ; and 
his reason is supposed to have been, that he might exag* 
gerate the disturbances raised by the Huguenots after* 
wards in the country about Toulouse. What then happened 
appears to have been the popular revenge for Philibert's 
death, as the soldiers wrote on the ruins of the houses they 
bad burned, ** Vengeance for Rapines death.*' James de 
Rapin, lord of Thoyras, was our author's father. He ap* 
plied himself to the study of the law, and was an advocate 
in the chamber of the edict of Nantes above fifty years. 
These chambers were courts of judicature erected in seve* 
ral towns of France, in behalf of the Huguenots, or Pro- 
testants ; the judges of which were half of the Reformed, 
and half of the Roman catholic religion. Jane de Pelisson, 
his wife, was daughter to a counsellor of the chamber of 
Castres, and sister to George and Paul Pelisson ; which 
lady, after having been confined for some time in a con* 
vent, was at last sent, by the king's order, to Geneva, 
where she died in 1705. 

Rapin was their youngest son. He was educated at first 
under a tutor in his father's house, and afterwards sent to 
Puylaurens, and thence to Saumur. la 1679^ he returned 
to his father, with a design to apply himself closely to the 
law.; but, before he had made any great progress, he was 
obliged, with other young gentlemen, to commence ad- 
vocate, upon report of an edict soon after published, in 

1 Gen. Diet— Niceron, XXXIL— Moi«ri. 

♦8 R A P I N. 

which it was ordered, that no man should have a doctor'^ 
degree without having studied five years in some utiiversity* 
The same year, the chamber of the edict of Nantes was 
suppressed, which obliged Rapin's family to remove to 
Toulouse : and the state of the Reformed growing every 
day worse, with his father^s leave he quired the profes^ioa 
of advocate for that of arms* He had before given what 
bis biographer calls proofs of a military disposition ; for he 
bad fought a duel pr two, in which he had acquitted Ium<^ 
self very gallantly. His father at first did not grant his 
request, but gave him such an answer, as served to prolong 
the time. Rapin, however, advanced so far in his ll3gai 
prpgress as to plead one cause, and one only ; and thett 
applied himself diligently to mathematics and musics, ia 
both whi(ji be became a good proficient. 

In i685, his father died; and two months after^ the 
edict of Nantes being revoked, Rapin with his mother and 
brothers retired to a country-hpuse; and, as the persecution 
jn a short time was carried to the greatest height, be and 
his youngest brother, in 16S6, departed for England. He 
was not long in London, before he was visited by a French 
|ibb6 of distinguished quality, a friend of his uncl^ Pelis- 
soi^, who introduced hipi to Barrillon, the French ambassa- 
dor. These gentlemen persuaded him to go to dburt, as#> 
curing him of a favourable reception from the kin/g ; but be 
declined this honour, not knowing what the cor^sequeucet 
inight be in that very critical state of affairs. His situation 
indeed was not at all agreeable to him ; for he svas perpe- 
tually pressed, upon the subject of religion, by (he French 
Catholics then in London; and especially by the abb^, 
wboj tb(^ugh he treated him with the utmost cojmplaisance| 
always turned the discourse to controversy. Having np 
bppes of any settlement in England at that time, he went 
pyer to Holland, and enlisted in a company of French vo^ 
luqteer% then at Utrecht, under the command of Mr. Ra- 
pin, his cousin-german. Pelisson, the same year, published • 
his ^^ Reflections on the difference of Religions,*' which 
jbje sent to his nephew Rapin, with a strict charge to give 
him bis opinion impartially of the work^ which it is said he 
did, although nothing of this kind was found among his pa-> 
pers, nor was he influenced by bis uncle's arguments. . He 
remained with his company, till he followed the prince 
of Orange into England; where, in 1689, he was made 
an ensign. In that rank he went to Ireland, and 'distin- 

R A P I N. 49 

gti)^hed bioiself so bravely i^t the siege of Carrick-fergus, 
that he was the same year promoted to a lieutenancy. He 
was also present at the battle, of the Boyne ; and, at the . 
siege of Limerick, was shot through the shoulder with > 
a musket-ball. This wound, which was cured very slowly, 
proved very detriment£(l to his interest ; as it prevented him 
from attending general Douglas into Flanders, who was 
very desirous of having bim, and could have done him 
considerable service : be had, however, a company given 

In tb^ end of 1693, be was ordered for England without 
any reason assigned ; but a letter informed bim^ that he was 
to be governor to the earl of Portland's son. Having never 
had any thoughts of this kind of . employment, he could 
not imagine to whom he owed the recommendation ; but at 
last found it to be lord Galway. He immediately went to 
London, and entered upon this charge, losing, however, 
with it those preferments in the army which several of his 
fellow-officers soon after attained. All the favour shown 
him was, that he had leave to resign his commission to his 
younger brother^ who died in 1719, after having been 
m^de Iieutenant*colonel in a regiment of English dragoons* 
Indeed the king gave him a pension of 100/. per annum, 
<< till such tim^ as he should prpvide for him better ;'* 
vrhich time never came : and after enjoying this pension 
during the king's life^ a^ post of small value was given him 
in its stead. 

While the earl of Portland was ^imbassador in France, 
Rapin was obliged to be sometimes in that kingdom, some- 
times in England, and often in Holland : but at length be 
settled at the Hague, were the young lord Portland was 
learning his exercises. While he resided here, in 1699, 
he married ; but this marriage neither abated his care of 
his pupil, nor hindered him from accompanying him in his 
travels. They began with a tour thr<>ugh Germany, where 
they made some stay at Vienna : hence went into Italy by 
the way of Tirolj where the marshal de Villeroy, at that 
time prisoner, gave Rapin a letter for the cardinal d'Etr^es, 
when at Venice. Their travels being finished, which put 
an end to his employment, he returned to his family at the 
Hague, where he continued some years ; but, as he found 
i% increase, he. resolved to remove to some cheap country ; 
and accordingly retired, in 1707, to Wesel, in the duchy 
of Cleves in Gern^my^ ■, where he employed the remaining 

Vol. XXVI. E 

50 R A P I N. 

years of bi^ life in writitig ^e '^ History of Eogtend." 
Though his constitution wiis strong, yet seventeen yeirs 
appIicatioD {for so long he was in compOsiilg this history) 
entirely ruined it. Aboot tbr6e years before his death, b^ 
found himself esthansted, and ofifen fek great pains in 
the stomach : and at teiigth a fever, with atl oppression ia 
his breast, carried him off, after a week*s illness. May 10^ 
1725. He left one son and silc dstughters. He was M- 
turally of a serious temper, although no enemy to mirth : 
he loved music, and was skilled, as we have said, in n^a^ 
thematics, especially in tbd art of fortification. He was 
master of the Italian, Sp&nlBb, and English languages ^ 
atld had ako a very coi^petieiit knowledge of the Greek 
and Latin. , He spent all his leisure hours in reading and 
conversing with men of learning and informatibn. 

He lived tb publish the etghth volume of his history, 
which ends with the death of Charles I. The two remraitiw 
ing volumes, which bring the history down to the procla* 
» mation of WUliam and Mary, canie out in 1724. They 
were printed ait the Hdgne in quarto ; and h&ve twice hetti 
translated into English ; by the Rev. Nicholas Tindal, M.A.^ 
first in octavo, then, much itafproved in style, in foiio; 
and by John KeNy of the Intier Templ6, esq. in two vols, 
folio. Tindal has given a Continuation of Rapines history 
to 1760, and added useful notes to the wbdle. When" 
Rapin first set about this work, it was not his intention' 
to write a complete history of England ; but curiosity and 
mu^^h leisure ied him on ttom one ^tep to liiidtber^ tfll he 
came to the reign of tlenryll. ; and then, when he was 
u^n the point of stopping, an ikiexpected assii^tanc^^ 
came forth, whi^h not Only induced bim to i^ohtifttiie his 
history, but to do it in a more full and parti<^ufor tiianner 
than at first he intended. This Wias Ry therms ^ F(federa,*^ 
or ^< Collection of Public Acts,'' whioh began to be pub^ 
lifidhed ai the estpe^co of goterhmett€ tthott 1706. Iti 
170S, dix volutnes in folio w^re completed, which werci 
afterwards ili'ereased to sevtoCeen, and th^n to twenty. 
Lord Halifax, & great promoter Of this tioble work, stf^t 
the volumes^ as they came out, to L^ Clefc, who gto6-* 
rously lent them to onr i^thor ae long Bti be h^ oc^ilsion' 
for them. That be did actually tst this colti^dttoti, appears 
from the pains be took to abridge the WhOl€ ij^veiHeen vo« 
ItfAies, ex(^6pt the first, which WAsdoAe by Lei Ctete : itt 
Which abridgment we bavO att the imp^atit a6ts p6i6te^ 

R A P I N. 51 


•uty a well-connected series of events to whicb they relate^ 
and the use to be ma(le of them in clearing up the his- 
tory of England. This abstract lies scattered up and down 
in the several volumes of Le Clerc*s *' Bibliotheque Choi* 
sie ;** and was thence translated and published in English, 
in 1727, in four volumes octavo, with portraits. Rapin 
also, to let us see what a thorough knowledge he had of our 
parties and factions in England, published, in 1717, a little 
treatise, eptitled *< A Dissertation on the Whigs and the 
Tories ;'' which is subjoined to his history, and has like- 
wise been translated and published in English. 

Voltaire has observed, that *' England is indebted to Ra- 
pin for the best history of itself which has yet appeared ; 
and the only impartial one of a nation, wherein few write 
without being actuated by the spirit of party.*' This cha- 
racter, however, is not strictly just. Rapin was not with- 
out his partialities, although his general moderation is 
to be praised ; and although it was easy to excel preceding 
English historians, he labonred under the disadvantage of 
being remote from all those records and sources of intelli* 
gence which are to be found in England only. Carte, iifi 
his proposals for his history ofEngland, has specified the 
errors into which Rapin fell upon this account, and his ne- 
glect of original authorities. Tindal, however, and Morant, 
have supplied some of his defects, and rectified his errors ; 
and upon the whole as an ample, though somewhat tedious 
narrative of facts. Rapines history has not acquired more 
popularity than it deserved, and which, in some degree, 
it stilt retains \ for, of late years, the folio edition has risen 
to a very high price. * 

RASTALL, or RASTELL (John), one of our early 
printers, is said by Bale to have been a citizen of London, 
and by Pits a native of that city. Wood says he was edu- 
cated in grammar and philosophy at Oxford, and that re- 
tlirning to London* he set up the trade of printing, which 
was then^ as Wood adds, ** esteemed a profession fit for 
any scholar or ingenious roan.*' By whom he was taught the 
art, or whether he was at first employed only as a corrector,, 
does not appear. His residence was at the sign of the 
Mermaid '^ at Fowl's g^te," next Cheapside. He married 
Elizabeth, sister to sir Thomas More, with whom he be- 

1 Biog; Brk. Sopplemcnt. — Gm. Diet— Life preftxtd to Um History, and 
added to th^ ^ Acta Regia.'' 


52 R A S T A L L. 

came intimate, according to Wood, by bis piety aad learn- 
ing. Bale and Pits assign different causes for this inti- 
macy ; the one, because he was a bold champion for 
popery, which the other terms his great zeal for the glory 
of God. Herbert thinks it was most likely that he was at 
first introduced to his acquaintance by means of printing 
sir Thomases ^^ Dialogues,*' and that his acquaintance was 
afterwards cemented into friendship, as was natural, by 
their mutual principles and opinions. The date, therefore^ 
of this acquaintance may be 1523 or 1529. Wood says 
that Rastall, by frequent conferences with sir Thomas, im- 
proved his knowledge in various sorts of learning, which is 
probable ; but he omits to notice what is more important^ 
that Rastall became a convert to the reformed religion by 
means of a controversy with John Frith. Rastall published 
^' Three Dialogues,'* the last of which treats on purgatory, 
and was answered by Frith. On this Rastall wrote his 
*^ Apology against John Frith,'* which the latter answered 
with such strength of argument as to make a convert of his 
opponent. Rastall also wrote a book called <^ The Church 
of John Rastall/' which being in the list of prohibited books 
published by bishop Bonner, annexed to his injunctions in 
1542^ is supposed to have contained some retraction of his 
former opinions, at least of what he had written concerning 
purgatory. Herbert questions whether this book be not 
the same which Bale mentions by the title of <^ Abrasio 
Papismi." Both Bale and Pits attribute other works to 
Rastall, not now known, except his ^^ Anglorum regnum 
Chronicon, or Pastime of the People," printed by him in 
1529. This having lately been reprinted (1811) among 
the rest of the English Chronicles, by a select number of 
the booksellers of London, it is not necessary to describe 
its contents. The original edition is so scarce that one per- 
fect copy only is known, which formerly belouged to lord 
Orford, who gave it to James West, esq. and is now in thei 
king's library; and of imperfect copies, bibliographers 
mention only three or four. 

Rastall is sometimes called a lawyer, and besides being 
printer, certainly had a considerable hand in composing or 
compiling some law books. In 1517, he printed and pub* 
lished his " Tables to Fitzherbert's Abridgment," in folio, 
which in 1565 were reprinted by R. Tottel. According to 
Herbert, he also had some concern in ifirst printing Fitz-> 
herbert's Abridgment, and he composed a table to tb# 

R A S T A L L. S3 

*' Book of Assizes/* which is printed with the latter editions 
of the work. In 1527, we find *^ An Exposition of Law 
Terms and the Nature of Writs^ with divers cases and rules 
of the Lawy collected as well from books of Master Little«- 
ton, as other Law Books/' printed in small octavo by J. 
Rastall, and again by him in French/and English, folio, 
without date. This appears to have been originally composed 
as well as printed by Rastall, both in French and English, 
notwithstanding the conjecture that has been formed in 
favour of his son William, by lord Coke and others, as au- 
thor or translator of it. John RastalPs other publications 
appear to have been, ** Tables of the Years of our Lord 
God, and of the Kings, in opposite columns," printed by 
Walley in 1558, and again in 1563, by William Rastail in 
1563, and often reprinted by others ; and in 1566 '^ Entries 
of Declarations, Bars, Replications," &c. folio, commonly 
called *^ RastalPs Entries," and sometimes quoted as the 
*^ New Book of Entries." The author, in his preface, tells 
the reader that his collection is chiefly compiled from 
l.The old Book of Entries: 2, A Book of Precedents 
written by Master Edward Stubbes, one of the Prothoho- 
taries in the Common Pleas : 3. A Book of Precedents ga- 
thered by John Lucas, secondary to Master William Roper, 
prothonotarie of the King's Bench: 4. A Book of good 
Precedents of his grandfather sir John More (father of sir 
Thomas More), one of the justices of the King's BencI), 
but not of his collection ; all which he had incorporated in 
this volume. 

John Rastail died at London in 1536, leaving two sons, 
William and John. William was born in London in 1508, 
and about 1525 was sent to Oxford, which he left without 
taking a degree, and entered of Lincoln's Inn for the study 
of law. In the first of Edward YI. he became autumn or 
summer reader of that house ; but on the change of reli- 
" gion he retired with his wife to Louvain^ whence he re- 
turned on the accession of queen Mary. In 1554 he was 
made a serjeant at law, one of the commissioners for the 
prosecution of heretics, and a little before Mary^s death, 
'■ one of the justices of the eommon pleas* Queen Elizabeth 
•renewed his patent as justice, but he preferred retiring to 
Louvain, where he died Aug. 27, 1565, and was buried in 
the church of St. Peter, on the north side of the altar of the 
Virgin Mary. His wife, who died in 1553, on their first 
going to Louvain, at the age of twenty-six, was the daugh- 

54 R A S T A L L. 

r' \ 

ter of Dr. John Clement^ one of the physicians sent by 
Henry VIII. to Cardinal Wolsey during his last illness. She 
was a lady of considerable learning, and well acquainted 
with Greek and Latin. 

iflerbert ascribes some law poblioations to William RaS"* 
tall, but doubtfully. He carried on the printing business 
from 1530 to 1534. When Tta^iicd Rastall be published 
'< A collection (abridged) of the Statutes in force and use/' 
in 1S57, often reprinted. It contains copies of statutes 
not elsewhere extant, and in some instances more com- 
plete transcripts of several acts than are commonly printed 
in the Statutes at large ; and it seems to be a republication 
9nd enlargement of the abridgment which was printed by 
bis father in 1519. — The other son, John, was commonly, 
but improperly called Mr. Justice Rastall, from having 
b^en a justice of the peace. Some works, in controversy 
with bishop Jewell, have been attributed to William Ras* 
tall, but were written by a John Rastall, no relation, as far 
as we know, of this family, who became a Jesuit, and died 
abroad in 1600.' 

RATCLIFFE (Thomas), Earl of Sussex, a statesman 
of the sixteenth century, was the eldest son of Henry Rat- 
clifie, the second earl of Sussex, by Elizabeth, one of the 
daughters of Thomas Howard, second duke 6f Norfolk. 
His first public service was in an honourable embassy to 
the emperor Charles the Fifth, to treat of the projected 
marriage of Queen Mary to Philip, which he afterwards ra^ 
tified with the latter in Spain. Upon his return he was ap- 
pointed lord deputy of Ireland, and chief justice of the 
forests north of Trent. The order of the garter, and the 
office of captain of the pensioners, were likewise conferred 
on him in that reign, a little before the conclusion of which 
he succeeded to his father^s honours. Elizabeth continued 
him for a while in the post of lord deputy, and recalled him 
to assume that of the president of the North, a situation 
rendered infinitely difficult by the delicacy of her affiiirs 
with Scotland, and the rebellious spirit of the border eoun- 
ties. The latter, howeveV, was subdued by his prudence 
and bravery in 1569 ; and the assiduity and acuteness with 
which he studied the former, will appear from his own 
pen. The unfortunate affair of the duke of Norfolk, to 
whom he was most firmly attached, fell out in the course 

> Aoiei by Herbert. — Ath. Ox. vo), I. new edit.— Dodd's Ch. Hut.— -7^9nner» 
Balei and Pili.— Bridgman*! Lfgal Bibliograjihy. 

B A T C L I F F E. . $i 

qC that ymr, md would bav^ end^d b^ppUy $^d. bpnour^l^y 
if th# duke had fi>Uj[>we4 bis advice. Tba^nobleoi^t^'s last 
requ^^at wm> that his» cbaini and gfLTter^ might 
be givea to my lord of ^sse:^. He was the pri||\|^ negoci- 
ator i9 tbofte twpfaoaous tre^^ies of marriage with the sM^ch- 
doke Charles and the duke of Alen^pa, £li?abe^h>s real 
ijBieirtiops io which have been ^o frequently the s^bjQct of 
biftoriQal dUquisitiou. In 1572^ he retired fromth^ severer 
labours of the pilbUc service, in which be had wasted his 
hoakb, to. tbie boDourable oSce of lord chambejrlain» and 
the duties of a cabinet minister; and died ii.t hip. bouse in 
Bfsnnoodseyv June 9, 158$, leaving little to his. heirs bvit 
the brig^ example of a charac^r truly noble« The .^^l 
of Sussex was twice married ; first, to Elizabeth) daughter 
pf Thomas Wriotbesley, earl of Sloutbamptou, by whon^ be 
bad Iwo sons, Henry and Thomas, who died young ; se: 
condly, to Frances, daughter of sir William Sydney, after*: 
wards the. celebrated foundjiess of Syduey-Susse^i; ^pllf^^ 
in Cambridge ; by whom having no children, he w^s suct 
oeeded by Heary, his nest brother. 

** This great man's conduct,", says Mr. Lodge^ *^ ynjted 
all tha splendid qualities of those eminent persons who 
jointly rendered Elisabeth's couj^t ^n object of admiration 
to £iifope, and was perfectly free from their faults*. Wise 
and loyal as.. BmsgtUey» withont his blind attachment to 
the ivojuurch ; . vjgiianit as Walsimgbaint but disdaining hi9 
low euimiiig ; ma^ificeot as i^eater, bu^ incapable of 
Jl^ypoerisy ; and biave.asRalegb, with the piiaty of a primi* 
ttve Ckiistiao; he seemed s^ioj^e tbejcommon objects of 
byuman ambition, and. wanted, if the expression may be al* 
lowed, thoAe diirk ahades of obaracter which make men the 
heroes of history. Hence it is, probably, that. our. wdter$ 
bav^ bestowed so litUe attention on this admirable person^ 
wko in bnt slightly mentioned in most historical collections« 
Uinl^sa with regasd to his disputes with Leicester, whom he 
Ivtted almost to a fault." Mr. Lodge justly esteems him*- 
aeilf peculiarly fortunate in having been the instrnmeot of dis^ 
islosing the ead of Sussex's letters to. the public. They form 
a very valjuable part of the '^ Historical Illustrations," and^ 
a small number excepted, are the only ones to be met with 
in print. Tbeae letters display both bis intjegrity and abi^ 
lity in a very stciiking Hght, and are written in a clear and 
manly sty la Four cMf them are particnlarly curious ; two te 
Ihe queen, on the. treaty of marriage with the arohduke of 

W R A T C L I F F E. 

Austria ; one to sir Wiiliam C^il, on the state of pditie^ 
in Scotland ; and one to her Majesty, concerning the duke of 
Alengon. The letter on the aflPairs of Scotland is considered 
by Mr. Lodge as an inestimable ^curiosity. Farther light 
will be thrown on the earl of Sussex's character, by trans** 
cribing the manly language in which he complains that 
his services were neglected, and declares his purpose 
of retiring to private life. It is in a letter to sir Wil* 
liam Cecil. ^' I was firste a LieutenUe; [ was after 
little better than a Marshal ; I had then nothing left to me 
but to direct hanging matters (in the meane tyme all was 
disposed that was w^^iu my comission), and no we I ame 
offered to be made a Shreif 's Bayly to deliver over posses- 
sions. Blame me not, good Mr. Secretarie, though my 
pen utter somewhat of that swell in my stomake, for I see 
I ame kepte but for a brome, and when I have done my 
office to be throwen out of the dore. I ame the first nobel 
man bathe been thus used. Trewe service deserveth honor 
and credite, and not reproche and open defaming; but, 
seeing the one is ever delivered to me in the stede of the 
Other, I must leave to sei^ve, or lose my honor ; w^h, being 
continewed so long in my bowse, I wolde be lothe shoolde 
take blemishe wth me. These matters I knowe procede not 
from lacke of good and honorable meaning in the QC ma^ 
towards me, nor from lacke of dewte' and trewthe in me 
towards her, which grevethe me the more ; and, therefore^ 
seing I shall be still a camelyon, afid yelde'no other shewe 
then as it shall please others to give the couUer, I will con- 
tent my self to live a private lyfe« God send her Mate others 
that meane as well as I have done ; and so I comitt you to 
th* Almightie.*' From the next letter it appears that the 
queen had too much wisdoip to part with so faithful a coun- 
sellor and servant. The earl of Sussex had a high regard 
and esteem for Lord Burgbley. In one of his letters, 
dated June 28, 1580, he expresses himself, to that great 
'Statesman, in the following terms: ^'The trewe fere of 
'God wch ygv actyons have alwayes shewed to be in yo"^ harte, 
the grete and deepe care wch you have always had for the 
honor and salfty of the Q'. Mat^s . most worthy p'son ; the 
continual troubell w^^^you have of long tyme taken for the 
benefyting of the com'on-weltbe ; and the uprygbt course 
^ch jQ have alwaye's taken, re$pectying the mattr and not 
the p'son, in all causes ; (wch be the necessary trusts of him^ 
that feretbe God trewly, s'rveth his Soverayne faythfuUj, 

R A T C L IF F E. 57 

und lovethe his countrey derely) have tyed me to yo' L. itt 
^at kiiotte vr^^ no worldly fraylty can break ; aiid, therfor, 
I wyll never forbere to runne anfy fortune that may 8*rve 
you, and further you' godly actyons. And so, my good L. 
fprberyng to entrobell you w^*^ words, I end; and wysb 
unto you as to my self/ and better, yf I may/' ' 

. RATHERIUS, one of the very few learned prelates in 
the tenth century, was born at Libya, and embraced a mo«' 
nastic life at the abbey of Lobbes, or Laubes, in Flanders. 
Here he distinguished himself by his abilities and acquire-* 
ments. In the year 928, after Hilduin had been driven out 
of the see of Liege, he accompanied him into Italy ; and in 
931 he was, by the express order of the pope, put in pos- 
session of the see of Verona ; and with this promotion he 
c««nmenCed a life of vicissitudes and persecutions, an ac- 
count of which here would perhaps be uninteresting, but 
may be found amply detailed in the edition of his works 
printed by the brothers Ballerini in 1767. He died at 
Namur, about the year 973. His works are numerous, and 
divided into three parts ; the first contain his *< Prologues,*' 
in six books; which form a treatise on the duties of all 
classes of men, expressing also their vices and irregulari- 
ties ; the second is a collection of letters ; and the third con- 
jiiflts of sermons.' 

RATRAMN, RATRAM, or BERTRAMN, a celebrated 
monk, und priest of the abbey of Corby, flourished in the 
9th century, in the reign of Charles the Bald. He appears 
to have bjeen well acquainted with the Greek and Latin 
classics, and with the Holy Scriptures. Of all Ratramn -s 
works, his treatise ^^On the Body and Blood of Christ*' 
made the most noise. This treatise was written in answer 
to Paschasiiis Rstdbert, and so much appeared to favour the 
protestant opinion respecting the real presence in the Eu- 
charist, that many learned catholics considered it either as 
heretical or spurious; but its authenticity was clearly- 
proved afterwards by Mabillon, M. Boileau, and a doctor of 
the Sorbonne, who published an excellent edition in Latin 
and French, 1686, 12mo, reprinted with a defence in 
Latin only, 1712, 12mo, and according to catholic writers, 
has also shewn the work to be orthodoTC. But this is ably 
controverted in the English translation published in Dub- 

1 Juodge's lUustratioQS.-— Biog. Brit, new ecli\ art. Robeit Dublby, p. 465. 
* Tirabofchi.— CaTe.— Dupio. 


5& B A T R A M N. 


lin in 1753. His other works, whicb are lett interesting, 
are mostly inserted in D'Acberi's Spicilegiufn. The tune 
of his death is not known. ^ 

RATTE (St£Fhen Hyacinth de), a French madieina* 
tician and astronomer, was born at MoNtpeliier, Sept. 1, 
1722, and from his earliest years became attached to the 
study of the sciences, particularly mathematics. When 
very young, be was appointed secretary to the Montpellier 
academy of sciences, which office be held uotil ail acade- 
mies in France were dissolved. In the course of bis office, 
he published two volumes of their ** Me9ioirs,*' and was 
preparing a third at the time of the resolution. He als(> 
contributed imany valuable papers himself on philosophical 
and mathematical subjects, and furnished some articles for 
the ** Dictionnaice Encyelopedique.*' The comet of 1759, 
the subject of so much predicjtion and expectation, so far 
altered his pursui|ts as to make them afterwards eentr6 in 
astronomy. He was for a long time considered a3 the only 
good astronomer at Montpellier, and made many useful 
observations, particularly on the famous transit of Venus 
in 1761. Such was his zeal, that when old age prevented 
him from making observations with his usual aecumey, he 
maintained a persoq for that purpose at his own ^epenee as 
keeper of the observatory at Montpellier. On the death 
of his father, in 1770, he became counsellor of the eourt 
of aids, and was often the organ of that cooppany on re- 
markable occasions. In 1798, when such numbers of the 
old academy as had escaped the murderous perio(| of ih^ 
revolution attempted to revive it under the name <^ ^^ So*:* 
ciet6 Libre des sciences et belies lettres de Montpeiiier,^ 
De ilatte was chosen president. Some volumes of their 
transacttons have been published under the 4itie of ** Bulle- 
tins.*' When the nationad institute was formed, De Ratte 
was phosen an associate, and also a membet of other learned 
societies in France, and at last one of the legion of honour. 
He died Aug. 1 5, 1 805, aged eighty-three. His astroiiot- 
mical observaitions have been collected for publication by 
M. De Flaugergues, an astronomer of Viviers; but our 
authority does not mention whether they have yet ap- 
peared. * 

RAULIN (John), a French djvine, was born at Tout 
in 1443, of a good family. He studied at Paris, and re- 

«Oopiii Mosheim'8 £ccl. Hist • Diet. Hist. 

R A U L I N- 59 

ceived the degree of doctor of diviDity in 1479, having^ 
before giveo prqof of bis learning and talents, by a com* 
meptary on the logic of Aristotle ; and his polpit oratory. 
In 1491 be was chosen grand master of the college of Na<» 
varre, and performed the duties of that office in a manner 
which procured bioi universal esteem. In 1497 be fancied 
be had a special call to leave the world, and therefore re« 
tired to ihe abbey of Cluny, the order of which^ be was 
qoBimissioned to reform by cardinal D'Amboise ; and here 
too he was a very frequent preacher. He died Feb. 6,1514, 
in his seventy-first year. Major mentions an anecdote much 
to the credit of Raulin. When he was only a licentiate, 
some ecclesiastics who were filling their pockets by the sale 
of indulgences, offered to pay all the expences of taking 
his doctor's degree, if he would join them and preach up 
their trade, which he rejected with indignation. Many 
large volumes of Raulin's sermons were printed after his 
death, composed in a miserably bad taste, which, however^ 
was the taste of his age. It is perhaps a sufficient character 
of tbem, that Rabelais took some of bis ludicrous stories 
from tbem. The only useful publication of Raulin is his 
volume of correspondence, '< Epistols," Paris, 1529, 4to, 
which, like most collections of the kind, throws some light 
on the literature of the age.^ 

RAUWOLF (Leonard), a skilful botanist, was a native 
of Augsburg, and a pupil of Rondelet. He sailed from 
Marseilles, in 1573, for the Levant, and performed a labo- 
rious and dangerous journey through Syria, Mesopotamia, 
Palestine, and Egypt ; of which he has left an account in 
German, full of curious information relative to medical and 
other rare plants, with several wooden cuts. He died physi- 
cian to the Austrian army, atHatVany, in Hungary, in 1606, 
according to Dryander, Bibl. Banks, v. 395, though Haller 
says 1 596a The latter writer mentions his being obliged to 
quit hiis country, on account of his religion, which was pro- 
testant His splendid herbarium, once the property of 
t}ueen Christina, and of Isaac Vossius, is preserved in the 
university of Leyden. From it Gronovius composed his 
** Flora Orientalis.'* — ^An English translation of bis journey 
was published by Staphorst in 1693, 8vo.* 

RAVENET (Simon Francis), an engraver, was a na- 
tive of France, but came to England about 1750, and 

1 NiceroD, vol. XI. — Chanfepie. < Haller, Bibl, Bot.«-Rees's Cyclopaedia. 


60 R A V E N E T. 

settled in London. In the latter part of his life he resided 
at Mother Red Cap*s, near Kentish Town, where he died 
in 1774. He was of eln amiable disposition and much re- 
spected, and had the honour of instructing both Ryland and , 
Hall in the art of engraving. 

The shadows in his engravings are deep toned, end his 
style both of drawing and engraving vigorous, though 
somewhat mannered. Beside what he produced after Ho- 
garth, the following are esteemed among bis best prints : 
" The Prodigal Son," (a large upright) from Sal. Rosa ; 
^* Lucretia deploring her Misfortune," from A. Casali ; 
" The Manifestation of the Innbcence of the Princess Gun- 
helda," (its companion) from the same; "The Death of 
Seneca," (a large plate) from Lucca Giordano ; " The 
Arcadian Shepherds," from N. Poussin; **The portrait of 
Lord Camden," from sir Joshua Reynolds. He is also the 
author of a considerable number of vignettes, book plates, 
and small portraits.^ 

• RAVENSCROFT (Thomas), an active English musician 
and publisher, who flourished from the beginning of the 
17th century to 1635, was the editor and composer of the 
best collection of psalm tunes in four parts, which had till 
then appeared in England. He was a bachelor of music, 
and a professor not only well acquainted with the practice 
of the art, but seems to have bestowed much time in the 
perusal of the best authors, and in meditation on the the- 
ory. This book, published in small octavo, 1621 and 1633, 
eontains a melody for every one of the hundred and 6fty 
psalms, many of them by the editor himself, of which a 
considerable number is still in u>e; as Windsor, St. David's, 
Southwell, and Canterbury. There are others, likewise, 
which are sung by the German, Netherlandish, and French 
Protestants. To these the base, tenor, and counter-tenor 
parts have been composed by twenty-oneEnglish musicians: 
among whom we find the names of Tallis, Dowland, Mof- 
ley, Bennet, Stubbs, Farnaby, and John Milton, the fa- 
ther of our great poet. The tunes which are peculiar to 
the measure of the lOOdth psalm, the ll3tb, and 119th, 
were originally Lutheran, or perhaps of still higher anti- 
quity. And though Ravenscroft has affixed the name of 
Dr. John Dowland to the parts which have been s^et to the 
lOOdth psalm, yet, in the index, he has ranked the melody 

> Str«lt»8 Diet. . 


itself with the French tunes ; perhaps from having seen it. 
among the melodies that were set to the French version of 
Clement Marot and Theodore Beza^s Psalms, by Goudimel 
and Claude le Jeune. Ravenscroft, in imitation of these^ 
harmonists, always, gives the principal 'melody, or, as he 
calls hy the playn-^ong, to the tenor. His publication is,. 
in some measure, historical : for he tells us not only who 
composed the parts to old melodies, but who increased the, 
common stock, by the addition of new tunes;, as. well as 
which, of them were originally English, Welch, Scots, Ger- 
man, Dutch, Italian, French, and imitations of these. 

No tunes of triple time occur in Claude le Jeune, and 
but five in Ravenscroft : tl>e principal of which are Cam- 
bridge, Martyrs, Manchester, and the 81st. This last is 
still much used, and often played by chimes : it is called 
an imitation of a foreign tune, and has the name of Richard 
Allison prefixed to it. Muller^s German edition of the 
psalm tunes at Frankfort is exactly that of Claude le Jeune, 
in two parts only ; except that he has transposed some of 
the melodies, and inserted easy leading and coimective 
notes, to assist, not only the singer, but sometimes the 
tunes themselves; whipb, without them, would now be 
very bald and uncouth. Many of these old melodies aret 
still sung to German hymns as well as psalms. 

In 1614 Ravenscroft published *' A briefe Discourse of 
the true, but neglected, Use of chamcterizing the Degrees 
by their perfection, imperfection, and diminution, in mea- 
surable Musicke, against the common practice and custome 
of the times,'^ 4to. He had been educated in St. Paul's, 
cl^oir, under Mr. Edward Pierce, and was particularly con- 
versant with old authors ; he, therefore, wished to revive 
the use of those proportions in time, which, on, account 
of their intricacy, bad been long discontinued. He practised 
these exploded doctrines ineffectually, though to his dis- 
Qourse he added examples to illustrate his precepts, ex- 
pressed in the harmony of four voices, concerning the plea- 
sure of the five usual recreations of hunting, hawking, 
4anciug,, drinking, ^md enamouring. H^ was not always 
yery successful in his attempts at imitative harmony ; and 
melody was then sb crude and uncoiith throughout Europe,^ 
as to afford little assistance in imitative strains. Ravens-, 
^roft was also the author of a collection of songs, entitled 
^' Melcimata, Musical Fhancies, fitting the Court, City, 

ei R A V I S. 

and Country Humours, in Ibrde^ four, and five Voyces,'* 
published in the y^ar 16] 1.^ 

RAVIS, RAVIUS, or RAVE (CitRisTiAN), a learned 
orientalist, was born nt Berlin, in 1613, and after studying- 
ibr eight years at Rostoek and other foreign schools, be 
came to Oxford in 1638, about which time he addressed a 
letter to archbishop Usher, who, conceiving a high opinion 
6f him, gave him an invitation to Dublin, with offers of 
preferment. In the mean time becoming likewise known 
to Grotius, the latter, unknown to archbishop Usher, in-* 
troduced him to cardinal Richelieu^ who offered to employ 
llim ad his agent in the ea^t. Ravi us, however, pleaded 
bis pre-etigagement to the Englii^h nation, and especially 
to Usher ; and the cardinal/ with great liberality, admitted 
his motive, and dismissed him with a handsoine present, 
H^ then, under the patronage^ of Usher, began his travels 
in the East, but fortunately for himself, arrived at Constan- 
tinople with a strong tecommendsltion from archbishop 
Laud ; for, according to Dr. Pocock's account, who was 
then in that city, Ravins *' came thither, without either 
cloaths befitting him (of Which he said he had been robbed 
in France) or money, bv letters of credit to any merchant. 
He had letters of recommendation from some of the states 
to the Dutch ambassador, who was departed before his 
arriVak Sir Sackville Crow, the English ambassador, find* 
ing that'he brought the archbishop^s recommendation, ge- 
nerously took' him into his house and protection, and gave 
him all du^ furtherance ; requiring of him that, if occasion 
so present itself, England may enjoy the benefit of what 
titn^ he ^hall here employ in the study of the eastern tongues* 
His desire," Dr. Pbcock adds, " seems to be, to be em- 
ployed in setting forth books in the Arabic language, and t6 
t>e overseer of the press in that kind, for which be would 
be very fiuing." 

In 1639, archbishop Usher wrote a Latin letter to him, 
with a promise of «£24. a-year towards bis support ; and dii 
bis return with a large treasure of MSS. to the number of 
three hundred. Usher rewarded and supported him with 
great liberality. RaviuS now settled in England, and iii 
1642 resided at Gresbam college, and afterwards at Lon^ 
don house, Aldersgate-street, and in both places taught 
the Eastern languages. During the following year he went 

1 Hawkins and BuToefs Hist, of Music, and the latter in Keei*s Cyclopaedia* 

R A V 1 ». es 

t6 Holland, ftiid was appointed profiMsOr of the oriental 
Jteguitges at Utrecht, which has procured him a place 
among the learned taen of Utrecht in Burman^s <* Trajeo- 
ttim Ertiditum/' In 1648, we find him again in England^ 
where, in compliance with the ruling powers, he took the 
covenant, and even became a rival to Dr. PoCock in the 
Arabic professorship, but failed in thb detlign. He then 
went to Swedeh, and became professor of oriental litera« 
tlire at Upsal ; but a large family and the scanty salaty of 
bis professorship obliged him to go to Kiel in Germanyi 
where be lived comfortabiy until his death in 1677. 

The writings of this learned scholar were M« " Panegy-^ 
ricsB orationes du8B de lingais Orientalib'tts,'' Utrecht, 1643, 
4to. 2. *^ Obtestatio ad universam Eorapam pro disoendia 
rebus et Unguis orietitalibns," ibid. 1644, fol. 3* ^ OrC0« 
graphic^ et analogiae, vulgo etytnbiogiek, Ebraicas delinea*' 
tia, &o." Amst. 1646, foL 4. ^<A Grammar of the Hebre«^, 
Chaldaie, Syriac, Arabic, and Samaritati,'' Loiid. 1648^ 
8vo. 5. <' De Dddaifm Rubefiis dlSsertatio philologica," 
Upsaf, 1655, 8vo. 6. <* Annotationes iA versus postremOS 
Geneseos capitis XXX,'* ibid, 1655, 8vOi 7. '^ Apolloniu4 
Pergseus ex versione Ariibica, Laiine,*' Koloti. 1661, 8vo. 
8. <^ Versio nova in caput quanutn GfeiieseOs," ibid. 1664^ 
8vo. §. '< Versio Latina ex Hebrso sex prtorum capitum 
Geneseos, &&'* ibid. 1665, 8vo. 10. " Chrdnologim in- 
fallibilis de anhis Christi, &c. demonstrationes,'* ibid. 1669^ 
re})rinted 1670, fol. ll. *< Synopsis Chronologias Bibli-^ 
c»," Berliri, 1670, fol. 12. " Orbis Hieraticus Levita- 
rum, &c.'' ibid. 1670, fol. 13. <* Excussio discUs^iom^ 
ih^pts Abrahaml Calovli,'' Upsal, 1671, fol. 14» << Dis*< 
putatio Cbrdriblogica de plenitudihe-^temporis Christi ib 
ca^ne a priori deducta,** Frantifort, 1673, 4ta. 15. "Tri- 
gitit^ arcana Bibiica cotitieitiintia ssram Ghristi anno mundl 
4041, non 4000 ul Callovios docet,'* ibid, 1675, fol. 

He had a brother, JohK RaviuSj who was professor of 
philoBopby at Rostock, and the author of a commentary 
oti Cornelius N^po^, and kome other works. ^ 


HAWLEY (William), a learned English diving, and 
editor of lord Bacon's works, was bofn at NorWii^b- about 
1588. He was admitted a Bible-clerk in BeneU cdllege, 

\ Ath. Ox. iroL iL^Twellfl'f Life of Pocock, p. li.--Boni»n'i Tri^* Brud.— > 
Usher's Dfe and LetUn. 

«4 RAW L E Y. 

Caiiibrtdge» under the taidou of Mr. Cbapqiafiy oo di«< 
22d of January, 1660, aod took b^^tb tbe degrees in arts 
before tbe 19tb of IVbrcb, 1609, when be was elected a 
fellow of tbe bouse. . Upon tbis be comaieoced tutor, 9jad 
was ordained deacon by tbe bisbop of Ely, at Downbam^. 
September 22, 1611 ; not long after wbicb, be was pre* 
sented by tbe university of Cambridge to tbe rectory of 
Bowthorpe in Norfolk, and was instituted to it Dec. 10, 
1612. In 1616, by tbe favour of sir Francis Bacon, wbo 
procured tbe living for bim of tbe college, he obtained tbe 
rectory of Landbeach.. He had commenced B. I), tbe year 
before, and upon bis patron^s being made lord-keeper of 
the great seal, was ;4>pointed bis domestic chaplain. While 
Mr. Rawtey.was in this situation, he proceeded D..D. in 
1621. 'He was of great use to bis master, in writing down, 
compiling, digesting, and publishing his works ; to many 
of which be wrote prefaces aad dedications, as well as 
translated several of them into Latin. These, with some, 
other pieces committed to his care, he collected together, 
and printed^ after bis lordship^s decease, London, 1638, 
folio, with a dedication to king Charles, one of whose 
chaplains be then was. In 1657, be published at London, 
ii\^ folio, upder the title of ^^ Resuscitatio,'* several others, 
of lord Bacon^s tracts ; to which at the request of many^ 
foreigners, and natives of the kingdom, be prefixed some 
account of his patron^s life. This, which is thought to be 
drawn up iii a clear and manly style, shews Dr. Rawley to. 
have been an able writer. It was likewise translated into 
Latin, and placed before the ^* Opuscula varia Posthuma,*' 
printed in 8vo the y^ar following, which, he tells us, were 
the last things he had in his hands. However, he repub-. 
lished the ^^ Resuscitatio,'' with some additions, in 1661 ; 
at which time he was chaplain in ordinary to bis majesty 
king Charles II. He was so great a favourite with lord. 
Baeon, that, after his resignation of the seals, he recom- 
mended Dr. Rawley to his successor, bishop Williams, for 
farther preferment This the bishop promised, and de-^ 
sired lord Bacon to point out in what he would wish him to 
promote Dr. Rawley ; but his lordship modestly declining 
this, and referring the choice to the lord-keeper, Dr , 
Rawley appears to have derived no advantage from hi» 
friend's recommendation. Lord Verulam, besides the care 
of his writings, left the doctor by will, as a farther testi- 
mony of his regard, one hundred pounds, with the king of 

k AW t E V, 65 

SiNttii's'-Pidygtot'^i M^r'tba pifbUcftlira j of bi« mttttec's 
works) in' 4.6^8, On Bawrleyr rfesid/eid u^qU bis reQtory at 
Laoidbeacb* He married Bwrbarfti' tbe diMighter of Mn 
Jobn W4ehsl^d> aldernmn of Cambridgei by vvbom be luid 
twocbildreii* Hia daughter, Maiy, diedi in bear iDfancy | 
but Us iM)ni WiUtam, < bmame follow of Corpus Cbristi 
6o]legcf> and «irai3> baried at Luddboapby «<>ii the Sd of July, 
]:66r6i Dr. Rawley tost his. sm, bi^ wifei^: and his sefvante^ 
aU ill the sameyeaivef tbe.plague ; rwbich probably afFecfeed 
him so much as' ta' bring doimn. his*' grey hairs with sorrow 
fo the gra^^e. He died on the 18 tb of June^ 1667^ in the 
seventy*ninth yearof his age,, after having been pastor at 
Landbeach fifty yeans, and ihroMghout .the whole of the 
tronbles; Hi& remains. were deposited .near the CommU'* 
i^tenv table, in the obaocel. of his owe. ohurcb^ under a blaet 
marble, with a Latih imoriptian to his /memory. Dr. Raw^ 
ley was proctor in eonvoeaiidnifor the cletgy of the dioc^e 
of Ely, in 1661, and as such subscribed to the Book .ofi 
Common-Prayer, upon its revisaU - He had the appella^ 
tion of the lord BsLcon's^ learned chaplain ; and that this 
title was justly bestowed 'upon him', td evident from the 
testimonies of several considerable men, both at hpme and 
abroad; He presented ^ofd Bacoti^s ^orks, as he published 
tbera, to the library of Corpus Cbristi college, Cambridge; 
and bequeathed to it ^* Camden^s firitatinia/' with <> Cice«- 
ronis Opera,'* in 2 vols, and Plato, in 3 vols, folio. These 
books were 'delivered by»hkiexeo4itor Mr; John Rawley, to 
whose care we are indebted for those Remains of lord Bacon 
which were jpublished by Dr. Tenisoti.^ 

RAWJ.INSON (CBfRlSTOPHE'E), of Carkhall in Lanca- 
shire^ esq. an ablle Satcon- scholar, the only son of Curwen 
R^wlidson' of tbe^ same places wbo^died in 1689, and de-« 
scended from a family of long standing in High Fumess, 
and very numerous in ther parish of Hawkshead ^d Colrv 
ton, was coHateraily related 'to the subjects of the three 
following airticleis. ' He was born in 1677, educated at 
Queen's college, Oxfordy made uppertoommoner May 10^. 
1695, and eminently distinguishied for his application to 
Saxon ind Northern literature* He, published, whilst at 
Queen's college, a biteutifullsditionof kiivg Alfred's Sax^n 
translation of " Bciethius de CorisolatiQne PbilosophisB,'* ' 
Oxon. 1698, 8 vo> from a transcript, by Franeisciis Janios, 

> M Oten's Hist of C. C. C. C. 

Vol. XXVI. F 

R A W L I N S O N, 

of a very ancient MS. in the Bodleian library, collated Wit& 
one in the Gotton lifaraty. The ^* Gramtnatica Anglo-Sax* 
ooica, ex Hickesiano Thesanro excerpta,'* printed at Ox- 
ford in 171 1, 1^ dedicated to this gentleman, in the follow^ 
ing words r ** Viro eximio Christpphoro Rawltnson Armi* 
gero, Ltteraturas Saxonicae Fautori egregio, hasce brevi«> 
cuhts Institirtiones Graonmaticas dicat, dedicat, Editor.'^ 
He left behind hinv a large collection of MSS. among which 
are many relating to Westmorland and Cumberland, of 
which copies are at sir Michael le Fleming^s at Rydal. He 
ordered his under-coffin to be heart of o^k, and covered 
with red leather; and died January 8, 1732-3, aged fifty- 
fire. At the rrorth end of the north transept of the abbey- 
chorcb of St. Alban's iis a white marble sarcophagus,^ witb 
8 figure of History sitting on it, reclining on her left arm,^ 
holding in her hand a pen, with which she writes in a book, 
while two other books lie under her feet. Bek)w is thb 

To- the tnem:>ry of 

€bri«topfaer Rav1io90ii» of Carli-haH io Cartmel, in the county of 

liSDcaster, .etq. whose remains arte deposited in a vault near this place. 

He was son of Curwen Itawlinson, member of parliameat for the town 

of Lancaster, and Elizabeth Monk, daughter and co-heir of the loyat 

Nicholas Monk, lord bishop of Hereford, brother to Gen. Monk 

*l(uke of Albemarle. The said Christopher was of Queen's college, in Oxford, 

and. published the Saxon version of ** Boetbius de Consolatiooe 

Phikwophias" in the Saxon language. He was bom in the parish of 

Spriogfteld in Essex, June !<}, 1677, and died in Jan. 1733. 

This aioauriient was erected pursuant to the will of bis cousin and 

. co»heires» Mrs. Mary ftlalte^ youngest dttughter of Roger Mdre, 

of Kirkby Lonsdale,, hi the county of Westmoreland, seijeant at law,^ 

and Catharine Ravlinson, sister of the said Curwen Rawlinson. 

Sor this gentleman's pedigree, see ** Sandford's Oeneerlo- 
gical History of the Kings and Queens of England^' 1707;'^ 
where also is a print ^ of < the monument erected by binv>k> 

' * This print is engraved by Nut* 
tiOg* ansd inscribed at bottom, as fol- 
lows: <*Viro oobiti. fc omatitsimo, 
literanim patrono, Cbristophoro Raw- 
litosoo; de Cark, in coihitatu Lancas- 
tciMr armigero ; qui oe dulcis memo^ 
rla ayt sui bonorabilis et matris cha- 
^issimse pereat,monumentum hocseter- 
nitati- sacrum esse volutt,*' In thecen- 
ter of this inscription is a shield, quar- 
fering the arms of Rawlinson, Planta- 
getfe^ Curwen, and Monk; with the 
n^tto of the Rawlinsons 'affixed. The 
epitaph runs thus : ** Near this place 
lyeth the body of that mo^t learned 
W boaeil coomellor at law^ Robert 

Eawlinson, of Cark'Hall in Cartmetl 
in Lancashire, and of Gray's Inn ia*' 
Middlesex, esq. . His great integrity, 
joined with a profound knowledge of 
ihe law, made him esteemed and atf. 
mired by all that knew him. Htr was 
justice of Ihe peace, of Quorum, and of 
Oyer and Terminer, for the countiea 
Palatine of Lancaster and Chester to 
king Charles' 11. ; a great sufferer for 
his loyalty to king Charles I. vice- 
chamberlain of the city and county of 
Chester to Charles earl of Darby. U^ 
lived beloved of all, and so he died 
lamented) Oct 21, 1665, aged 55, He 
married the prudent Jane Wii^on- 



bis grandfather and mother, in the church of St, Mary, at 
Ciirtiiiel, in Lancashire. There are two engraving9 of 
him; one in a wig and night-gown, iu a frame of oak« 
leaves, engraved by Nutting, with his initials in a cyphec 
at the corners, and his arms quartering a chevron betweeu 
3 lions' heads, and Ar. fretty Gu, a chief A z. Another^ 
by Nutting also (mentioned in Granger), in the same plate 
with fouir others, \it. Kobert, his grandfather; Curwen, 
bis father i Elizabeth, his mother, atid t)r. Nicholas MoDk« 
bishop of Hereford, his mother's father. There is like- 
wise a mezzotinto half-sheet, by Smith, represeiiting him 
younger, and of a mote comely person, than either of the 
engravings. It is dated " Anno Christi 1701, attatis siise 

RAWLINSON (TflOMAs), knt. eldest surviving son of 
Daniel Rawlinson^, citizen and wine-merchant of Loh- 
don, descended from the ancient family of that name at 
Graisdale, in the county of Lancaster, was born in the 
parish of St. DionisBackchurch, in F'eochurch-street, Lon<» 

(eldest daagfater of Tilomas Wilsob 
of HaTersham Hall ia WesUDoreland, 
ciq.) who died 1686, aged 60; and 
was buried iu the same grave With 
bim ; by whom be left Canred Raw- 
linson, esq. bis eldest and only son, 
#ho married. He was d most accom- 
plisbed ^sd iogenioiM geotlenan, and 
a true patriot; so succeeded bis father 
in the setrice and love of his country, 
and died in it 1689, aged 48, bein^ 
burgess for Lancaster in the parlia- 
ment convened 1688^ Jan. ^2, and waa 
buried in the chancel of St^ Mary*s, 

•Next Robert Rawlinson lyeth the 
remains of the truly pious and religious 
Elixabetb RawKnson, wife of Curwen 
Rawlinion of Lark* esq. (daughter and 
co-heir of the loyal t)r. Nicholas Monk, 
1^ bisbop of Hereford) a f^reat as- 
sistant in the Restoration to bis bro- 
thfr>. the most noble Oeoige Monk 
duke of AlbemaHe, and son of sir 
Tboim Monk of Potheridge in Oe«> 
vopshire, knt. , She ^s^s a most dutiful 
daughter of the Church of England, as 
i#ell as of a prelate of it; being a sob- 
lime pattern of holy piety, a. true cba* 
lily, a Christian humility^ a faithful 
friendship, a religious dre of her 

1 Drawn Dp by Mr. Goug^ for (be 
fionary, vol. il« art. Kawlinson. 


children, and t divine patience ndder 
the torture of the stone, and with which 
she resigned her heavenly soul, Sept. 
81, I69i. aged forty-three, lea«io^ 
two sons} Monk Rawlinson, who died 
K95, aged 21, and lyeth buried by 
ber; and Christopher Rawlinion, esq; 
now living, bom in Esseic, 1617, who« 
in memory of hie grandfather, and 
most dearly beloved and good mother, 
erected this tnoAument, Adccv.'* Th€ 
abov« is toa exact copy of Uie platei 

* Daniel Rawlinson has a monu- 
ment in St. Dionis Backchurch, witb 
his wife Margaret, his eldest sod Da^ 
niel, his daughters Elizabeth, add 
Mary, wife of Mazine, esq. Strype's 
Survey of London, B< II. p. 154. It 
appears by the printed wiH of Dr. Hi-*' 
chard RawUusoq, that Daniel left bia& 
a fee^fartn rent of 42/. per mmurn, is- 
suing o«t of the rectory and parish- 
chureb of Ulverston, and other tith^« 
in the county of Lancaster, and lis^ 
also out of the tetiements, and 12 
acres of glebe of the said rectory, and 
61. out of Pennington rectory and other 
rents, &<i. amounting in the whole to. 
upwards of 95L per annum, which be 
left in trust, as beceftfter stated. 

e'diUon 1784 of this Diet.— Collier's Die- 

63 R A W L I N S O N.- 

don, March 1647 ; appointed sheriff of London by James II; 
1687, colonel of the white regiment of trained bands, and 
governor of Biridewell and Bethlem hospitals, 1705; and* 
in 1706, lord mayor of London, when be beautified apd 
repaired' Guildhall, as appears by an inscription in tbi^ 
^reat porch. He married Mary, eldest daughter of Richard 
Taylor,' esq. of Turnham- green, with whom he lived 87 
years, and by whom he had 15 children* She died' at 
Chelsea, Feb. 21, 17^4-5, aged sixty-three. He died in 
his own parish, November 2, 17o/, and was buried with 8 
his father, who died in 1679, aged sixty-six. Of his chil- 
dren, four daughters, Anne-Maria, Mary« Margaret, Susan;- 
and two sons, both named Daniel, died before him. Wil- 
liam died'in 1732, and was buried at Antwerp. John, of 
Little Leigh in Cheshire^ esq. died< January 9, 1753. 
l^empest, the youngest son, by profession a dry*salter, died 
January 1, 17^7. Sir Thomas Rawlinson, it maybe added,, 
had been foreman of the grand jury at the trial of alderman 
Cornish '; and was elected sheriff by royal mandate.— Hi» 
eldest son, Thomas, for whom Mr. Addison is said to have 
intended bis character of Tom FoliOi inthe Tatler, No. 1 58, 
but with in(init<ely tbo satirickl ^ vein, was a great collector 
of books ; and himself a mafk of learning, as well as patron- 
of learned men. Mattaire has dedicated to him his edition 
of Juvend; and Hearne^s publication, entitled '^ AluredL 
Bererlacensis Annales, &c." was printed from the original 
MS. in this gentleftian*s p'Ossessibn. Very numerous indeed 
were the communications that editor received from Mn 
Thomas Rawlinson, for ail which be tKketf every opportu-* 
nity of expresising his g^ratitude. While Mr. Rawlinson 
lived in Gray's inn, be had four chambers so completely 
filled with books, that hi9' bed was removed out into tbe^ 
passagie.' He afterwards removed to London-house, the 
-lincient palace of the bishops of London, in Aldersgate- 
street, where 1osb died August 6, 1725, aged forty*four^ 
and was buried ini the church of St. Botolph Aldersgate» 
In Lbtid6n-hoQse his Kbr^ry was sold after his decease; 
and there also lived and died his brother Richard, who left 
a portrait of his brother Thomas in crayons, another of 
himself, and another bf Nicolas Salmop, LL. D. thenoti- 
quary, to the Society *of Antiquaries, aU afterwards revoked. 
His MSS.took sixteen days to sell, from March 4, 1733-4. 
The catalogue of his library consists of nine parts. The 
amount of the five first parts was 2409/. Mr. Charles: 

R A W L I N S O N. 69 

M^b, late bookseller at Chariiig-cross, used to say, 
that the sale of Mr. Thomas Rawliqson^s Kbrary was one of 
the first eveots he remembered upon engaging in business ; 
and that it was the larg^ collection at'that tim^ known toi 
have been offered to the public' 

RA'WLINSON (Richard), an eminent antiquary, and 
great benefactor to the university of Oxford, was the fotirtli 
son of sir Thomas ; . and was educated at St. John's college, 
Oxford, wJbere he was admitted gentleman commoner^ and 
proceeded M. A., and grand compounder in 1713, and was 
£idmitted to the degree of doctor of civil law by diploma^ 
in 1719, He was F. R. S. and became F. S. A. May 10, 
1727. He wa3 greatly accessary to the bringibgtb light 
many descriptions of counties ; and, intending one of Ox* 
fordshire, had collected materials from Wood's papers, &c. 
bad many plates engraved, and circulated printed queries, 
hot received accounts only of two parishes, which in some 
degree answered the design, and eucouraged him to pursue 
it; In this work were to be included the antiquities of the 
gbity of Oxford, which Wood promised when the English 
popy of his '' Historia & Antiquitates Oxon." was to be 
published, and which have since been f&ithfally transcribed 
from his papei^, by Mr. Gutcb, and much enlarged and 
corrected from ancient original authorities. All Dr. Raw- 
linson^s collections for the county, chiefly <?ulled from 
Wood, or picked up from information, and disposed by 
Iiumlreds in set)arate books, in each of which several pa- 
rishes are omitted, would make but one 8vo voluine. But 
be made large collections for the continuation of Wood's 
'< Athena Oxdnienses" atid *^ Histqrjr of Oxford,'Vapd for 
^n account of ^ NoQ-compliers" at the Revolution ; which, 
together with sonie edllections of Htorh^'s, find note-books 
6f his own trav£l)l, be bequeathed by bis will tp the univer- 
sity pf Okford, The Life of Mr. Anthony Wood, hisio- 
riograpber of the most famdUs university of Oxfdrd, with 
art liccoont of bis nativity, education, works, file, collected 
and coQiposed from iMSS. by Richard Rilwlinson, gent. 
comniioiier of St. John*^ college, Oxon. was printed art Lon- 
don in 1711. A copy of this lile, with MS additions by 
the author, is in die Bodleian library. He published pro- 
posals for an *f History of Eton College,** 1717; and, in 
4728, ^^ Petri Abaelarai Abbati% Ruyensis ^ Heloisseer 

1 By Mr. Goagb, for the edition of this Dictiooiry of 1784. 

70 R A W I. I N S O N. 


Ab1>ati8S8B Paracletensis Epistolte/* Svo, dedicated to Df. 
IVIead. The books, the publication of which he promoted^are 
supposed to be the ** History and Antiquities of Wincbes-t 
ter," 1715, 8vo, ^* History and Antiquities of Hereford," 
1717, 8vo. *^ History and Antiquities of Rochester,'* 1717, 
1723, 8vo, *^ Inscriptions on, tombs in Bunhili-fields,'' 
1717, 8vo. ^^ History and Antiquities of the Churches of 
Salisbury and Bath," 1719, 1733, Svo. « Aubrey's History 
of Surrey," 1719, 5 vols. Bvo. ** Norden's Delineation of 
Jlortbamptonshire," 1 720, 8vo. " History and Antiquities 
of Glastonbury," Oxford, 1722, 8vo. In 1728, he trans- 
lated and printed Fresnoy's /' New Method of studying 
History, with a Catalogue of the chief Historians,'* 2 vols. 
Svo. But his principal work was ** The English Topo<v 

frapber, or, an Historical Account of all the Pieces that 
ave been written relating to the antient Natural History 
or Topographical Description of any Part of England," 1 720jt 
8vo, the plan of which has been so much augmented and 
improved in Mr.^ Cough's two editions of the ^^ British To- 
pography." In 1750, he gave, by indenture, the yearly 
sum of 87/. 16^. Sd. being the rents and profits of various 
estates which he inherited under the will of his grandfather 
DaDiel Rawlinson to the university of Oxford, for tbe 
maintenance and support of an Anglo-Saxon lecture or 
professorship for ever. To the Society of Antiquaries, be 
gave, by will, a small freehold and copyhold estate at Ful- 
ham, on condition that they did not, upon any terms, or 
by any stratagem, art, means, or contrivance howsoever,, 
increase of add to their (then) number of 150 members^ 
honorary members only excepted. He also made them a 
considerable bequest of dies and matrices of English seals 
^nd medals, all his collection of seals ^, charters, drawings 
by Vertqe and other artists, and other antiquities ; ten^ 
wa) put- tree book-cases, which had been given to his lat^ 
l^rother Thomas by the then earl of Peoibroke, and fou^ 
mahogany* presses, all marked P, all his English prints p^ 
which they had not duplicates, and a quit-rent of 5Lp^i^. 
annum, in Norfolk, for a gop4 meilal for the best des.crip* 

* See hit teals enumerated m the 141, 150, 164, 166, 237, 295, 309, 

British Topography, vol. I. 465»4S3, 381, 474, 416, 689, 709. 715. 

vol II. 40, 96i, 13^, 177, 891. Drawings and MSS. ?oKl. 188, 337,, 

His plates, vol. I. 390, 419, 454, 339, 431, 499, 510, 529, 534, 609^ 

464, 492, 494, 508, 515, 537, 544, 615.— Vol. H. 59, 75, ^5, 95^^ \^ 

552, 5i^, 64a, 717.— Vol. H. 50, 89, 155, 9S6, 468, 761. 

HAW L I N S O N. 7i 

tion pn any Eogliih, Saxon, Roman, or Greels/coini or 
•other antiquity not before treated of or in print ; but, re* 
seating some sqpposed want of deference to his singularities 
and dictatorial spirit, and some reflections on bis own and 
bis friend's honour, in an imputation of libelling the So^ 
ciety in th^e public papers, he, by a codicil made and 
signed at their house in Chancery lane, revoked the 
whole*, and excluded all fellows of this or the Royal So* 
ciety from any benefit from his benefactions at Oxford^ 
which, besides his Anglo-Saxon endowment, were ex^ 
tremely considerable ; including, besides a number of 
books with and without MS notea, all his seals, English 
and foreign, his antique marbles, and other curiosities; 
bis copper^plates relative to several counties, his ancient 
Oreek and Roman coins and medals, part of his collection 
of English medals, his series of medals of Louis XIV» and 
XV. a series of medals of the popes, which Dr. Rawlinson 
supposed to be one of the most complete collections in 
Europe; and a great number of valuable MSS. which be 
ordered to be safely locked up, and not to be opened till 
seven years after his decease f. His music, MS. and printi 
ed, he gave to the' music^scbool at Oxford* He died afe 
Islington, April 6, 1755 ; and in the same year was printed 
<'The Deed of Trust and Will of Richard Rawlinson, of 
St. John the Baptist college, Oxford, doctor of laws ; con- 
cerning his endowment of an Anglo-'Saxon lecture, and 
other benefactions to the college and university/* He 
left to Hertford college the estate in Fulham before ment 
tioned, and to the college of St. John the Baptist the bulk 
of his estate, amounting to niear 700/. a year, a plate of 
archbishop Laud, thirty-one volumes of parliamentary 

journals and debates; a. set of the '^ Foedera,*' .all his 

• • ' - ■ ' } 

* One reasoDt among othert, wl^icb Salisbary* by whom it wai sent to 

he give for thit, was, that their then se- , Cambridge. Dr. Tay Ipr's insinuatioi^ 

cretary, Mr. Gordon, -was a Sootcbman, however, was #iihoat foundation, faS 

f Br. Taylor was persuaded that no such MS., was found in Dr. Rawlinn 

ibis precaution was taken by the doc- son's collection ;' and the papers which 

tor to prevent the right owners' reco- Dr. Rawlinson. desired might not b«? 

▼ering tbeir own. He supposed that made puhUc Aill after his dieath, were 

Dr. RawHnsen made no scruple of his collectienafor ajcoipitinaatinnof the 

buying all that wAs brought to him ; ** Athense Oxontenses/^ with Hearne's 

and that, am«ng the test, the MS. and Diaries, and utq other M^. Ybe 

printed copy of Demosthenes, whicln. whole ar^ now open for any one who 

was lost on the road, and the detainer wishes to consult .them.— Historical^ 

«if which ho>had cursed very classically, passages collected by him from Wobdi 

^o^ld be found among the spoil. The were .printed as a lupplemept tor 

MS/belonged to James Harris, esq. of, Woo^^s Life, Oxf^ 1772, vol, U, p, 24?.* 

. . . ! . ._. '-4. ...-•* 

T« B A W t I N S O K. 


Gr^ekt Boman, «nd Englkb, coins not given to the Bod<» 
leian libr^ry^ ^1^ ^^ plates engraved at tbe expencOi of <tie 
&>ciety of Antiquariefl, with the annuity for the prize- 
medaly and another to the best orator. The produce of 
certain rents bequeathed to St. Jean's college was^ after 
fiO years* accumuJationi to b^ la^d out in purchase of an 
IB8tate» whose profits were to be a salary to a keeper of the 
Ashmolean Museum, being a master of arts, or bachelor in 
pivil law ; and all legacies, refused by the university or 
others, to c^snter in this college. To the hospitals of Bride- 
weU and Bethlehem, for the use of the incurables of the latter 
Ii^ }ef^ 2po/. and ten guineas as an equivalent for the 
inonthly coffee which he had. received in Bethlehem ^coiiw 
snon room : but, if they did nor giiv up the picture of his 
father hanging in their hall, in order to its being put up in 
the Mansion-hduse, they were to forfeit the larger snm^ 
pnd receive only the smaHen This picture, after it bad 
hung up at the Mansion-hoase for some years, Orithout any 
companion, in a forlorn, neglected state^ and received 
eonsiderable damage, the late sir Walter Rawlinson olM 
gained leave of the court of aldermen (being then himself 
|t member of that body, i^nd president of those hospitals) 
io Eestore to Bridewell. It is bne of sir Godfrey Kneller^s 
best performances, and well engraved by Vcrttte^^-^ON- 
STANTIKE, another iirother^ ^s mentioned 'by Richatd Raw* 
linson's will, as then Tesidlngat^V^iice, where he died in 
1779. To hitnfae '|pive tbexqpper-{>late of his fatbier'^ 
porltait, and ^all &mily •'pictures, except his fatber^s^ por^ 
trait by Kneller, which twaa given to 'the Vifntners' com-^ 

Eany, qf which bir fkther waa 'aviember. He Idft him also 
is Tents in PaulVfaread eoart» Fenchurchostreet, jeiint\y 
with his sisters^ Itllary^RawUnlrm, a^d'Anne Andrews, for. 
life. In the same will is mentioned another brother, Johk, 
to whom he left estates in Devonshire-street, London ; and 
ft nephew Thomas. To St John> college he bequeathed 
also bis diplpma, f^nd his he^rt, which is placed in a bea^'- 
^ful mafble urn against the chapel-wall, inscribed : 

''Ubi tliesaurus, ibi cor. 
'.' l^if . JUwLiNsoN, LU Dl ^ ANTp. S. S, . 
^' QMin huyus jCoUegii superioris.oidinis OonHtteDsati^. 
'* ObSt VI Apr. MDCCLT." 

m^ b^dy was buried in a vault, purchased by him in the 
north aile of St. Giles's church, Oxford, of which he h^ i| 
plate engn^ved in liis life»^ime| with this inscription : 



'' Twk ^voMt-^'^^Vdat in Speculuwu 
Maaei omuM aim noi^r— NoQ moriar oaintt« 
,.{ UocI^oraHtoriuin.Sped. lat. Spedlof^. 

A parodiift D. Egidi Oxon. concess. 25 Febr. et 
Facult £»isc. coofiroiat. 5 Mali J. L. Arm. et 
A&ign. A. D. M,DCC,L1V. 
Pallida mors sequo pulsat pede. 
> Bemel «st oatcanda via letM. 
Ultima Thule. 
f^ RAWI.IN80H, LL.D. R. & A, SS. 
OHm Coik^ S. Joaonis Bapt. Oxon* 
Superioris Ordinis Commensalls, 
Obiit vj Apr. mdcclv. aet. lxv." 

^ » ' 

. Wteo tbe be9d ^f cpmiseUor Layer, who was executed 
lor b^Mig c^n4^ued in the plot of 1792 *, and Bxed oa 
Templo^bfl^r^ m9tk blown off> and t^k^n up by Mr. Joba 
Pearcesi s^n emitoet utiornev of Tooke'st^courty and ageixt 
for the npejuriog pivrty» Dr. R^wUnson purchased it of 
him fit 9 )^gb|Mrice^ preserved it as a valuable retic, and 
dire($ted tb4t il; abould be buried in his right band. It is 
said, however) that he was imposed upon, find that a bead 
w^ts.^old to hiq» which was not Layer^s. 
. Hi^ librfiry of printed books -and books of prints was sold 
by aiiaionMa 1756;. the sale lasted. 50 days, and pro<* 
duced liai/. Theirs was a second sale of upwards of 
20,000 p^Q^pblets, reduced into lots under proper beads» 
T|?itb bis most uncommon, rare^ and odd, books, in. the fol- 
lowing year, during ten days ; which was immediately 
succeeded by a. sale of the doctor^s single prints, books of 
prints, -nod dravyings^ whieh lasted eight daya ^ 
. KAY (li£N,FAMiN), an. ingenious and worthy man, who 
is d^crihed as possessed of learning, but ignorant of the 
.lyorldi indolent and thoughtless, and Often very absent; 
9lis a native of . Spalding, where he was educated under 
Pr* Neve^ and afterwards admitted of St. John's college. 

* Christopber Layer, a young 
^craissellor of the Temple, was appre- 
)wQdk4 in Um» iiiiddkft of flepL 11SS, 
and, attempting bis escap* next ^ay, 
was overtaken, and codimitted to the 
Tower. He was ezamfned Sept^ 31, 
l^efore tbc jMrivy nou^il ; a«»d, after a 
trial of )8 hours, in the kiog^s bench, 
m an mdictment for inlisting men in 
Sisez for4he Pretendcr's'Mrviee, and 
corratpondipg w|(b them) was oonYiot- 
jSd, and received ^sentence of death. 

But, being reprieved from time to, 
time, the House of Commons appointed 
a coouaitlee to evaounc him in reU- 
tiou to the conspiracy. He dedined 
making any discovery ; and was-exe- 
cuted at Tyburn May 17, 17S2( and 
his head lined upon Temple-bar. Ia. 
a short speech he justi6ed what he ha4 
done, and recommended the interest 
Sf the Pretender. His trial wai print* 
ed some lime before his executioo* 
llndaPs Contiu. of Kapin, IV. 666, 

By Mr. Cough, drawn up originally (or Nichols*! Bo'wyef.' 

74 RAY. 

Cambridge. He wAs perpetual curate of Surfleet, of 
vrfaich he gave an acicount to the Spalding Society ; and 
curate of Covbiit, which is a chapel to Spalding, in the 
gift of trosjtees. His hermitage of osiers and willows there 
«vas celebrated, by William Jackson of Boston, in a MS 
heroic poem. He communicated to the Royal Society an 
account of a water-spout raised off the land in Deeping 
fen, printed in their " Transactions,'* vol. XLVIL p. 447, 
and of an ancient coin, to " Gent. Maig. 1744." There 
are several dissertations by him in that miscellany. He 
was secretary to the Spalding society in 1735. Mr. Pegge, 
about 1758, had a consultation with Dr. Taylor, residen- 
tiary of St. Paul's, and a friend of Ray*«, to get him re- 
moved to a better situation, and the doctor was inclined to 
4o it ; but, on better information and mature consideration^ 
U was thought then too late to transplant him. He died a 
bachelor at Spalding in 1760. S^e his communications tp 
the society, in the Reliquiae Galeanae, pp. 57, $B, 6S.^ 
He also communicated, in MS. ^ The Truth of the Chris- 
tian Religion demonstrated from the Report that was pro- 
pagated throughout the Gentile World about the Birth of 
Christ, that a Messiah was expected, and from the Autho- 
rity of Heathef) Writers, and from the Coins of the Ro- 
man £mperors to the beginning of the second general per- 
secution under Domittan," in ten sections, never printed.* 
Also a MS catalogue of household goods, furniture, and 
ten pictures, removed out of the presence-chamber, 26 
Charles 11. 14 Dec. 1668, from Mr. Brown, and ,of others 
taken out of the cupboard in the chamber, 25 Dec. 1668, 
by Mr. Church. These were in number 69. (Percy 
Church, esq. was some time page of honour and equerry 
to the queen -mother Henrietta Maria.) A MS catalogue 
of Italian princes, palaces, and paintings, 17S5, now i«' 
the Society's Museum. In 1740, a large and welUwritten 
history of the life and writings of the gre^t botanist, his 
namesake, by Mr. Dale, which was read, and approved^ 
John Ray's account of Cuba, where he was on shore some 
months. Mr. Johnson call^ him bis kinsman^ and says, in 
honour of him, he finds an inscription On the lower ledge 
of an altar-tomb, on which lies a mutilated alabasterknignt 
Jn armour and mail in Gosberkirke, alias Gosberton chapel^ 
BOW a school at Surfleet, to belong to Nicolas Rte, who 
was sheriff of Lincolnshire 5 and 6 Edw. I. 1278/ and diec{ 

1279 or 80.* 

• Nichols's Bowyer. 

RAY. 75 

RAT, or WRA^V (John), an eminieiit English natural 
philosopher, was the son of a black^muh at Black Notley^ 
l^ear Braintree, in E»Be:^ i^ud was born there Nov, 29tb, 
1628. He was bred, a schQla^r at Braintree school ; and 
sent thence, in 1644, to Catharine^hall in Cambridge* 
Here he continued about tv^o years, and then removed, 
for some reason or otb^r, to Trinity-college ; with which, 
says Derham, he was afterwi^rds muph pleased, because 
in CatharineTball they chiefly addicted themselves to dis* 
putations, while in Trinity the politer arts and sciences 
were principally cultivated. In Sept. 1649 he was chosen 
a minor fellow along with his ingenious friend Isaac Bar* 
row, and was chosen major fellow, when he bad completed 
bis master's degreie. The learned Duport, famous for his 
skill in Greek, who^ had been his tutor, used to say, that 
the chief of all his pupils, i^nd to whom he esteemed none 
of the rest comparable, were Mr. Ray and Dr. Barrow^ 
In 165 J, ]V^r. Ray was chosen the Greek lecturer of the 
jt^oU^ge ; in 1653, tbe mathematical lecturer; in 1655, 
humanity-readers which three appointments shew the re^ 
putation he bad acquired, in that early period of his life, for 
bis skill in languages, polite literature, and the sciences. 
After he had been of greater standing, he was chosen into 
the respective offices of the college, as prslector primarius, 
in 1657 ; junior dean in 1658 ; and twice college^steward, 
in 1659 and 1660r 

During his continuance in the university, be acquitted 
himself honourably as a tutor and a preacher; for, preach-* 
ing and common placing, ];>oth in the college and in the 
university*churcb, were then usually performed by per^ 
so|)s ^ not ordained. Dr. Tenison informed bis biogra-* 
prher that Mr. Ray was much celebrated in his time for 
his preaching solid and useful divinity, instead of that 
^thusiastic st$iff which the serpnons of that time were, 
generally BUed with. His favourite study, and what in-, 
deed made the chief business of his life, was the history of 
naturae, and the works of God : and in this he acquired 
very ejctensive knowledge. He published, in 1660, a 
** Catalogue of the Cambridge Plants,''. in order tp pro- 
mote tbe study of botany, which was then much neglected ; 
and tjne reception this work niet with encouraged him to * 
proceed farther in tbi^ study. He. no longer contented, 
himself with.whi^t .he met with about Cambridge, but ex-, 
(ended h}s pursuits throMghonit the greatest par( of £ngland. 

7« a A Y. 

and Wales, and part of Scotland. In' these j^rilejrs of 
ftimpling, tfaougti he sometimes H^ent alon^y yet he had 
comfnooiy the coin|i>any of *6tber oe^ious gientletaicfn, f I'atti-^ 
cularty Mr. Wittoughby^ bis p<ipilf Mr, (aftefwbrds sir) 
Philip Skippdn, and Mr. Petet Cburtfaope. ' At the xeBXh* 
ration of Che king^ be resolved upon' etiteHnj^ i^to-hisfly 
orders; and ^vas ordained by Sander^n^, bishop of Lin^ 
coin, December 23, 1«€0. He cOfrtina^ fello<iiFof TrinSty^ 
college, till the beginning of the BartfaoloMiew^ act-; whith^ 
requiring a subscription afgainst the solemn ledg^e and 
eovenam^ occasionod' him to resign his *feIlovrship, be re<i 
fusing tO'i»gn that declaration. His biographer informs uli 
that the reason of his refusal was not, as •some h^rt itiiagined^ 
his having taken the solemn league and covenant : " fo^ 
that he never did, and often declared that he ever thought^ 
k ah unlawful oath,- but he said he could not declare,- foif 
those that had taken the oath, that no obligation lay upoti 
tbe^n ; but feared there might." This explanation of Mr.- 
Ray'S conduct seems not very ^tisfaclory, btit 'it is all 
that we can noiv obtaVn, and it'is certain that he died in 
communion with the church of- England. 

Having now left his fellowship, and visited tnOst parts of 
his own eounti^y, liO'Was desirous of seeing what nature af- 
forded in foreign parts; and accordingly, in Apri^ 1663^; 
himself, with Mr. WiHoughby, Mr; Bkippoii, and-Mr. Na* 
thauael Bacon, went from Dover to CA)ais$ and thehde 
through divers par4s oiF Europe; ivhich, however, it is suf- 
ficient just to therition, as Mr. Kay himfself, ih 16?3r, pub^ 
lished the '* Observittioils" • they made in that tour. To- 
wards the end of their jottrney,Mf; WiHoughby and Mr. 
Ray separated; the former passing through Spain, ^tb^ 
latter from Montpelier through Prance, into Engkbd, 
where he arrived in March, 1665-6.. He pursued his phi- 
losophical studies with his -usXial iirdour, and becanse sd 
distinguished, that he wafe importuned to come into thd' 
roy?il society, and ^as admitted fcfllow the^reof in 1667.' 
ipeing theh solicited by dean (afterwards bishop) Wilklns^,- 
to translate his ** Real Character** into Latin, he consented ; 
and the original manuscript of that work, ready for th^ 
press, is still extant in the library of the royal society. 

Iti the spring of 16€9, Mr. Ray and Mr. Willougbby' 
entered upon those Experiments about the tdppifigs of 
trees, and the ascent and thid descent of their ssip, which 
are published in the Philosophical Transactions. About; 

BAY. If 


tb>9 time^ • Mr. Ray began to draw up his observatioDs for 
public use ; and one of the fiirst th^)gs he undertook was^ 
bis '^ Collection of £ngUsh Proverbs." This book, tbougb 
sent to Cambridge to be printed in 1669, yet was not pub* 
lished till 167.2. U was afterwards mucb^enlarged, and iif 
perhaps better known to the generality of bis countrymen^ 
than any otber of his Uteraryr labours. He also prepared 
his ^' Catalogue of English Plants'' for the. press, which 
came out in 1670: bis bumble thoughts of this and bis 
other book' (for he was a man of uncommon modesty) may 
be seen in a LaXia letter of his .to Dr. Uster, August 22^ 
1670. In the same letter, he also takes- notice of th^ 
alteiHii^ his namue^ . by. leaving out the W in the beginning 
of it ;: for,, till 1670, he. had always written his name JVray^ 
bi^t this beipgy he saysy contrary to the custom of his fore^. 
fathers, be therefore re-assumed the name of Ray. In the 
same letter, be mentions bis having had ap offer of 2QQL 
per ann«m with three young noblemen into foreign 
parts.; but this .proposal not being consistent with his in- 
firm state of body, he thought it prudent to decline it. 

In 1671 he was afflicted with ^ feverish xtisorder, wbigh 
terminated. in, the yellow, jaundice) but he^ was soon ci^red 
of it, and resumed his botanical pursuits. . The year after, 
his beloved friend Mr. Willoughby died,,. in bis 37th year,, 
at Middleton<>ball, hi^ seat in Yorkshire; ^Uo the, infiuit€^ 
and unspeakable loss and grie^" says Mr. Ray, ^^ofiny« 
self, his friends, and all good men." There having been 
the sincerest friendship between Mr. Willoughby and Mr. 
Ray, who >were men of similar dispositions and tastes, 
from the. time of their being fellow-collegians, Mr. Wil- 
loughby not only, confided in Mr. Jiay in his life*time^ but 
also at his death ;. for, he made him one of the executors 
of his will, and charged bim^witb the education of his sons, 
Francis and Thomas, leaving him also for life 60/, perann« 
The eldest of these young gentlemen not being four years 
of age^ Mr. Ray, as a faithful trui^tee, betook himself to 
the. instroction of them;. and for their use composed h\% 
^^ Nomenclator Classicus,'' which was published in 1672,; 
and is far more exact, especially in the natnes of natural 
objects, .than any that had previously appeared. Francis^ 
die eldest, dying before he was of age, the younger became 
lord Middleton. Not many mpnlhs after the death of Mr. 
Willoughby, Mr. Ray lost another of his best friends, bi- 
shop Wilkins ; whom he visited in London, November 1 8, 
1672, and found expiring. 

H tt A t. 

Mr. Ray having thiis lost some of his best fri^ndsy aA(l 
being in a manner left destitute, endeavoured to consolel 
himself With female society ; add in June, 1673, married si 
yoiiug lady, not half his ilge, beit^g only 20 years of age, th^ 
daughter of Mr. Oakeley, oif Launtoti in Oxfordshire. T6- 
*wards the end of this yesir came forth his '^ Observations^ 
Topographical, Moral, &c." made in fotefgh coiintri^s^ 
to which was added his ** Catalogus Stirpiiim in exteris re- 
gionibus observsltarum ;*' and, about the i^anOe time, hid 
** Collection of unusual or local English words,** which he 
bad gathered tip in his travels through the cbunties of 
England; In 1674, Mr. Oldenbutgh, the secretary of the 
Royal Society, renewed his correspondence with Mr. Ray, 
which had been some time intermitted, and sent him let* 
ters almost every month. Mr. Ray*s accounts in these tet-» 
ters were published by Oldenburgh in the PhilosophicaH 
Transactions. Oldenburgh had a farther \\t^ in his cor* 
tespondence with Mr. Ray ; it was to engage him with 
those leading members, who had agreed to entertain the 
society with a philosophical discourse at their meetings, sd 
that the burthen might not lie among too few of the mem- 
bers. Mr, Ray complied, and accordingly sent him *' A 
Discourse concerning Seeds, and the Specific Differences' 
of Plants ;'^ which, Oldenburgh tells him, was so well re- 
ceived by the president and fellows, that they returned 
bim their thanks^ and requested he would repeat his favours^ 
of that kind. 

This year, 1674, and part of the next, he spent in pte* 
paring Mr. Willoughby's " Observations about BiVds** fof 
the press; which, however, was not published till 1678.. 
These two gentlemen, finding the history of nature very 
imperfect, had agreed between themselves, before theii^ 
travels on the continent, to reduce the several tribes of 
nature to a method, and to give accurate descriptions of 
the several species from a strict survey of them : and, since 
Mr. Willoughby*s genius lay chiefly to animals, he under- 
took the birds, beasts, fishes, and insects, as Mr. Ray did 
the vegetables. Hovv they discharged each their province, 
the world has seqn in their works. Old lady Willougbby 
dying, and Mr. Wifloughby's sons being removed from 
under Mr. Ray's tuition, about 1676 he left Middletou- 
hall, and retired with his wife to Sutton Cofield, about 
fi^ur miles from Middleton. Some time after, he went itffor 
Essex, to Falborne-hall, where be continued till June 

R A V. 9» 

1677; aod then made i&notber reafiove to Blaick-Notley^ 
bis nativie place. 

. The first fruit of our author's leisune and retiretneaC 
bere^ was his <* Metbodus Plantarum Nova," published in 
1682,- making an octavo volume. His principles of ar- 
rangenfent are chiefly derived from the fruit. The reg^i- 
larrty and irregularity of flowers, which take the lead ifi 
the system of Rivinus, make no part of that of Ray. b i$» 
remarkable that he adopts the ancient primary division of 
plants, into trees, shrubs, and herbs, and that he blamed 
Ritinus for abolishing it, though his own prefatory remarktr 
tend to overset that principle, as a vulgar and casual one, 
unworthy of a philosopher: That his system was not merely 
a commodious artificial aid to practical botany, but a phi- 
k)sophical clue to the labyrinth of Nature, he probably, 
like his fellow-labourers, for many years, in this depart «^ 
m^it, believed ; yet be was too modest, and too learned, 
to think he had brought this new and arduous design to 
perfection ; for whatever he has incidentally or deliberately 
thrown out, respecting the value of his labours, is ofteik 
marked with more diflidence on the subject of classifica^^ 
tion, than any other. He first applied his system to ^rac-* 
tical use in a general *^ Historia P)antarum,'* of which %h& 
6ht Volume, a thick folio, was published in ^696, and tfaef 
second in 1687. The third volume of the same work^ 
which is supplementary, came out in 17Q4. This vast and 
critical compilation is still in use as a book of reference, 
being particularly valuable as an epitome of the contents 
of various rare and expensive works, which ordinary libra- 
ries cannot possess, such as the " Hortus Malabar icu's.'^ 
The description of species is faithful and instructive ; the 
remarks original, bounded only by the whole circuit of the 
botanical learning of that day ; uor are generic character? 
' neglected, however vaguely they are assumed. Specific 
differences do not enter regularly into the author's plan,' 
nor has he followed any uniform rules of nomenclature. 
So ample a transcript of the practical knowledge of sijch 
a botanist, cannot but be a treasure ; yet - it is now n^uch 
neglected, few persons being learned enough to use it 
with facility, for want of figures, and a popular nomeocla-* 
ture ; and those who are, seldpm requiring its assistance. 
A mere catalogue or index, like the works of Tournefort 
and Ca'spar Bauhin, which teach nothing of themselves, 
are of res^diertise. < The Species Plantarum of Linn^u« 

80 HAY* 

pnitiss tb0 adyatitnges of tbe clearest most coocise sj^ifid 
definition, and, by the help of Bauhin, of an .universal 
Ind^x. Nor. was Mr. Eay less mindful of Mr. Willougbby's 
coliections, where there were noble, though rude and iO;'t 
digested, materials ; but spent ipucb tiqie and pains in re^ 
ducing them to order, and fitting tbem for the press. Ha 
had published h\$ << Observations upon Birds'' in 1678 3 
a^nd, in 1685, be published his *^ History of Fisbes f ' and^ 
though these works were then tbe completest in their kinds^i 
yet they lost muqh of their perfection by the miscarriage 
of Mr. Willoughby's and Mr. Ray's papers in their travels^ 
They bad very accurately described all the birds, . fishes^ 
&c* which tbey saw as. they passed through Germany, 
especially those in and upon the Danube and the Rhine '^ 
l^ut lost their account$ in their return home.. This loss 
Mr, Ray laments in the philosophical letters above cited., 
, Though Mr. Ray's health began to be impaired by yeara 
and study, yet be ooptinued from time to time to give bia 
works, to tbe public. He published, in 1688, " Fasciculus 
Stirpium Britannicarum ;" and, in 1690, *< Synopsis Me-, 
tfaodica Stirpium Britannicarum." The leahied president 
of ifae Linna^an society observes, tbat if the fame or the 
utility of Ray's great botanical works has, neither of them, 
been commensurate with the expectations that might have 
i^een formed, this << Synopsis" amply supplied . all sucb 
defects, and proved tbe great corner stone of his reputation, 
ip this depaitmeat of science. The two editions of his^ 
alphabetical catalogue of English plants being sold oiFj^ 
and some pettifogging reasons of his bookseller's standing, 
in the way of a third, with any improvements, he^ re- 
modelled the work, tlirowing it into a systematic form, re- 
vising the whole, supplying generic characters, with nur 
inerous addiiions.of species,; and various emendations and; 
remarks. The uses and medicinal qualities of the plants, 
are removed to tbe alphabetical index at tbe end. A se-. 
cond. edition of this ^< Synopsis" was published in 1696,. 
nor did its author ever prepare i^nother. The third, now; 
most in use, was edited twenty^eigbt years afterwards by 
CULLENius. . Of all tiie systematiciiland practical Floras of. 
any country, the second edition of Ray's " Synopsis" ia, 
the most perfect tbat ever came under our observation. 
He examined every iplaot recorded in bis work, and even 
gathered most of them himself. He investigated their 
synonyms with consummate accuracy ^ and if t^e clearness 

HAY. 61 

and precision of other authors had equalled biS| he wduld 
scarcely have committed an error. It is difficult tp ftnd 
him in a mistake or misconception respecting Nature her- 
self, though be sometimes misapprehends the bad figures, 
or lame descriptions^ he was obliged to Consult Above a 
hundred -species are added, in this second edition, and the 
eryptogamic plants, in particular, are niore amply elucir 
dated. A controversial letter from Rivinus to Ray, and its 
answer, vrtth remarks upon Tournefort, are subjoined to 
this second edition. Much of the dispute' turns upon* the 
now obsolete distinction of plants, in a methodical system, 
into trees, shrubs, herbs, &c. The letters are well writ- 
ten, inXatin: and liberal, though perhaps hypercritical, 
in their. style. Ray took no delight in controversy. 

Having thiis published many books on subjects which he 
took to he somewhat foreign to his profession, be at length 
resolved to edify the world like a.divine. With this view be 
completed his Demonstration of the Being and Attributes 
of God, which he calls, " The Wisdom of God manrfested 
in the Works of the Creation.'* The rudiments of this 
work were laid in some college-lectures, iiead in tike 
chapel, and called commonplaces; which, having much 
enlarged, he published in 1691, 8vo. This book is. the 
basis of all the labours of following divines, who have made 
the book of nature a commentary on the book of revelation ; 
a confirmation of truths, which Nature has not authority, 
<of herself, tb establish. In it the author inculcates the 
doctrine of a constantly superintending Providence; as 
well as the advantage,, and even the duty, of contemplate 
ing the works of God. . This, he says, is part of the busi- 
ness of a sabbath-day, as it will be, probably, of our em- 
-ployment through that eternal rest, of which the sabbath 
is a type. He was next encouraged to publish another of 
a siftiiiar kind, whose foundation was also laid at Cam- 
bridge, in some sermons which he bad preached before 
ihe university. This was bis " Three Physico-Theological 
Discourses . concerning the Chaos, Deluge, and Dissolu- 
tion of the World," 1692, 8vo. Both these works have 
been often reprinted with large additions, and continued 
to be very popular books until within the last thirty, or 
folty years'. 

Soon after these theological pieces, his " Synopsis Me- 
thodica Animalium Quadrapeduni" was published in June 
.16£^3; and he then finished a <^ Synopsis of. Birds. and 

Vol. XXVI. G 

•2 RAY. 

Fishes,'* which was so long neglected by the bookseller^ 
that It was thought to have been destroyed ; but, after Mr. 
Ray's death, it was pablished by Mr. Derham in 1713b 
lie made a catalogae of Grecian, Syrian, Egyptian, and 
Cretan, plants, which was printed with RauwolfTs Travels 
in 1693 ; and, the year after, published his ** Sylioge 
Stirpiutn Europearutn extra Britaniiiacn." He had after- 
wards some little contests with Rivinns and Tournefort, 
concerning the method of plants, which occasioned him to 
review and amend his own method, and to draw it up in 
a completer form than he had used in his *^ Methodus 
Plantarum,^^ published in 1682, or in his *^ Historia P)an- 
tarum.'' He began now to be. grievously afflicted with a 
continual diarrhoea, and with very painful ulcers in bia 
legs, which ate deep into the flesh, and kept him waking 
whole nights : by which means he was so disabled, that, 
as he tells Dr. Tancred Robinson, in a letter of September 
30, 1698, he could not so much as walk into the neigh- 
bouring fields. He still, however, kept up to the last bis 
correspondence with his friends, in the vivacity and clear- 
ness of style which was natural to him. Latin and Engltsbf 
it is said, were equally ready to his pen. So indefatigable 
was he in the cultivation of the study of Nature, that within 
a year or two of his death, he began to collect his scattered 
notes for a work on insects, and actually drew up a ** M=e- 
thodus Insectorum,*^ which was printed, soon after his de- 
cease, in a little octavo of sixteen pages, and- republished 
in the front of his ^^ Historia Insectorum^" This last book, 
comprising, all his own and Mr. Willonghby*s descriptions 
of insects, came from the press in 1710, at the expence of 
^e Royal Society, and under the superintendance of Dr. 
Derham. It consists of 375 quarto pages, besides an ap- 
dendix of twenty-three more, on British Beetles, by Listen 
This work is a mass of accurate and authentic observation ; 
but, for want of plates, has never come into popular use. 

The study of insects was probably the last that engaged 
the attention of this great and wise man ; who, though on 
the verge of eternity, in the full possession of himself, and 
in the anticipation of the most glorious manifestations of 
bis Creator, did not disdain or neglect to contemplate him 
in his least and lowest works. His last letter to Dr. Der- 
ham, who had just been to visit him, is daltet) August 16, 
1704. He speaks of having lately obtained Mr. Willough- 
by^s entomological papei-s, and describes himself as thetL. 

RAY. 83 

catering on bis History of Insects. How well be employed 
bis time during the autumn, is evident from what we bave 
related concerning this work^ for he never saw another 
spring. He died at Black Notiey, in a house of bis own 
building, Jan. 17, 1705, in the 77th year of bis age. His 
character is thus concisely given by Derham : •* In bis 
dealings, no man more strictly just ; in his conversation, 
no ^man more humble, courteous, and affable; towards 
God, no man more devout; and towards the poor and 
distressed, no man more compassionate and charitable, 
according to his abilities." The friend who wrote this 
eulogium, in bis ** Life of Mr. Ray," asserts, that he was 
buried, according to his own desire, in the church of Black 
Notley ; but the authors of the Biographia Britannica are 
probably more correct, in saying, that he declined the 
i^ffer made him by the rector, of a place of interment in the 
chancel, choosing rather to repose with his ancestors, in 
the church-yard ; and this account is confirmed by the 
original situation of bis monument, erected at the expence, 
in part at least, of bishop Compton. The long and ele- 
gant Latin, epitaph has often been published. Its author 
was the rev. William Coyte, M. A., father of the late Dr. 
Coyte of Ipswich, and the original manuscript in possession 
of sir E. J. Smith, contains the information that Ray was in- 
terred in the church-yard. In 1737, the monument in 
question, which seems to bave been a sort of altar- tomb, 
being nearly ruined, was restored at the charge of Dr. 
Legge, and removed for shelter into the church ; where 
therefore it became a cenotaph^ as an inscription added on 
this occasion terms it. Forty-five years afterwards the 
tomb again underwent a repair, by the care of the present 
sir Thomas Gery Cullum and others, who subjoined a third 

A more lasting monument was dedicated to the memory 
of our great English naturalist, in the genus of plants 
which bears his name, the Raiaua. It must be lamented 
that he made, as far as we can learn, no collection of 
dried plants, which might serve to ascertain, in every case, 
what be described. The great Herbariums of Buddie, 
Uvedale, &c. still kept in the British Museum, are indeed 
supposed to supply, in a great measure, this defect ; they 
having been collected by persons who bad frequeut com- 
munication with Ray, and were well acquainted with bis 
. plants. Whatever he bad preserved relative to any bratnch 

O 2 

84 RAT. 

of natural history, be gave, a week before bis death, to 
his neighbour Mr. Samuel Dale, author of the ** Pharma- 
cologia/* Nothing is said of bis library, which was pro- 
bably inconsiderable. ^ 

RAYMOND (Robert) Lord, one of those many emi- 
nent men who have risen to the peerage from the profes- 
sion of the law, was the son of sir Thomas Raymond, a 
justice of the King^s Bench, and author of " Reports of 
divers special cases in the court of King*s-Bench, Common 
I^Ieas, and Exchequer, from 12 to 35 Car. II.'' first printed 
in 1696, and lastly in 1803, 8v6. His son was solicitor 
general to queen Anne, and attorney-general to George I. 
by whom he was appointed one of the commissioners of the 
great seal. He succeeded sir John Pratt as ch|ef justice of 
the court of King's-bencb, and was created baron Raymond 
of Abbot's Langley, Hertfordshire, in 1730. He died in 
1732, leaving one son, by whose death, in 1753, the title 
became extinct. 

His " Reports of Cases in the courts of King's-bench 
and Common Pleas, in the reigns of king William III. 
queen Anne, king George I. and George II." were first 
printed in 1743, and secondly in 1765, two volumes folio. 
The last and much-improved edition, with marginal notes 
and additional references by John Bayley, esq. serjeant at 
law, appeared in 1790, 3 vols. Svo. Lord Raymond's "Ru- 
brics," translated by Mr. serjeant Wilson, who edited the 
third edition of the ** Reports," in 1775, 3 vols, folio, were 
published separately in 1765, folio.* 

RAYNAL (William-Thomas), a French writer of con- 
siderable, but temporary celebrity, was born at St. Genies 
in the Rovergue, in 1713. He was educated among the 
Jesuits, and became one of their order. The learning of 
that society is universally known, as well as the happy ta- 
lents which its superiors possessed, of assigning to each 
member his proper employment. Raynal, after having 
acquired among them a taste for literature and science, and 
being ordained a priest, displayed such talents in the pul- 
pit, that his preaching attracted numerous audiences. His 
love of independence, however, induced him, in 1748, to 
iiissolve his connexion with the Jesuits, and to take up his 

^ Life by Derham. — ilso an elaborate one by the President of the Linasan 
jSociety in Rees'd CycVopsedia. 

. * Lord Orford's Roy«l and Noble Authori by Park. — Bridyman** I^egal Bibli* 

R A Y N A L. 85 


residence at Paris. Such is the account given by our prin- 
cipal authority; but^ according to the abbe Barruel, he 
was expelled the society for his impiety. With this cir- 
cumstance Barruel may be much better acquainted than 
we can be : but it seems probable that his impieties had not 
then reached much farther thati to call in question the su- 
preme authority of the church ; for Itaynal himself assures 
us, that he did not utter his atrocious declarations against 
Christianity till he had ceased to be a member of the order 
of Jesuits. He then associated himself with Voltaire^ 
D^Alembert, and Diderot, and was by them employed to 
furnish the theological articles for the *^ Encyclopedie.'* 
But though his religious opinions were certainly lax, he 
could not even then be what, in a Protestant country, 
would be deemed a man remarkable for impiety ; for he 
employed the abbe Yvon, whom Barruel calls an old meta- 
physician, but an inoffensive and upright man, to write 
the articles which he was engaged to furnish. In this 
transaction, indeed, he shewed that he possesised not a pro- 
per sense of bonour, for he paid poor Yvon with twenty- 
five louis d^ors for writing theological articles^ for which 
he received himself six times that suin ; and the trick 
being discovered, Raynal was disgraced, and compelled 
to pay up the balance to the abbe Yvon ; but though he 
had thus shewn himself to be without honour, it is diffi- 
cult to believe he had yet proceeded so far as blasphemy, 
of whi^h he has been accused, since he had employed 
a Christian divine to supply his place in the ^^ £ncyclo- 

After his settling at Paris, he appears to have become' an 
author by profession, as we do not find that he had any 
place or preferment. His first piece, published the same 
year in which he quitted the society of the Jesuits, was en- 
titled ^' Histoire du Stadhouderat.'^ He next published 
** Histoire du Parlement d'Angleterre,'' which gained him 
much reputation, though it had little claim to the title of 
history, and was tinged with many prejudices, religious 
• aiid political. He also composed " Anecdotes Literaires," 
in three volumes, 12mo;*and " Memoires de Ninon de 
I'Enclos ;" and was much employed in the ** Mercure 
de France." But the work upon which his fame is chiefly 
Jl>uilt, is his " Political and Philosophical History of the 
l!uropean Settlements in the East and West' Indies.'* 
That this history is written in an animated style, and that 

86 R A Y N A L. 

it contains many just reflections, both political and pbilo- ' 
sophical, is known to all Europe; for it lias been trans- 
lated into every European language. Its beauties, how- 
ever, are deformed by many sentiments that are irreligious, 
and by some that are impure. It was followed, about 1780, 
by a small tract, entitled " The Revolution of America,'* 
in which the author pleads the cause of the revolted colo- 
nists with a degree of zeal, censures the conduct of the 
British government with a keenness of asperity, and displays 
a knowledge of the principles and intrigues of thie different 
factions which at that period divided the English nation, 
that surely was not natural to the ioipartial pen of a philo- 
sophic foreigner. Hence he has been supposed to have 
been incited to the undertakinof, and to have been furnished 
with part of his materials, hy some persons who opposed 
the measures of the English government, and secretly fo- 
mented the American cause. Be this as it may, he pro- 
pagated, both in this tract and in his history, a number of 
licentious opinions respecting government and religion, of 
which he lived to regret the consequences. 

A prosecution was instituted against him by the French 
government, on apcount of his History of the East and 
West Indies; but it was conducted ^ith so little severity, 
that he had sufficient time to retire to the dominions of the 
1(ing of Prussia^ v^ho afforded him the protection iie so- 
licited, although his majesty^s character was treated by the 
author in his book with no great degree of veneration. 
Haynal also experienced the kindness of the empress of 
Russia; and it is not a little remarkable of this sins:ular 
personage, that although he was always severe in discussing 
the characters of princes, yet the most depotic among these 
heaped upon him many marks of favour and generosity. 
The abb6 also received a very unusual mark of respect from 
a British House of Commons. It was once intimated to 
the speaker, that tlaynal was a spectator in the gallery. 
The business was immediately suspended, and the stranger 
conducted to a more convenient and honourable station. 

The great trait of Raynal's .character was a love of li- 
berty, which, in his earlier writings, he did not properly 
define ; but when he lived to see some of the consequences 
of this, in the progress of the French revolution, he made 
one glorious effort to retrieve his errors. In the month of 
May 1791, he addressed to the constituent assembly one 
of the most eloquent, argumentative, and impressive letters 

R A Y N A L. 87 

that ever was written on any subject ; a letter which, if 
the majority of theoi had not been intoxicated with their 
newly-acquired consequence, inust have given some check 
to their mad career. 

One consequence of this letter was very singular. Those 
who could not answer it,* nor resist the conviction of its 
arguments, wreuked their vengeance on Raynal, by en- 
deavouring to prove that he did not write the celebrated 
History of the Indies; and this became the cant of the day. 
Tp illustrate this, we shall give the following extract of 9, 
letter from an English gentleman then in Paris, addressed 
to the editor of one of the London newspapers. 

*^ I am sorry to add,** says this gentleman, *^ that the 
reputation of the abb£ Raynal in Paris, where he is per- 
sonally known, is very different from what he enjoys in 
London, where he is only known. as an author. That Phi- 
losophical history which you ascribe to him, is really, in 
no proper sense, his work ; but was produced by a com- 
bination of the labours of several ingenious men, among 
whom I am inclined to thiqk, he contributed the smallest 
part. We might indeed give him some credit for lending 
his name to a book, which contained so many bold truths, 
which it was then dangerous to publish ; but even here, 
there is need of caution; for under the ancient system, 
deceit and fraud were carried to such a pitch of refine- 
ment, that it was not uncommon for men of letters to con- 
cert stratagems with ministers, to. get themselves put into 
the Bastile, to raise their reputation, and to make their 
fortune in the world. Whatever be in this, you may as- 
cribe the history of the European settlements to Perrijeat 
la Roque, Dubreuil, Diderot, Nargion, or Holbach, who 
were all concerned, as well as the abbe Raynal.*' 
• This letter was written by Mr. Thomas Christie, who 
wrote a volume some time after on the French revolution ; 
but when our readers consider that he was then intoxicated 
,with the fallapious prospects of that revolution, and that 
this accusation against the abb6 RayOal was not produced 
iuntil he had written again^iit the proceedings of. the assem- 
bly, they will easily be able to appreciate the information 
that he was not the author of the celebrated history. 

A History of the Divorce of Catherine by Henry VIIL 
and a History of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantz, and 
some other works, are attributed to Raynal, but are little 
known. He escaped the general danger, during the reign 

8^ R A Y N A L. 

df BxAtspietrei but was stripped of his property, arid died' 
in poverty^ March 6, 1T96, at thfe advanced age of eighty • 
foiir. Such was his distress at this time, that there was only 
found in bis possession an assignment of fifty livres, which 
iVas worth no more than about five sous. When he had 
money be was liberal to profuseness, and delighted in those 
expences that would add to his fame. He raised in the 
island of Ardstatt, ne^r Lucerne, a monument to the 
founders of Helvetian liberty. He gave annuities of 1200 
livres each to five principal learned societies in France, to 
be bei9towed in prizes. ^ 

RAYNAUD (Theophilus), a celebrated Jesuit, was 
bom in 1583, at Sospelio, in the county of Nice. He resided 
almost wholly in France ;- and though his singular opinions, 
joined to a temper naturally morose and satirical, involved 
him in many disputes with his society, he would not quit 
it. He died at Lyons, October 31, 1663, aged eighty, and 
the Carmelites paid him funeral honours in all theif convents 
on account of the book he had written on the Scapulary. 
A complete collection of hi9 works was printed at Lyons, 
in 16€5, 20 vols. fol. Tom. XX is not numbered so, but 
entitled '^Apopompecus,'* 1669, and falsely marked Cracow; 
it contains those works which father Raynaud did not choose 
to own. They discover uncommon learning and extent of 
reading ; but as almost all the subjects he has chosen are 
singular, and treated in a singular and extravagant manner, 
his books sold slowly at first, and Boissat, who printed 
them, was ruined, and died iu an hospital. Most of his 
works bad been published separately, and their author suf- 
fered the mortification of seeing some of them put into the 
Index. Two of the best and most remarkable among them 
are, -^^ Erotema de bonis et malis Libris,'' i. e. Questions 
concerning good and bad books ; and ^' Symbola Antoniana/' 
Rome, 1648, 8vo, relative to St. Anthony's fire.*' 

RAYNERIUS, a learned Dominican, born at Pisa, was 
appointed vice-chancellor of the Roman church, and bishop 
of Maguelone. He died January 13, 1649, leaving several 
works: the most considerable of which is a theological 
dictionary, entitled '^ Pantheologia ;" in which he has ar^ 
ranged the theological subjects in alphabetical order. The 
best edition of this work is, Lyons^ 1655, 3 vols. fol. with 

} t>ict. Hist.— Greig'8 SupplemeDt to the Eiicycl. Britan. 
' DopiD.— Gen. Dict.--NiceroD| yol. XXV |. 

JR.A Z Z I. S9 

the addidoos by father Nicolai, a Dominican : it was re* 
printed in 1670.^ 

RAZZI (GiANTONio, called II Soddoma), was born at 
Veecelli, in Piedmont* in 1479, and became a citizen of 
Siena. The warm tone of his coloar, the masses of his 
cUaroscaro, and other traces of the Milanese school in his 
works^ seem to con&rm the tradition as to the place of his 
fairth. The frescoes which he painted in the Vatican, un«* 
der the pontificate of Julius II. were by order of that pope 
deoMdished, to make room for those of Raphael. €ertain 
other pictures, Vepresenting deeds of Alexander the Great, 
fltill remain in the palace Chigi, now called the Farnesiuar: 
with much of the chiaroscuro, though not of the dignity 
and grace, of Lionardo da Vinci, they are remarkable for 
beauties of perspective and playful imagery. 

His most vigorous works, however, are at Siena. In the 
Epiphany at 8. Agostino, we recognize the principles of 
Vinci ; the style of the Cfafist under Flagellation in the 
cloister of S. Francesco has been compared to that of Mi- 
chelangiolo ; his S. Sebastian, now in the Ducal gallery, 
has the air of an antique torso, and the S. Csftherina oiF 
Siena, at S. Domenica, possesses Raphael's beauties of 
expression. He often, indeed, painted merely for dis- 
patch, and without previous study, when, already advanced 
in age, he solicited work at Pisa, Volterra, and Lucca; 
but in all his works we trace the master^hand, which in spite 
of negligence performs with power. He died in li54.* 

- READING (John), an English divine, was a native of 
Buckinghamshire, where he was born in 1588. He was 
admitted a student of Magdalen-hali, Oxford, in 1604. He 
took his degree of M. A. in 16 10, and then entered himself 
a commoner of Alban-ball. In 1612 be was ordained dea«> 
con, and in 1614 priest, by the bishop of Oxford. About 
this time he became chaplain to Edward lord Zouch of Ha- 
ringwortb, warden of the cinque ports, and governor of Do» 
-ver-castle. Having accompanied this nobleman to Dover, 
bis preaching was so much admired, that at the request of 
the parishioners hq was made minister of St. Mary's, in 
December 1616. He was afterwards appointed chaplain 
in ordinary to Charles I. He was one of those doctrinal 
paritans, who opposed, as much as any churchman of op^ 
posite religious sentiments, the violent proceedings of the 

* Caye, toU II.-^Moreri. s Pilkingtoo by Faseli.— Saxi) Ooomait. 


authors of the rebellion, and had exposed them so frequently 
in his sermons* that he was soon marked out for veogeance. 
Ill April 1642/ his library af'Dover was plundered, and in 
November following be was dragged from his house by the 
soldiers, and imprisoned for a year and seven months. In 
January of the above mentioned year, archbishop Laud, 
then a prisoner in the Tower, had, at his majesty^s request, 
bestowed on him the living of Chartham in Kent;. but from 
that the usurping party took care he should receive no ad* 
vantage. He was also with as little effect made a preben* , 
dary of Canterbury. In J 644, however, sir William Brock- 
man gave him the living of Cfaeriton in Kent, which be was. 
not only allowed to keep, but was likewise appointed by 
the assembly of divines, to be one of ifae nine divines who 
were to write annotations on the New Testament for the 
work afterwards published, and known by the title of the 
" Assembly's Annotations." 

His sufferings, houever, were not yet at an end ; for 
soon after this apparent favour, upon a, sus^picion that he 
was concerned in a plot for the seizing of Dover-castle, he 
was apprehended and carried to Leeds-castle, where he 
was imprisoned for some time. In March 1650, he held a 
public disputation in Folkstone church with Fisher, au 
anabaptist, who argued against the necessity of ordination, 
and quoted as his authority some passage in bishop Taylor^s 
** Discourse of the liberty of Prophesying," which obliged 
Mr. Reading to write a tract on the subject. On the resto- 
ration, when Charles 11. landed at Dover, Mr. Rieading was 
deputed by the corporation to address his majesty, and 
present him. with a large Bible with gold clasps, in their 
name. He was now replaced in the prebend of Canterbury 
and the living of Chartham. Here be died Oct. 26, 1667> 
and was buried in the chancel of the church. 

He published several occasional sermons from 1623 to 
1663 ; and 1. '^ Brief instructions concerning the holy Sa* 
crament," Lond. 1645, 8vo. 2. "A guide to the holy 
City," Oxon. 1651, 4to. 3* "An antidote tt> Aiiabap* 
tism," 1654, 4to. It was in this he animadverted on tho^ 
}!>assages of bisbop Taylor's f^ Discourse/' which seemed 
to favour irregular preaching. 4.." An Evening Sacrifice, 
or Prayers for a family in these times of. calamity." 5. 
'< Speech made before king Charles II. on the shore, when 
be landed at Dover/* &c. 1660, single sheet, with verses. . 
Mn Reading left several manuscripts, partly in the hands 

RE A U M U R.' 91 

of Bisil Kennet, whence they passed to his sen, White 

REA-L. See St. REAL. 
•REAUMUR (Rene' Anthovy Farchault, Sjeur de), 
at! eminent FVench naturalist, was born at RocheHe in 1683. 
He fearned grammar at the place of his birth, and studied 
philosophy at the Jesuits college at Poitiers. In 1699 he 
i^ent from thence to Bourges, at the invitation of an uncle, 
where he studied the civil law. In 1703, he went to Paris, 
and applied himself wholly to the matheitiatics and natural 
philosophy; and in 170S, %being then oniy twenty-four 
years old, he was chosen a member of the Royal Academy 
of Sciences; and durin<j that and the following year, he 
described a general method of finding and ascertaining all 
curves described by the extremity of d right line, thie other 
end of which is moved round a given curve, and by lines 
which fall upon a given curved under a certain angle greater 
or less than a right angle. 

These are the only geometrical performances that he 
produced. In the year 1710 he read his observations upon 
the formation of shells, in which he proved that they grow 
not like the other parts of the animal body, by expansion, 
but by the external addition e^f new parts : he also assigned 
the cause of the variety of colour, figure, and magnitude 
which distinguishes one shell from another. Duruig the 
experiments which this inquiry led him to make nfjon the 
snails, he discovered a very singular insect which lives not 
only upon these animals, but burrows in their bodies, a 
situation' which he never leaves unless he is. forced out of 
it' by the snail. This inquiry also gave, occasion to M. 
Reaumur to account for the progressive motion of testace** 
ous animals of different kinds, and to describe and explam 
an almost endless variety of organs which the author of na- 
ture has adapted to that purpose. He produced also the 
same jear the natural histor)^ of cobwebs. M. Bon, the 
first president of the chamber of accounts at Montpellier, 
bad shewn that cobwebs might be spun into a kind of silk, 
which might be applied to useful purposes; but it was still 
necessary to determine whether spiders could be bred in 
sufficient numbers, without an expence too great for the 
undertaking to bear; and Reaumur soon found that M. 
Bon*s discovery was a mere matter of curiosity, and that the 
commercial world could derive no advantage from cobwebs, 

1 Atb. Ox. Yol. ir.— Walker'd Sufferings of the Clergy.-— Kennel's MSS. i«. 
SriL Mus. 


It had been long known, that marine animals adhere to 
solid bodies of various kinds, either by an attachment which 
continues during their existence, or which they can deter- 
mine at pleasure; but how this attachment was formed^ 
remained a secret, till it was discovered by Reaumur, to 
If hose inquiries we are indebted for our knowledge of many 
organs and materials adapted to that purpose,before unknown* 
In the course of this inquiry, M. Reaumur discovered a fish 
different from that which furnished the ancients with their 
Tyrian dye, but which has the same property in a yet 
greater degree : upon the sid^ of this fish there are small 
grains, like those of a hard roe, which being broken, yield 
first a fine full yellow colour, that upon being exposed for a 
few minutes to the air, becomes a beautiful purple. 

About the same time Reaumur made a great variety of 
experiments to discover whether the strength of a cord was 
greater or less than the sum of the strength of the threads 
of which it consists. It was generally believed that the 
strength of the cord was greater, but Reaumur^s experi* 
ments proved it to be less; whence it necessarily follows, 
that the less a cord differs from an assemblage of parallel 
threads, i. e. the less it is twisted, the stronger it is^. 

It had been long asserted by those who lived on the sea 
coast, or the banks of great rivers, that when craw-fish, 
crabs, and lobsters, happen to lose a claw, nature produces 
another in its stead : this, however, was disbelieved by all 
but the vulgar, till Reaumur put the matter out of dispute, 
and traced the re-production through all its circumstances, 
which are even more singular than the thing itself. M. 
Reaumur also, after many experiments made with the torpe* 
dp, or numb-fish, discovered that its effect was not produced 
by an emission of torporific particles, as some have sup- 
posed, but by the great quickness of a stroke given by this 
fish to the limb that touches it, by muscles of a most admi- 
rable structure, which are adapted to that purpose. These 
discoveries, however, are chiefly matters of curiosity; those 
which follow are of use. 

It had loog been a received opinion, that Turquoise 
stones were found only in Persia ; but Reaumur discovered 
mines of them in Languedoc ; he ascertained the degree 
of heat necessary to give them their colour, and the pro« 

* That mode of unitiog Tarious threads into a cord, is andoubtedly the best 
which causes the tensions of the threads to be equal in whatever direction the 
eord is strained. 


per form and dimension of the furnace ; he proved also 
that the Turquoise is no more than a fossil bone petrified, 
coloured by a metallic solution which fire causes to spread ; 
and that the Turquoises of France are at least eqdal in 
beauty and size to those of the East. He also discovered 
the secret of making artificial pearls, and of the substancie 
necessary to give them their colour, which is taken from a 
little fish called able, or ablette. He drew up, at the same 
time, a dissertation upon the true pearl, which he i^upposed 
to be a morbid concretion in the body of the animal. 

Reaumur soon after published the History of the Aurife- 
rous rivers of France, in which he has given a very particu- 
lar account of the manner of separating the grains of gold 
from the sand with which it is mixed. Among other me- 
moirs he drew up the following: 1. Concerning the vast 
bank of fossil shells, which, inTouraine, is dug for manure 
called Falun : 2. Upon flints, proving that they are only 
more penetrated by a stony juice; or, if the expression 
qiay be allowed, more stonified than other stones, though 
less than rock crystal. 3. Upon the Nostoch, a singular 
plant, which appears only after hard rains in the summer, 
under a gelatinous form, and soon after disappears. 4. 
Upon the light of Dails, a kind of shell fish, which shines 
in the dark, but loses its lustre as it grows stale. 5, Upon 
the facility with which iron and steel become magnetic by 

In 1722, he published a work under the title of '*Tbe 
art of converting Iron into Steel, and of rendering cast Iron 
ductile.*^ The use of iron is well known under the three 
forms of cast iron, forged or bar iron, and steel : iroti in 
the first state is susceptible of fusion, but it is brittle and 
hard, and can neither be forged by the hammer, nor cut 
by the chissel : in the second state it is malleable, and may 
be both filed and cut, but it is no longer fusible without 
the addition of a foreign substance : in the third it acquires 
a very singular property of becoming hard and brittle, if 
after it has been made red hot it is dipped into cold water : 
the extreme brittleness of cast iron makes it unfit for the 
construction of any thing that is required to be either sup- 
pie or elastic, and still more for any thing upon ' which it 
will be necessary to employ a tool of any kind after it comes 
out of the font, for no tool can touch it. On the other 
hand, the manner of converting forged, or bar-iro») into 
steel, was tbctn wholly unknown in France. ^;'Jt, Rcqiumur 


hayifig^ in the course of other inquiries, found thai §tecl 
ditfereJ from iron only in having more sulphur and more 
salt in its jcomposition, undertook to discover the cnetbod 
of giving to iron what was wanting to make it steel, and at 
length perfectly succeeded, so as to make steel of what 
quality he plea^^d. 

1 The, same experiments which convipced Reaumur thj^t 
steel differed from iron only in having more sulphur and 
salt, convinced him also that cast iron differed from forged 
iron, only by having still mare sulphur and salt than steel ; 
it was steel with an excess of its specific difference from 
forged iron.: he therefore set himself to take away this ex- 
cess,, and he succeeded so as to produce a great variety of 
utensils in cast iron, which were as easily wrought as forged 
iron, apd did not cost half the moDey. However, a ma- 
nufactory set on foot in France for renderii>g cast iron suf- 
ficiently ductile to be forged and wrought, lyas, after some 
tkne, discontinued. For discovering the secret of convert- 
ing iron into steel, the duke of Orleans, being then regent, 
settled a pension upon Reaumur of 12,000 livres a year, 
and, at his request, it was settled upon the academy after 
bis death, to be applied for defraying the expences of fu- 
ture attempts to improve the arts. 

M. de Reaumur also discovered the secret of tinning 
plates of iron, as it was practised in Germany; and bis 
countrymen, instructed in that useful manufacture, np 
longer imported them from abroad. . He has likewise the 
credit of having invented the art of making porcelain. A 
few simple observations upon fragments of glass, porcelain, 
and pottery, convinced him that cbina was nothing more 
than a demi-vitrification ; now a demi-vitrification may be 
obtained either by exposing a vitrifia,ble matter to the ac- 
tion of fire, and withdrawing it before it is perfectly vitri* 
fied, or by making a paste of two substances, one of whiclr 
is vitrifiable, and the other not : It was therefore very easy 
to discover by which of these methods ibe porcelain of 
China was made ; nothing more \yas nepessary than to.urge 
it with a strong fire : if it consisted wholly of a vitrifiable 
matter half vitrified, it would be converted into glass; if 
of two substances, />ne of which was not vitrifiable, it would 
come out of the furnace the same as it went in : this expe*^ 
riment being made, the China porcelain suffered no altera- 
tion, but all the European porcelain was changed intp 



But wbein the China porcelain was thus discovered to 
consist of two distinct substancesi it was farther necessary 
to discover what they were, and whether France produced 
them.' M. Reaumur accomplished these dtMerata^ and 
bad the satisfaction to find that the materials for making 
China porcelain were to be had in France, in the same 
abundance, and iti greater perfection, than in India. Reau- 
mur also contrived a new species of porcelain, consisting 
only of glass, annealed a second time, with certain easy 
precautions, which, though less beautiful than other porce* 
lain, is yet a useful discovery, considering ttie great fa- 
cility and little expence with wl\ich it is made. 

M. Reaumur was the first that reduced thermometers to 
a common standard, so as that the cold indicated by a ther- 
mometer in one place, might be compared with the cold 
indicated by a thermometer in another; in other words, he 
prescribed rules by which two thermometers might be con- 
structed that would exactly coincide with each other through 
all the changes of heat and cold : he fixed the middle term, 
or zero, of bis division of the tube, at the point to which 
the liquor rises when the bulb is plunged in water that i» 
beginning to freeze ; he prescribed a method of regulating 
the divisions in proportion to the quantity of liquor, and 
not by the aliquot parts of the length of the tube ; and he 
directed how spirits of wine might be reduced to one cer- 
tain degree of dilatability. Thermometers . constructed 
upon these principles were called after his name, and soon 
took place of all others. 

Reaumur also invented the art of preserving eggs, and 
of hatching them ; this art had been long known and prac- 
tised in Egypt, but to the rest of the world was an impene- 
trable secret : he found out and described many ways of 
producing an artificial warmth in which chickens might be 
hatched, and some by the application of fires used for other 
purposes; he shewed how chickens might be hatched in a 
<tuttghill, he invented long cages in which the callow brood 
were preserved in their first state, with fur cases to creep 
nnder instead of the hen, and he prescribed proper food 
for them of things every where to be procured in great 
plenty. He found also that eggs might be kept fresh and 
£t for incubation many years, by washing them with a var- 
nish of oil, grease, or any other substance, that would ef- 
fectually stop the pores of the shell, and prevent the con- 
tents from evaporating ; by this contrivance e^gs may not 

96 R E A U M U H. 

only be preserved for eating or batching in tbe botett cli- 
mates, but the eggs of birds of every kind may be trans* 
ported from one climate to another, and the breed of those 
that could not survive a long voyage^ propagated in the 
most distant part of the world. 

While he was employed in these difScoTeries, he was 
gradually proceeding in another work, the *' History of 
Insects," tbe first volume of which he. published in 1734. 
This volume contains the history of caterpillars, which he 
divides into seven classes, each of a distinct kind and cha- 
racter: he describes the manner in which they subsist, a& 
well under the form of caterpillars as in the chrysalis; the 
several changes which they undergo ; the manner of taking 
Ibod, and of spinning their webs. The second volume, 
which was published in 1736, is a continuation of the same 
subject, and describes caterpillars in their third state, that 
of butterflies, with all the curious particulars relating ta 
iheir figure and colour, the beautiful dust with which they 
are powdered, their coupling, and laying their eggs, which 
tbe wisdom of Providence has, by an invariable instinct, di- 
rected them to do, where their young may most conveni- 
ently find shelter and food. The third volume contains the 
history of moths, not only of those wbieh are so pernicious 
to clothes and furniture, hot those which live among the 
leaves of trees, and in the water ; the first is perhaps the 
most useful, because. Reaumur has given directions how 
the cloth-moth may be certainly destroyed; but the second 
abounds with particulars that are not only curious, but won- 
derful in the highest degree. This volume also contains 
the history of the vine-fretter, an intect not less destruc- 
tive to our gardens than the moth to our furniture, with an 
account of the worm that devours them, and the galls pro- 
duced upon trees by tbe puncture of some insect, which 
often serve them for habitations. 

From the gall, or gall-nut, properly so called, Reaumur 
proceeds, in his fourth volume, to the! history of those pro- 
tuberances which, though galls in appearance, are really 
insects, but condemned by nature to remain forever fixed 
and unmoveable upon the branches of trees ; and he dis- 
closes the astonishing mystery of their multiplication. He 
then proceeds to give an account of flies with twd wings, 
and of the worms in which they pass the first part of their 
, lives ; this article includes the very singukir history of the 
gnat. The fifth volume treats of four-winged fiiies^ and 



among others of the bee, concerning which he refutes many 
groundless opinions, and establishes others not less extra- 

The bee is not the only fly that makes honey, many spe- 
i:\en of the same genus live separate, or in little societies. 
The history of these begins the sixth and last volume^ and 
contains a description of the recesses in which they deposit 
and secure their eggs, .with proper nourishment for the 
worms they produce till their transformation. The author 
then proceeds to the history of wasps, as well those who 
live separate, as in companies, to that of the lion-pismire, 
the hofse-stinger, and lastly, to the fly called an epheme* 
ron, a very singular insect, which, after having lived in 
the water three years as a fish, lives as a fly only one day, 
during which it suffers its metamorphosis, couples, lays its 
eggs, and leaves its dead carcass upon the surface of the 
wat^r which it had inhabited. To this volume there is a 
preface, containing the discovery of the polype, an animal 
that multiplies without coupling, that moves with equal fa- 
cility upon its back or its beliy, and each part of which, 
when it is divided, becomes a complete animal, a property 
then thought singular, but since found to be possessed by 
several other animals. 

It had long been a question amongst anatomists, whether 
digestion is performed by solution or trituration : M. de 
Reaumiir, by dissecting a great number of birds of different 
kinds, and by many singular experiments, discovered that 
the digestion of carnivorous birds is performed by solution, 
without any action of the stomach itself upon the aliments 
received on it ; and that, on the contrary, the digestion of 
granivorous birds is effected wholly by grinding or tritura- 
tion, which is performed with a force sufficient to break 
the hardest subf tances. 

M. de Reaumur, during the course of his experiments 
upon birds, remarked the amazing art with which the seve- 
ral species of these animals build their nests. His obser- 
vations on this subject he communicated to the French aca« 
demy in 1756, and this memoir was the last he exhibited. 
He died by a hurt in his head, received from a fall at Ber- 
mondiere in the Maine, upon an estate that bad been left 
him by a friend, on the 17th of October, 1 756, aged seventy- 
five yi^rs. 

He was a man of great ingenuity and learning, of the 

Vol. XXVI. H 

9S ft E A U M U R. 

strictest integrity and honour, the warmest benevolence^ 
and the n>ost extensive liberality.' 

REBOULET (Simon), a native of Avignon, and ex* 
Jesuit, was an advocate, but compelled to quit his profes- 
sion for want of health. He died in 1752. Reboulet wrote 
the " Memoires de Forbin," 2 vols. 1 2mo, and the " Hist, 
de rEnfance," 2 vols, compiled from memoirs with which 
the Jesuits furnished him, of whom he was too servile a 
flatterer to express any doubt concerning what they related. 
This work, however, was burnt as calumnious and defama- 
tory, by a sentence of the parliament of Toulouse. His 
other works are, " A History of Pope Clement XL'* in 2 
smalt volumes, 4to, which the king of Sardinia suppressed; 
as his father did not love the Jesuits, and could not there* 
fore be a great man in the opinion of Reboulet. A *^ His- 
tory of Louis XIV." 3 vols. 4to, or 9 vols. 12mo, his best 
work, is tolerably accurate as to facts, but the narration is 

RECORDE (Robert), a learned physician and mathe- 
matician, was born of a good family in Wales, and flou- 
rished in the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., and Mary. 
There is no account of the exact time of his birth, thoagh 
it must have been early in the sixteenth century, as he was 
entered of the university of Oxford about 1525, where he 
was elected fellow of All Souls college in 1531, being then 
B. A. ; but Wood is doubtful as to the degree of master. 
Making physic his profession, he went to Cambridge^ where 
he was honoured with the degree of doctor in that faculty, 
in 1545, and highly esteemed by all that knew him for his 
great knowledge in several arts and sciences. He after- 
wards returned to Oxford, where, as he had done before 
he went to Cambridge, he publicly taught arithmetic, and 
other branches of the mathematics, with great applause.' 
It seems he afterwards repaired to London, and it has been 
said he was physician to Edward VI. and Mary, to which 
princes he dedicates some of his books ; and yet he endcfd 
his days in the King's Bench prison, Southwark, where fie 
was confined for debt, in 1558, at a very immature age. 
Pits gives him a very high character, as excelling in every 
branchof knowledge, philosophy, polite literature, astror- 
nomy, natural history, &c. &c. And Tanner observes that 
he had a knowledge of the Saxon language, as appears from 

* Diet. Hist— Ann. Register for 1763.— Hutton*» DifitioRarjr. 
3 L'AVocat Diet. Hi<t. 

R E C O R D E. 99 

•his marginal notes on Alexander Essebiens, a MS; in Cor«» 
pus Chr^sti college, Cambridge. 

Recorde published several mathematical books, which 
are mostly in dialogue, between the master and scholar. 
:Tbey are as follow : 1. '^ The Pathway to Knowledge, con- 
taining the first principles of Geometrie, as they may moste 
aptly be applied unto practise, bothe for use of Instrumentes 
Geometriqall and Astronomicetill, and also for projection of 
vPlattes much necessary for all sortes of men,'* Lond. 1551 
and 1574,,4to. 2. "The Ground of Arts, teaching the 
.perfect worke and practice of Arithmeticke, both in whole 
numbers and fractions, after a more easie and exact forme former time hath beene set forth," 1549, 1558, 1561, 
and ^571,. 8vo. — This work went through many other edi- 
tion^i and was corrected and augmented by several other 
perspns ; as first by the famous Dr. John Dee ; then by 
John Mellis, a schoolmaster, 1590 and 161$; next by Ro- 
rbert . Norton ; then by Robert Hartwell, practitioner in 
jnathematics, in I^onjion ; and lastly, by R. C. and printed 
in 8yo, 1623. In the ^^ Archeologia," voL XIII. may be 
seen a specimen of the author's method of illustrating an ' 
eicample, which exhibits a strange jumble of Arabic and 
Roman notation. The former was not much in use in his 
days. 3. " The Castle of Knowledge^ containing the Ex- 
plication of the Sphere bothe Celestiall and Materiall, and 
divers other things incident thereto. With sundry pleasaunt 
proofes and ce:rtaine newe demonstrations not written before 
in any vulgare wporkes," Lond. 1 55 l,.4to, 1556, fol. and 1596, 
4to. 4. ** The Whetstone of Witte, which is the seconde 
part of Arithmetike; : containing the extraction of Rootes ; 
the Cossike practise, with the rules of Equation : and th^ 
woorkes of Surde Nombers," Lond. 1557, 4to. — An analy- 
sis of this work on Algebra, with an account of what is 
new in it, is given in Dr. Button's Dictionary, art, Algebra. 
5. ** The Urinal of Physic, and the Judicial of Urines,'* 
4to, 1548, 1567, 1674, 1582, and 1651, the two last in 8vo. 
Bale and Pits mention some writings of his on the eucharist, 
auricular confession, the image of a true commonwealth, 
&c. He* also collated the first and third editions of Fa- 
1)ian's Chronicle, translated Euclid, and undertook the an- 
.cient description of England and Ireland^ but we know not 
that these were published. 

Sherburne says that he published ^' Cosmographise Isago- 
gen }" also that be wrote a book, << De Arte faciendi Horo.- 

H 2 

100 R E D I. 

logium ;** and another^ << De Usu Globomm, k 6e Sutii 

ItEDI (FiiAKCis)i an ancient Italian scholar «nd pbysi^ 
cian, was born of a noble fiunily at Aresszo, in 162€. He 
studied at Padua, where betook the degree of doct<Ar in 
philosophy and physic : and very soon afterwards rendered 
himself so conspicuous by his talents and acquirements in 
these sciences, that he was appointed first physician to the 
grand dukes Ferdinand II. and Cosmo III. At this tim# 
the academy del Cimetito was occupied in a series of phi- 
losophical experiments which gave full scope and employ- 
ment toUedi's genius; and at the desire of his noble pa- 
tron, he undertook the investigation of the salts which are 
obtainable from different vegetables. With what success 
these experiments were conducted, may be seen by refer- 
ring to his works. His principal attention, however, was 
directed to two more impdrtiint subjects : viz. the poison of 
the viper, and the generation and properties of insects. In 
the first of these inquiries he shewed the surprising differ- 
ence there is between swallowing ^he viperine poison, and 
having it applied to the surface of the body by .a wound. 
He also proved that, contrary to the assertion of Charas^ 
the virulence of the poison does not depend upon the rage 
or exasperation of the animal, since the poison collected 
from a viper killed without being previously irritated, and 
dropped into a wound produces the same fatal effects, as 
that which is infused into a wound made by the animal 
when purposely* teazed until it bites. On the subject of 
insects, he refuted the doctrine, maintained by all the an- 
cients and by many moderns, of putrefaction being the 
cause of their generation ; a doctrine which had, indeed, 
been attacked some years before by an Italian author named 
Aromatari, but not with that weight of facts and force of 
argument which are so conspicuous in this treatise and the 
rest of Redi^s writings. His observations on various natural 

}>roductions brought from the Indies, and on animals that 
ive within other living animals, ** osservazioni intorno agli 
animali viventi che si trovano negli animali viventi,^' exhibit 
many curious experiments and discoveries. But while he 
was thus engaged in philosophical pursuits, he did not ne- 
glect the duties of his profession, as a physician. His let^ 

> Tanner. — ^Baltt and Pitt.— Alb. Ox. vol. I. aev edit. — Eutton't Dictionary*, 
w-£Uii'8 edition of Fabian, ISlK-^Aikin'fBiOgraphtcal Mvm^irs of ^^•(iiciDt^-^- 
^ller'i Wortbiet. 

n EJ) I. loi 

ters contain numerous histories of diseases, iind of. their 
treatment'; for he kept a register of all remsirkable caseH 
Und consultations. He was particularly cjiligeot in noticing 
the operation of remedies, and in many disorders enjpinei 
a very abstemious diet. Redi^s merits, however, were npl 
confined to philosophy and medicine. He was alao an ex* 
cellent philologist and an elegant poet, . His '^ Bacco i^ 
Toscana^^ has lately been edited by Mn^Mathias. jiW hit 
writings possess the attraction of«a pure and polished style j 
and the Ac&demy della Crusca justlv regarded him as on« 
of the best authorities, in the composition of their celebrated 
Pictionary. This indefatigable philosopher. and amiable 
man died at Pisa in 16.98; having previously suffered. much 
from epileptic attacks^ After his death, a tnedal was slrack 
in honour of bis name, by order of Cosmo. III. His work* 
have gone through various editions ; but that which wag 
printed at Naples in 7 vols. 4to, is esteemed the best^ 

REDMAN, or REDMAYNE (JoH^), one of the Jtoost 
learned divines of bis time, was bom in 1499, descended 
from a Yorkshire family, an.d was nearly related to Ton* 
stalls bishop of Durham. By the encouragement. of this 
learned prelate, he was from his infancy devoted |o litera^ 
ture, which he cultivated first in Corpus Christi, Oxford^ 
under the first president, John Claymond, a man of sih<* 
gular erudition and generosity. From Oxford he went tot 
a time to study at Paris, and continued there uptil he bet 
came of age. He then, on his return, fixed himself in 8n 
John's college, Cambridge, where he is said to hate been. 
«o adorned with the knowledge of Cicero and the purest 
authors of a^ntiquity, that Cheke, then a yofing. nian there^ 
was fired with emulation ; and in a short time, through 
their united painaand example, that seminary acquired the 
fame of being more than a mat^h for a whole foreign uni*^ 
versity. Here he took his bachelor's degree in 1526, that 
of master in 1530, and that of D. D. in 1534«^ 
jalso elected public orator of the university. He was soon 
after chosen master of King'srhall,. which 1^ resigned in 
}547, being then appointed .the firs|: master of Trinity 
college. Be was likewise archdeacon of. Taunton,, and a 
member of the. convocation in 1547 and 1550; also pre- 
bendary of Wells, and of Westminster, in the college of 


1 pAbront Vit» Italonini» toI. in.«-Nieerpn» vol. IH.— Eloy« Diet. Hist. d« 
Medicine.-^Baldwin't Literary Jounul^ vqU I.— 3e« Matbias's edition of 
^ Baoco IB ToKana/^ ISOI. 

109 R E D M A N. 

which cathedral he died in 155i, aged fifty^two, and was' 
buried in the north aile of the abbey. 

Dodd says that, as to Dr. Redman's religion, ** though 
he was no friend to the doctrfne of the reformers, yet he 
was very complaisant to them, in point of discipline, aiid 
went so far away with them, as to be an assistant in com* 
piling the book of Common Prayer. In a word, he divide 
himself between both religions." We have better autfao* 
rity, however, for asserting that if he did so divide him- 
self, the reformed religion had the larger share. That he* 
was at first attached to the religion in which he had been 
educated, appears by his letter to Latimer reproving that 
reformer for his innovattoDs ; but he soon found reason to' 
change his opinion. He had applied his maturer judg- 
ment and learning, with equal piety and patience, for the 
space of twenty years, to the study of the Scriptures and 
the early writers of the church, intending to compose a 
work on the subject of transubstantiation ; but the result 
of his studies was, that there was no foundation for that 
absurd dogma, either in 'Scripture, or in the primitive 
fathers. He therefore relinquished this, and other enrors 
of the Romish creed, and ''with constant judgment and 
unfeigned conscience descended into that manner of be- 
lief," which he held, when he assisted in compiling the 
first liturgy of Edward VL published in 1549*. We have 
still more proof of his relinquishing his old creed, in Mr. 
archdeacon Churton^s " Life of- Nowell.** Nowell waited 
upon Redman in his last illness, desirous to know what was 
his opinion and belief concerning the '' troublous contro- 
versies of those days,*' professing himself willing to ''re-' 
ceive and approve his words as oracles sent from heaven.'* 
The dying confessor, possessing a " quiet mind and per- 
fect remembrance,'* took a day or two to consider of the 
matters propounded to him by Nowell ; and then sen^ for 
him, declaring himself ready to converse with him on those 
points, and to answer truly as he thought, to whatever 
question should be asked him, as in the presence of God. 
These articles were fourteen in number, the sum of which 
was, that purgatory, the sacrifice of the mass, and tran- 

^ " Afterwards I conferred with Dr. Prayer was ao holy book, and agree* 

Redman, in whom I reposed mach able to the Gospel." Bernard Gilpin*i 

kope in regard of his eminent virtues Letter to his brother George in 1575* 

and great scholarship. He affirmed and Wordsworth, vol. IV. p. 134. 
unto me that the book of Common 

REDMAN. 109 

ttthstantiation, were groundless and ungodly ; that we are 
justiBedy not by our works, but by lively faith, which rests 
in our only Saviour Jesus Christ ; that good works are not 
destitute of their rewards ; yet nevertheless they do not 
merit the kiugdom of heavei), which is ^^ the gift of God.'* 
Dr: Wilkes, master of ChrisOs college, Caoibfidge, and 
Dr. Young of Trinity college in that university, were pre- 
sent at this conference ; of which an account was given by 
Young, in a Latin epistle to their .common friend Cbeke. 
Redman survived this interview, which was in Nov. 1551, 
not many days, for on the 27th Nowell succeeded him in 
the canonry of Westminster. 

His works, all published after his death, wer^, 1. ^' Opus 
de j.ustificatione," Antw. 1555, 4to. 2. ^^ Hymn us in quo 
peccator justificationem qusrens jcudi imagine describitur,'* 
printed with the former. 3. <^ The Complaint of Grace,'^ 
Lond. 1556, 8vo, 1609, 12mo. 4. ** Resolutions concern- 
ing the Sacrament,*' in the appendix to Burnet's Hist, of 
the Reformation, with ^^ Resolutions of some questions re- 
lating to bishops and priests.'' There are also in Fox 
some articles by him/ 

' REED (Joseph), a dramatic and miscellaneous writer, 
was born at Stockton, in the county of Durham, in March 
1723, and succeeded his father in the business of a rope- 
tnaker, which he carried on in that country until 1757, 
when he removed to Sun Tavern fields at Stepney near 
London, and there pursued the same occupation with great 
credit and probity until his death, Aug. 15, 1787, aged 
sixty-four. In 1750 he married Sarah, daughter of Mr. 
John Watson, of Stockton, ilax-dresser, who died many 
years before him, and by whom he left issue John Watson 
Reed, late of Ely-place, Holborn, attorney at law, who 
died Jan. 31, 1790; Shakspeare, who succeeded him in 
his business ; and Sarah, who married Gilbert Wilson, and 
died his widow a few days before her brother. 

Notwithstanding a due attention to business, Mr. Reed 
found leisure to amuse himself and the world with many 
miscellanies in prose and verse of very considerable merit. 
The late Mr. Ritson, who had for Mr. Reed, what be ex- 
tended to very few, a high respect, intended to have 
edited some of these misceiiajiies, in a volume qr volumes, 

» Ath. Ox. vol. r. new edit.— Strype's Cranmer, pp. 77, U7, 156, 157, 269. 
— ^Fox's Acts aad Monaments, anno 1551.— C burton*! Life of Nowell, p. 15, .&c. 
-— Wordsworth'i Eccl. Biography.. 

104 REED. 

of which ^e following were to hare bean the contents : 
1. ** Madrigal and Trulletta, a mock tragedy," 17S8. 2. 
** The Register Office," 1761, a farce, or rather a dramatic 
satire. S, The. same; the second edition. 4. *'Tom 
Jones," d comic opera, 1769. 5. ^< Dido," a tragedy, 1767, 
printed for«4he first time by Messrs. Nichols in 1 808, but 
the whole impression having been destroyed by the fir^ 
which consumed their premises in February of that year, it 
has not been reprinted. 6. The ^^ Retort Courteous," to 
the inanager of the theatre. 7. An '< Epitaph on the Earl 
of Chatham." 8. " St. Peter's Lodge," a serio-comic le- 
gendary tale. 9. *^ A Rope's end for Hempen monopo* 
lists." Besides the abovei articles, Mr. Reed was the author 
of, 10. ** A Poem, in imitation of the Scottish dialect, on 
the death of Mr. Pope," printed in the Gentleman's Ma* 

Kzine for August 1744. 11. '^The Superannuated Gal- 
It," a farce, Newcastle, 1745, 12mo. 12. " A British 
Philippic, inscribed to the right hon. the earl of Granville," 
London, 1756, 4to. 13. ** A Sop in the Pan for a phy- 
sical critic, in a letter to Dr. Smollett, occasioned by a cri- 
ticism (in the Critical Review) on Madrigal and Truiletta/' 
1759. 14. ^^ A humorous account of his own Life," 
printed in the Universal Museum for i764. 15. ^< The 
Tradesman'-s Companion, or Tables of Averdupois weight, 
&c." London, 1762, 12mo. 16. "The Impostors, or a 
Core for Credulity," a farce, acted for the benefit of Mr. 
Woodward, March 19, 1776, with an excellent prologue, 
not printed. To these may be added, several tragedies, 
comedies, and farces, never acted or printed; a few un- 
published poems; and some numbers of the ^^ MQnitor,"^a 
political paper published in the administration of the earl 
of Bute, and " Letters" under the signature Benedict^ in 
defence of Mr. Garrick, on the publication of Kenrick's- 
** Love in the Suds," printed originally in the Morning 
Chronicle, and afterwards added to the fifth edition of that 

REED (Isaac), a gentleman eminently conversant in 
literary history, was born Jan. 1, <i742, at Stewart»street, 
Old Artillery-ground, London, of a family, we are told, 
'* highly respectable, and of considerable antiquity," but 
eertainly at this time somewhat reduced, as his father was 
in the humble occupation of a baker. He is said, how- 

1 Biog. Drain.*Nicb«It't Bowyer, ?o1. IX. p. 116*— Brewster's History of 


REED; . 105 


evetf to have been a nan of education and abilities very 
superior to his condition, and both capable and deairous 
of bestowing those advantages upon bis son» whom he sent 
to an academy at Streatbam. In 1757, Mr. Reed b^ame 
an articled clerk to Messrs. Perrot and Hodgsooi then 
eminent atitornies in London ; and at the expuration of his 
articles, engaged hknself as assistant to Mr. Hoskins^ of 
Lincoln's-inn, an emipent barrister and conveyancer. In 
this situation he remained about a year, when he took 
chambers in Gray*s«ino, and began to practise as a con^- 
veyancer on his own account. 

Independently, however, of his application to the labo* 
rious duties of bis profession, he had, previous to this pe« 
Hod, acquired great proficiency in general knowledge, and 
in pai^icular a decided taste for old English literature, and 
an intimate acquaintance with old English ^thors. His 
reading, in this class, was most extensive, and only equalled 
by a memory uncommonly tenacious of facts and dates. 
Hence his publications, as editor, are stamped with a pe- 
culiar value ; and he had not proceeded far in researches 
into the antk^nities of English literature, when he gave up 
his profession,.to which be never appears to have been cor- 
dially attached, and devoted his time and his little pro- 
perty to employments more congenial to his disposition, 
and to his retired and simple manners. 
. As he had the utmost aversion to the appearance of his 
name on a title-page, it is not easy to enumerate all the 
-publications of which he was editor, but we are told that 
thf following list may be considered as tolerably accu- 
rate. In 1768;, he collected into one volume the poetical 
works of lady Mary Wcrtley Montagu. In 1778, he 
{irinted a few copies of Middleton's unpublished play, 
called ^^ The Witch, a.tragi-comedie,*' which were circu- 
lated privately among his friends. In the same year he 
.oollected materials for a sixth volume of Dr. Young's Works, 
small 8vo. • In 1773, be collected .and published the Cam- 
bridge Seatonian prize poems^ from their institution in 
1750. From 1773 to about 1780, he was, if not editor, 
a constant contributor to the <^ Westminster. Magazine,^' 
and particularly pf the biographical articles; but about 
1782 or 1783 transferred his services to the *^ European 
Magazine," of which he was from that time editor, and one 
of the proprietors. He was also an occasional contributor 
to the Gentleman^s Magazine. In 1775 he furnished the 

106 R E £ D. 

biographical notes to Pearch's collection of poems, 4 j^o1«# 
and rendered the same imporlant service to a new edition 
of Dodsley's collection in 17S2, 6 vols. One of the lives 
of Dr. Dodd, published in 1777, has been ascribed to Mr. 
Reed, and he certainly conveyed it to his then booksellers, 
Messrs. Fididing and Walker, but there are doubts whe- 
ther he was the sole author. There are none, however, 
respecting the '^ Biographia Dramatica," 2 vols. Svo, which 
was his favourite work. It was first published by him in 

1782, and he continued to accumulate materials for im- 
provement and. enlargement, which he recommended to be 
put into the hands of Mr. Stephen Jones, in whose know- 
ledge of the subject, and fitness for the office of editor, he 
had the utmost confidence. A new edition has accord- 
ingly been published by that gentleman, extended to 4 
vols. 8vo, in 1812. In 1780, Mr. Reed published an im- 
proved edition of Dodsley's ** Old Plays," 12 vols. 8vo. 
To these we may add two supplemental volumes, a. thir- 
teenth and fourteenth, to Dr. Johnson's Works ; a select 
collection of fugitive pieces of wit and-humour, in prose 
and verse, under the title of " The Repository," 1777 — 

1783, 4 vols. 8vo ; the " Life of Dr. Goldsmith," prefixed 
to the second volume of his ** Essays," collected and pub- 
lished in 3 vols. 12mo, by Mr. Wright the printer, in 1795; 
and a concise, but masterly delineation of his friend Dr. 
Farmer, communicated to William Seward, esq. and printed 
in his ^* Biographiana." 

To the generality of readers the name of Mr. Reed is 
most familiar as an annotator on Shakspeare. The fyst 
edition of our immortal bard in which he was engaged was 
that of 1785, 10 vols. This he undertook at the request of 
bis friend Mr. Steevens, with whom he was joint editor in 
the subsequent edition of 1793. Mr. Steevens had a high 
respect for him as a coadjutor in tbis undertaking ; and as a 
testimony of his regard, bequeathed him his own corrected 
copy of Shakspeare, from which was published, in 1803, 
Mr. Reed's last edition, in 21 vols. 8vo, and, for the first 
time, his name was formally prefixed. 

But, it is justly remarked by his biographer, all these, 
though no inconsiderable proofs of his industry and zeal, 
are far from comprising the sum total of his labours ; in- 
deed they give a very inadequate idea of his literary use- 
fulness. The works in which he was partially concerned 
as editor, are exceedingly numerous^ and the occasions on 

REED. ^ 107 

wbicb he has given his assistance in 4ifficttlt points of lite* 
littture, almost beyond calculation, particularly in what 
concerned the literary histofy of his own country. Although 
his manner had little of polish, he was always kindly ready 
to communicate the information he had for so many yean 
accumulated ; and perhaps received more public acknow* 
ledgments for his assistance in this way than any man of 
his time. Hence, on his death, so many scholars of emi- 
nence hastened with their gratefal tributes to his memory* ^ 
He died Monday, Jan. 5, 1807; and was interred, agree- 
ably to his desire, at Amwell, a place which be was accus- 
tomed to visit and admire. 

His collection of books, chiefly English, was- perhaps 
one of the most ejctensive in that series ; and most of them 
were enriched by bis MS notes. They were sold in No- 
vember 1807 by Messrs. King and LocheOi in a sale which _ 
lasted thirty-nine days, and produced more than 4000/. 
Few collections have attracted more attention of late 
years, and it may be doubted whether we shall ever see a 
eoliection dispersed, in all respects so well suited to the 
taste of those who are ambitious of possessing literary cu- 
riosities, or of enlarging their knowledge of English lite- 

RHESE (John David), an English physician and phi- 
lologist, was born ^at Llanvaetbly in the isle of Anglesea, 
in 1534. After residing two or three years at Oxford, he 
was: elected 'Student oL Christ church, but inclining to the 
suidy of medicine, went abroad, and took the degree of 
doctor in that faculty at Sienna in Tuscany. He acquired 
io perfect a knowledge of the Italian language, that he was 
appointed public moderator of the school of Pistoia in 
Tuscany, and wrote books in that tongue, which were much 
esteemed by the Italians themselves. On his return, with 
a high reputation for medical and critical learning of-all 
kindsj he retired to Brecknock, where he passed the 
greater part of his life in literary pursuits and the practice 
of his profession, and where he died about 1609. Wood 
say^ he died a Roman catholic ; and Dodd, upon that au- 
thority, has included him among his worthies of that re- 
ligion^ but there seems some reason to doubt this. One of 
Rhese's publications was a Welsh grammar, <* Cambro- 
BritannicsB, Cytnersecseve, lingueB Institutiones et Rudi- 

^ Life in Europ. Mag. lS07.-«-NichoIs's'Bowyer. 

108 il H E S E. 


menta, he. ad intelUgend. BiblUt Sacra ouper in Cambro* 
Britannieom wrmooem ^egaiite r Teria^'' Loud. 15^2, folio. 
Prefixed £o tliis is a pre&ce by Humphrey Prich»rd^.in 
which be informs 'Us that the author made this boi^.puif*^ 
posely for tlie beUei) ondecstandiog ofitbat exceUentitraBs** 
lation of 'the Bible into Wekfa, and prtacipally for Che sake 
of the clergy^ and to -make the 'scriptures nK>re intelligible 
tothemandtothepeople^ a measure whicha:Roinancatho« 
lie in those days would scarcely haTeadopted* Prichatrd also 
says that he was ^^ arincecse; Beligiofiis pvopeg^nd» avidissi- 
mus ;'Vand as Prichard was a protestanty and aniinister of 
the church of England, he must surely mean the protestaafe 
religion. Rbese^s other works are, ** Rules for obtaining 
the Latin Tongue, V written in the Tuscan language, aai 
printed at Veniee; and ^^De Italics linguss pronuncia« 
tione,'* in Latin, printed at Padua. There was likewuto ia 
Jesus college library a MS compenditun of Aristotle's. Me«- 
taphy;»ies in the Welsh language by our author, in which 
be asserts, what every ancient Briton will agree to, that this. 
toAgue is as copious and proper finr the expression of phi^ 
losophical terms, as the Greek or any other language^ Se- 
veral other valuable tracts, which are entirely lost, were 
written by Dr. Rbese, who was accounted one of the great 
luminaries of ancient British literature. , By Stradling in 
his epigrams, he is styled <* novum antiques linguss lumen ;'* 
and by Camden, ^^ clarissimns et eruditissimus vir Joannes 
David," for be was sometisses called John David, or Davis«' 
REEVES (Wiluam), an English divine^ was born in 
1668, and educated at King's college, Cambridge, where 
he took his degree of B. A. in 1688, and M. A. in 1690^ 
and obtained a fellowship. In 1694^ earl Berkley gave him 
the rectory of Cranford in Middlesex, and he obtained 
the vicarage of St. Mary, Readings in 1711. He was alsd 
chaplain to queen Anne. He died March 26, 1726, in the 
fifty-eighth year of his age, and was buried near the altar 
in St Mary^s church. He published several occasional 
sermons ; and after his death a collection of fourteen were 
printed in 1729, from his MS. which he had prepared far 
the press. These sermons have a peculiar cast of origin 
nality ; and the author was considered as an able and spi-» 
rited preacher. The first sermon in the volume, ''The 

1 Alb. Ox. vol. I. new «dit,«— Aikin's Bieg. Memoin of M cdicine.—Usher'c 
hift and LetUri^ p. 168. 

REEVES; 109 

iktat consequences of Btibery, exenpltfied in Judas, Matt. 
:rxvii. 3, 4^ was first preached during the time of an 
election, and printed at a low. price, to be ^iven away: 
«nd it is said that many, on hearing, or reading it, returned 
the bribes which they had taken, and voted another way. 
He published al^ a valuable work, ^' The Apologies of the 
Fathers, with a dissertation on the right use of the Fathers,** 
Lond. 1709, 2 vols.* 

REGINALD (Anthony), a Dominican of the seven- 
teenth century, one of the greatest defenders of Thomism^ 
and the doctrine of grace efficacious in itself, died 1676, 
at Toulouse. His principal works are, a small theological 
treatise ^^ sur Ik oglebre distinction du Sens compost et du 
Sens divis^;*' and <^ De mente Concilii Tridentini circa 
<jratiam per se efficacem." This last was edited by Ar- 
nauld and Quesnel, in 1706, folio.* 

REGINO, a learned Benedictine, abbot of Prum to- 

wi^rds the end of the ninth century, has left a good '^Ghro^ 

side,'* in the collection of German historians by Pisto* 

rius, 1583, 3 vols, folio, and a collection of canons and 

ecclesiastical rules, entitled, ** De Disciplinis ecclesiastic 

eis, et de Religione Christiana." This last he compiled at 

tbe solicitation of Rat^bode, archbishop of Treves^ to 

which city he had retired, after being obliged to quit hi» 

abbey, in the year 89^. M. Baluze baa published an ex» 

cellent edition of this collection, with notes, in 1671, 8vo. 

Regino died at Treves, in the year 916.* 


REGIS (Peter Sylvan), a French philosopher, and 

great propagator of Cartesianism, was born in Agenois, in 

1632. He cultivated the languages and philosophy under 

the Jesuits at Cahors, and afterwards divinity in the uni* 

versity of that town, being designed for the church. He 

made so uncommon a progress, that at the end of four 

years he was offered a doctor^s degree without the usual 

charges ; but he did net think it became him to accept of 

it till he had studied also in the Sorbonne at Paris. He 

went thither, but wa^ soon disgusted with theology ; and, 

as the philosophy of Des Cartes was at that time drawing 

public attention, through the lectures of Rohault, be be^ 

<^ame attached to it, and went ^o Toulouse in 1665, where 

1 Cofttes^'t History of Reading. — Newconrt'i Repertorium. 

• Moreri. — Diet. Hist. 

^ OupiQ^— Cart, ▼o1. 1.— Mor«ri.«— BttUart'ft Acad, des S/cienoea, toL I. 


R E G I S* 

he read lectures on the subject. Having a clear and fluent 
manner, and a facility in making himself understood, be 
was honoured, as his auditors, by the magistrates, the 
learned, the ecclesiastics, and even the ladies, who all af- 
fected to abjure the ancient philosophy. In 1680, he re- 
turned to Paris ; where the concourse about him was such, 
that the Aristotelians applied to the archbishop of Paris, 
who thought it expedient, in the name of the king, to put 
a stop to the lectures ; and they were accordingly discon- 
tinued for several months. The whole life of Regis, how- 
ever, was spent in propagating the new philosophy. In 
1690, he published a formal system of it, containing lo- 
gic, metaphysics, physics, and morals, in 3 vols. 4to, and 
written in French. It was reprinted, the year after, at 
Amsterdam, with the addition of a discourse upon ancient 
and modern philosophy. He wrote, afterwards several 
pieces in defence of his system; in which he. had disputes 
with M. Huet, Du Hamel, Malebranche, and others. His 
works, though abounding with ingenuity and learning, have 
been disregarded in consequence of the great , discoveries 
and advancement in philosophic knowledge that have been 
since made. He died in 1707. He had been chosen mem- 
ber of the academy of sciences in 1699. * 

REGIUS (Urban), or le roi, a name he thought pro- 
per to change, as it was liable to be applied in ridicule^ 
was a learned Reformer of the 1 6th century, and born at 
Langenargen, or Arga Longa, in the territories of the, 
counts of Mountfort. Having received a very liberal edu- 
cation, first at the school of Lindau, and afterwards at that 
of Fribourg, where he lived with Zasius, a celebrated 
civilian who encouraged his diligence, and adi^iired him for 
his extraordinary proficiency and amiable manners, he went 
to Basil for farther improvement, but was soon attracted 
to Ingoldstadt, at that time a very famous university, and un- 
der the direction of the no less famous John Eckius. Here 
Regius read lectures, but unfortunately was induced to su- 
perintend the education of some youths of noble families, 
and provide them with books and other necessaries, which 
their parents neglecting to pay, he was obliged to give up 
what little property he had for the benefit of his creditors, 
and in despair of assistance to carry dn his studies, en- 
listed as a common soldier. In this plight, however, he 

1 Niceroiij ▼o'. VI.— Diet. Hist. 


happened to be discovered by Eckiu^y who procured his 
discharge, and prevailed on the parents of bis pupils to 
discharge all arrears due to him. 

Urban. then returned to his studies^ and became so dis- 
tinguishedi that the emperor Maximilian, passing through 
Ingoldstadt, made him his poet-Iaureat and orator ; and he 
was afterwards* made professor of poetry and oratory in 
that university. But, having applied to the study of divi- 
nity, he engaged with warmth and assiduity in the contro* 
versies of the times, particularly in that between Luther 
and Eckius, in which be inclined to Luther; but unwilling 
to give personal offence to his preceptor and good friend 
Eckius, he left Ingoldstadt and went to Augsburgh, where^ 
at the importunity of the magistrates and citizens, he an'" 
dertook the government of the church. Here he departed 
farther and farther from the errors of Popery, and soon 
joined with Luther in preaching against them. In Jiis opi- 
nions, however, concerning the sacrament and original sin, 
he sided, for a tinie, with Zuinglius, in consequence of a 
correspondence in which that reformer explained to him 
the grounds of his belief. In, his preaching against errors 
so general as those of popery then were, be met with much 
opposition, but appears to have been supported by some of 
the principal citizens, one of whom bestowed on him his 
daughter, by whom he had thirteen children. Eckius, both 
by letters and by the intervention of friends, endeavoured 
to gain him back to the church, but his principles were 
fixed, add he resisted both (latteries and promises. 

In 1530 there was a diet held at Augsburg, at which the 
duke of Brunswick was present, who prevailed on Regius 
to go to Lunenburg in bis dominions, to take care of the 
church there. The duke -highly esteemed him, and de- 
clared to the people of Augsburgh, who petitioned for his 
return, that he would a^ soon part with his eyes as with 
Regius, and made him chief pastor of all the churches in. 
his dominions, with an ample and liberal salary. Here he 
passed the greater part of a useful and active life in 
preaching, writing, and religious conferences. He died 
May 23, 1541, when on a journey with the duke to Hague- 
nau ; the place of his death is said to be Zell ; but we 
have no account of his age. He had often wished that he 
might die a sudden and easy death^ which happened to be 
the case. His works were collected in 3 vols, folio : the 
first two contain the pieces he published in Latin, th» 

112 B E G I U a 

other bis German compositions. This last volume was af- 
terwards translated into Latin, and published ander the 
title of ^* Vita & Opera Urbani Regii, reddita per ErQfst. 
Regium,*' Norib. 15612. Some of his pieces were translated 
in the 16tb century into English, as ** The Sermon which 
Christ made on the way to Emmaus, &c.'' 1573, 4to. '^ A 
declaration of the twelve articles of the Christen faythe, 
&C/M548. <' An Instruccyon of Christen fayth, &g.'* 
1588, translated by Fox the martyrologist. ^ The Okie 
Learoyng and the New compared, &c/' 1548, 8vo. ^ Ex- 
position on the 87th Psalm," 1594, 8vo. <^ A homily of 
the good and evil Angell, &c.'' 1590, 8vo, and others. 
Besides what are included in the three volumes mentioned 
above, John Freder of Pomerania published, after the au- 
thor's death, a work of his, entitled ^^ Loci Theologici ex 
patribus & scholasticis neotericisque coUecti." ' 

REGNAI^D (John Francis), one of the best French 
comic writers after Moliere, was born at Paris in 1647^ He 
had scarcely finished his studies, when he was seized with 
a passion for travelling, and an ardent desire to see the 
different countries of Europe. He went to Italy first, but 
was unfi>rtunate in his return thence; for, the English ves* 
sel bound for Marseilles, on which he embarked at Genoa, 
was t^ken in the sea of Provence by the Barbary Corsairs ; 
and be was carried a slave to Algiers. Having some ac- 
quaintance with the art of French cookery, he procured an 
office in his master's kitchen. His amiable manners and 
pleasant humour made him a favourite with all about him, 
and not a little so with the women ; but being detected in 
an intrigue with one of them, his master insisted upon his 
submitting to the law of the country, which obliged a 
Christian, convicted of such an ofience, either to turn Ma«» 
bometan, or to suffer death by fire. Regnard, however, was 
saved from either punishment, by' the intervention of the 
French consul, who having just received a large sum for 
bis redemption, sent him home, about 1681. 

He bad not been long at Paris, before he set out to visit 
Flanders and Holland, whence he passed to Denmark, and 
afterwards to Sweden. Having done some singular piece 
of service to the king of Sweden, this monarch, who per- 
ceived that he was travelling out of pure curiosity, told 
bim, that Lapland contained mapy things well worthy of 
^ ' ■ ' > ' 

1 Melcbior Adaiii.-*OeD, Diet. 

R £ G N A R D. Ii3 

observation ; and ordered his treasurer to accoaimodate 
bim with whatever he wanted, if he chose to proceed thi-^ 
tfaer. Regnard embarked for Stockholtn, with two other 
gentlemen that had accompanied him from France;- and 
went as for as Torneo, a city at the bottom of the Both-" 
Hie Gulph. He went up the river Torneo, whose source is' 
not fiir from the Northern cape ; and at letigth penetrated 
to the Icy sea. Here, not being able to go farther^ he and 
bis companions engraved these four lines upon a rock : 

** Gallia DOS genuit, vidit nos Africa} Gangem 
Hausimus, Europamque oculis lustra^imus omiieili j ' 
Casibus & variis acti tenaque manque^ 
Hie tandem stetlmus> nobis ubi deluit orbis/' 


While he was in Lapland, his curiosity led him to inquire 
into the pretended magic of the. country; and he was^ 
shewn some of the learned in this black art, who^ not suc- 
ceeding in their operations upon him, pronounced him a- 
greater magician than themselves. After his return to 
Stockholm, he went to Poland, thence to Vienna, and from 
Vienna to Paris, after a ramble of almost three years^ 
- He npw settled in his own country, near Donrden, about 
eleven leagues from Paris, and wrote a great many come* 
dies, which • were acted with success, particularly bis 
^' Gamester.'* He was made a treasurer of France, and 
lieutenant of the waters and forests, which enabled bim to 
indulge his .taste for pleasure and gaiety. It has been said 
that <he ^ied of chagrin in his 52d year, Sept. 4, 1709, and 
that he even contributed himself to shorten his days ; but 
both these reports are contradicted in the new edition . of 
the Diet. Hist (1811), and his death attributed to impru-^ 
dent conduct after taking medicine. The best edition of 
his works, which consist of comedies and his travels, is that 
of Paris, 1790, 4 vols. 8vo, with notes. ^ 

REGNIER (Mathurin), a satirical French poet, was the 
son of a citizen of Chartres, by a sister of the abb£ Des-^. 
portes^ a famous poet also, ai^d was bom there in 1573.' 
He was brought up to the ; church, and no man more unfit 
orunwortbyj for such were his debaucheries, that as we 
learo from himself, he had at thirty all the infirmities of old 
age. Yet this did not prevent his obtaining the patronage 
of cardinal Joyeuse, and the ambassador Philip de Bethiine, 
with whom he was twice at Rome, in 1593 and 1601. la 

* Diet Hitt. 

Vol. XXVI. I 

Hi » E G N I E Jl, 

ICOiy by ibeir infiuence^ be obuined i^ canonry jb the 
church of Chartres ; and bikd Qthf r beoeficMn anc) ^q ,^.. 
peomn of 2000 liwoi, which Hemry I V« settled ou hiqn in 
1606| all which h^ ^peet on bis Uceqtioua pleasmes* He 
died at Rouen in 1615, at the age of forty^ completely de- 
bilitated and worn Qot« 

He was the first aan^g the Freiioh who succeeded in sa* 
tire.; and» if Boileau has b^ the glory of rai^ini; that sfjie* 
cies of eoBH>esition to pevfeouon a0V>ng tbeio,, it mi^ be 
said of Regnier» that he laid the foundation, and was per- 
haps more an ori^piirui} writer ^ba^ Boileau, He is sup- 
posed to have taken Juvenal and Peruus for bis model : it 
is certain, that be has in seme places imitased Ovid, and 
b^wfrowed largely frMi the Italiaui* While preteDdieg, 
however, to expose yiice, muck of that impuri^]F» whioh ran 
through his life, orept also intet bis wnting^. Seftenteen of 
bis satires, with other poems^ were printed at Rooeo ia 
Ire^llt. There is a i\eat Elaevir edition of hia works at Isy^ 
den, 1650,, l2ffio; but, th<a b^ai are those of Rouen, 1799, 
4to, with abort notes by M. Broasette ; and of E^ofidoay 1739, 
wilbi notes by Lenglet du Fresnoy, oa^e* of Tonaon^s iMid- 
soBBke books 4to, of which there are large paper eopies. ' 

REGNIER (be ^lutBTS, er 0£$*M4JiAis (FRAHCia Sqaa* 
phin)^ a French writer, waa bora at Paris in I6%a ; and, at 
fifteen, distikignisbed himself by translating' the *^ Baiw* - 
Ghomyomacbia'* into burlesque verse. At thirty^ be want 
to Rooue asi secretary to an embassy. Ao^ Italian ode of Jiis. 
writing procured him a place in the aeadenty de ia Crusoa. 
in 1667; and, ia 1670, he waa elected a membef of the 
French academy. lo 1684, be waa made perpetual secre-- 
tary, aftes the death of Mezeray ; and it ssas be. Who drew 
up. all those papers, in the name of the academy, against 
Furetiere. In 1668, the king gave hsm the priory of Grao^ 
mont, which determined him to the ecclesiastical fnactiiin : 
and, in 1675, he had an abbey. His works axev^uir Itaiiaa 
translation of Anacreon's odes, which he dedicated ta the 
academy de la Cvusca in 16d^; a French grammar ; aad 
two volumes of poems, in French,' Latin, Italian, and Sfdk* 
nish. He translated, into French, TuUy *' De Diviaatione^ 
k de Finibus ;'* and Rodrigue^s ^^Treatise of Christian per- 
fection," from the Spanish. He died in 17 IS, aged 89;. 
^^ He has done great service to language," aays Voltaire, 

I Kiceron, rok XI. XX-i-Dict Hist. 

R E O N I E R. 119 

*< and is the audioc of tome po^^ ia French, and IlaliM. 
He contrived to make one of hia Italian pieces pass for Pe- 
trarch's ; but be conld not have made his Fvenoh verses 
pass £<x those of any great French poet*' ^ . 

REID (Thomas), a Scotch divine, whose lifci. however 
banen of incidents, fixes an aera in the history pf modern 
pbikttophy, was born April ^Q, 1710, at Strachen in Kii^- 
cajrdioesbire, a country parish, situated about tweaty miles 
from Aberdeen, on die north side of tbe Grampian moun- 
tains* His father, the rev. Lewis Reid» was minister of 
thttt parish for .fifty yean. His mother was Margaret Gre- 
gpory, one of the twenty *-nine children of David Gregory 
of Kinnardie, and sister to James Gregory, the inventor of 
the reflecting telescope, and to David . Gregory,, SaviUaa 
professor of astronomy at Oxford. After two years spent 
at. the parish school at Kincardine, our author was sent to 
Aberdeen,' where be had the advantage of prosecuting his 
ckflsical studies under an able and diligent teacher ^ so thf^t 
about, the age of twelve or thirteen he was entereda student 
inMarischsd College, under Dr. George TurnbuU. Th^ 
sessions of the college were at that time very short, and thjs 
education, according to Dr* Reid'» own account, slight and 

^It .dofs not appear that Dr* Reid gave any. early indjic%- 
tioos of f uiore eminance* His industry, however, and mo* 
des^, were conspicuous &om his childhoods and j^t.was 
icHT^oU of' him by the parish sfchoolmastcr, who initiated 
him in the first principles of learning, ^-^ tbathe would turn 
t>nt to be a man. of good and weU-wearing par|s," a predict 
tioa which, although itimplied no flattering hopes of those 
more brilliant endowments which are commoidy regarded 
astfaeconftituents. of genius, touched not unhappily on 
that capacity of patient thought, which contributed sp 
powerfully to the success of his pbilos<q[»hi€al researches. 
His residence at the university was prolonged beyoiid the 
usual term, in consequei^ce of biai apppintinent to the office 
of .librarian,, which Inad been endowed by one of bis ances- 
tors about a century before. The situation was acceptable 
to bun, as it afibtded an opportunity of indulging his pas- 
sion for study, a»d united the charms of a learned society 
with the quiet of an academical retreat. 

In 173^^ be resigned this eflice, and, accompanied by 

^ Diet Bist.^^NlceroD in Defmsraii, rol, V. 


il« R E I D. 

Dr. John Stewart, afterwards professor of mathematics in 
Marisclial college, and author of a ^' Commentary on 
Newton^s Quadrature of Curves," on an excursion to Eng- 
land. Tbey visited together London, Oxford, and Cam- 
bridge, and were introduced to the acquaintance of many 
persons of the first literary eminence. His relation to Da- 
vid Gregory procured him a ready access to Martin Folkes, 
whose house concentrated the . most interesting objects 
which the metropolis had to offer to his curiosity. At Cam- 
bridge he saw Dr. Bentley, who delighted htm with his 
learning, and amused him with his vanity; and enjoyed 
repeatedly the conversation of the blind mathematician 
Saunderson ; a phenomenon in the history of the human 
mind, to which he has referred more than once in his phi- 
losophical speculations. With the learned and amiable 
'Dir. Stewart he maintained an uninterrupted friendship rill 
1766, when Mr. Stewart died of a malignant fever. His 
death was accompanied with circumstances deeply aflRect- 
ing to Dr. Reid^s sensibility; the same disorder proving 
fatal to his wife and daughter, both of whom were buried 
with him the same day in the same g^ave. 

In 17S7, Dr. Reid was presented by the King's college 
of Aberdeen to the* living of New Machar in that county ; 
^biit the circumstances in which be entered on his prefer- 
ment were far from auspicious. The intemperate zeal of 
one of his predecessors, and an aversion to the law of pa- 
tronage, had so inflamed the minds of his parishioners 
against him> that in the first discharge of his clerical func- 
tions, he had not only to encounter the most violent oppo- 
sition, but was exposed to personal danger. His unwearied 
attention, however, to the duties of his oflice, the mildness 
end forbearance of his temper, and the active spirit of bis 
humanity, soon overcame all these prejudices; and not 
many yeats afterwards, when he was called .to a different 
situation, the same persons who had suffered themselves to 
be so far misled, as to take a share4n the outrages against 
him^ followed him on his departure with their blessings and 

Dt. Reid's popularity at New Machar* increased greatly 
'after bis marriage, in 1740, with Elizabeth, daughter of his 
uncle Dr. George Reid, physician in London. The ac- 
commodating manners of this excellent woman, and her ^ 
good offices among the sick and necessitous, were long re- 
membered with gratitude, and so endeared the family ta 

R £ I D. 117 

ttle n^ighboarhoodi that its removal was regarded as a 

■general misfortune. The simple and affecting language in 
which some old men-expressed themselves on this subject 
deserves to be recorded : ** We fought against Dr. Keid 
when he came, and would have fought /or him when he 
went away." 

It is mentioned, that long after he became minister of 
New Machar, he was accustomed, from a distrust in his 
own powers, to preach the sermons of Dr.Tillotson and Dr. 
Evans, and that he had neglected the practice of compo* 
sition in a more than ordinary degree^ in the earlier part 
of. his studies. The fact, says his biographer, is curious, 
when contrasted with that ease, perspicuity, and purity of 
style, which he afterwards attained. Yet during his resi- 
dence at this place, the greater part of his time was spent 
in the most intense study ; particularly in a careful exa- 
mination of the laws of external perception, and of the 
other principles which form the ground-work of human 
knowledge. His, chief relaxations were gardening and 
botany, to both of which pursuits he retained his attach- 
ment even in old age. 

The first work published by Dr. Reid was in the Philo- 
sophical Transactions of London in 1748. It was entitled 
''An Essay on Quantity, occasioned by a Treatise in which 
simple, and compound Ratios are applied to Virtue and 
Merit," and shews plainly, that although he had not yet 
entirely relinquished the favourite researches of his youth^ 
he was beginning to direct his thoughts to other objects. 
The treatise alluded to in the title of this paper was Dr. 
Hutcheson's '' Inquiry into the origin of our ideas of 
beauty and virtue." In 1752, the professors of King's 
college, Aberdeen, elected Dr. Reid professor of philosor 
phy, in testimony of the high opinion they had formed of 
h|s learning and abilities. Soon after his removal to Aber- 
deen, he projected (in conjunction with his friend Dr. 
John Gregory) a literary society, which subsisted many 
years, and produced that spirit of philosophical research 
to which we owe the writings of Reid, Gregory, Campbell, 
Seattle, and Gerard, who communicated, in this society, 
sketches of their works, and profited by the remarks mutu- 
ally offered. In 1763 he was invited by the university of 
Glasgow, and accepted, the office of professor of moral 
philosophy. In 1764 he published his <* Inquiry into the 
Human Mind;" which was succeeded, after a long interval, 

lis R E I D. 

h) 1785, hj bis ^^ Essays on the intellectaal Powers of 
Man ;** and that agsiin, in 1788, by the " active Powers/* 
These, with a masterly " Analysis of Aristotk^s Logic,** 
which forms an appendix to the third volume of lord 
Karnes's Sketches, comprehend the whole of Dr. Reid's 
publications. The interval between the dates of the first 
and last of these amount to no less than forty years, al> 
* though he had attained to the age of thirty-eight before he 
/ ventured to appeiir as an author. Even in very advanced 
life, he continued to prosecute bis studies with unabated 
ardour and activity. The modern improvements in che- 
mistry attracted his particular notice ; and he applied him- 
self, with his wonted diligence and success, to the study 
of these and its new nomenclature. He amused himself, 
also, at times, in preparing for a philosophical society, of 
which he was a member, short essays on particular topics, 
which happened to interest his curiosity. The most im- 
portant of these were, '^ An examination of Dr. Priestley's 
opinion concerning Matter and Mind ;** " Observations on 
the Utopia of sir Thomas More ;** and *^ Physiological re- 
flections on Muscular motion.'' This last essay appears to 
bave been written in the leighty-sixth year of his age, and 
was read by the author to his associates, a few months 
tefore his death. 

While he was thu^ enjoying an old age, happy in some 
respects beyond the usual lot of humanity, bis domestic 
eomfort suffered a deep and incurable wound by the deUth 
of Mrs. Reid. He had had the misfortune too of surviving, 
for many years, a numerous family of promising children ; 
four of whom (two sons and two daughters) died after they 
bad attained to maturity. One only was left to him, Mrs. 
Cai'michael, then the wife, now the widow, of Patrick 
Carmichael, M. D. His situation at this period cannot be 
better described than by himself. ' ** By the loss," says he, 
** of my bosom friend, with whom I lived fifty-two years, 
I am brought into a new world at a time of life when old 
habits are not easily forgot, or new ones acquired. But 
(every world is God's world, and I am thankful for the 
comforts he • has left me. Mrs. Carmichael has now the 
care of two old deaf men, and does every thing in her 
power to plese them ; and both are very sensible of her 
goodness. I have more health than at my time of life I 
bad any reason to expect. I walk about ; entertain my- 
self with reading what I soon forget; can converse with one 

R £ t Di lit 

persM^ if hd arttculates difttinctly, and it within tea 
inches of my l^ft ear ; go to charch witboat hearing oimb 
word tbot it said. You know I never had any pretensioM 
to vitacity ; bat I am still free from languor and trmuV* 

The actual and useful life of Dr. Reid was now draiiring 
Co a con<ilusion. A violent disorder attacked him about 
the end of September 1796; but does not seem to hav^ 
occasioned much alarm to those about him, till be wes 
visited by Dr. Cleghom, who soon communicated his op* 
prehensions in a letter to Dr. Gregory. Among ottM^ 
symptom^i he mentioned particularly << that alteration of 
voice and features, whicb> though not easily described, is 
so well known to all who have opportunities of seeing life 
ek)se.** Df. Reid's own opinion of his case was probably 
the same with that of his physician ; as he eipressed to 
him on his first visit, his hope that he was ^*soon to get his 
dismission.*' After a severe struggle, attended with re- 
peated strokes of palsy, he died on the 7th of October foU 

Ill point of bodily constitntion^ few men have been more 
indebted t6 nature than Dr. Reid. His form was vigorous 
^nd athletic; and his muscular force (though be was 
somewhat under the middle size) uncommonly great ; 
advantages to which his habits of temperance and exercise, 
and the unclouded serenity of his temper, did ample jus* 
tice. His countenance was strongly expressive of deep 
and collected thought; but when brightened up by thd 
face of a friend, what chiefly caught the attention was a 
look of good will and of kindness. A picture of him, toft 
which he consented, at the particular request of Dr. Gre- 
gory, to sit to Mr. Raeburn during his last visit to Edin-^ 
burgh, is generally and justly ranked among the happiest 
performances of that excellent artist. 

The most prominent features of Dr. Reid's character 
were intrepid and inflexible rectitude, a piiire and devoted 
attachment to truth, and an entire command over his pas- 
sions. In private life, no man ever maintained more emi- 
nently or tliore uniformly, the dignity of philosophy ; 
combining with the most amiable modesty and gentleness, 
^ noblest spirit of independence. As a public teacher, 
he was distinguished by unwearied assiduity in inculcating 
principles, which he conceived to be of essential import- 
ance to human happiness. In his elocution and mode of 
itisteructfon, there was nothing peculiarly attractive. Such, 

120 R £ I D. 

how&fetf were the simplicity and perspicuity of liis slyle ; 
such the gravity and authority of bis character, that he 
was always listened to with profound respect, and, in his 
latter years, with a veneration, which age added to great 
wisdoni always inspires. 

All that is valuable in this sketch has been taken from 
Mr. Dugald Stewart's life of Dr. Reid, the most elaborate 
part of which is the view of the spirit and scope of Dr. 
Reid's philosophy. We have long regretted, says ano^r 
able critic, that the writings of this philosopher, the first 
who in the science of Mind deserves the title of interpreter 
of .nature, should be so little known, especially in the 
southern part of this kingdom ; and we fondly hope that 
the illustration afforded by Mr. Stewart of their high ntj^its, 
and the exposure of the prejudices which have been raised 
against them by bold censurers, who never took the pains 
to understand them, will pave the way to a more general 
diffusion among our countrymen of the advantages which a 
careful study of them cannot fail to produce. 
' The distinguishing characteristic of the philosophy of 
Reid is this ; that whereas all his predecessors in th^ study 
of Mind employed themselves in forming arbitraty theories, 
as Descartes in the study of the material world accounted 
by vortices for the motions or the heavenly bodies, Dr* 
Reid, on the other hand, adopted the inductive method 
followed by sir Isaac Newton, and by an examination of 
the phsBUomepa of mind of which we are conscious, endea- 
voured to rise to the general laws which regulate our men- 
tal Qperations. The illustrations which Mr. Stewart has 
stated of the absolute necessity of following this method 
exclusively in the study of mind as well as of matter, of 
the merit of Dr. Reid in setting the first example of this 
just mode of inquiry, and of his success in the prosecution 
of it, desetve the greatest attention. Mr. Stewart has 
classed the objections stated to the philosophy of Reid 
under four beads. 1. That he has assumed gratuitously, 
in all bis reasonings, that theory concerning the human 
.^oul which the scheme of materialism calls in question. 

2. That hi& views tend to damp the ardour of philosophical 
curiosity, by stating, as ultimate facts, pbsenomena which 
may be resolved into principles more simple and genera), 

3. That by an unnecessary multiplication of original or in- 
stinctive prinpipl^s, be. has brought the science of mind 
into a st^t^e^more perplexed and unsatisfactory than that in 

RE TD. 121 

whiob it was left by Locke and his successors. 4. That 
: bis pliilosoph}^ by sanctiouiiig an appeal from the decisions 
of die learned to the voice of the multitude, is unfavourable 
taa.spirit of free inquiry, and lends additional stability to 
popular errors. In bis reply to these objections, Mr. 
Stewart has not only set the merit of the writings which he 
defends in a clearer "light, but has taken occasion to add 
Various illustrations, which will not a little facilitate the 
study of these writings to those who for the first time un- 
dertake it. 

The merit of the writings of Reid, with regard to the 
future labours of the philosopher, and the progress of the 
scietkce of mind, by illustrating the true mode of philoso- 
phising, and setting the first example of the practice, is 
the chief point which Mr. Stewart has endeavoured to illus- 
trate. But there is another species of utility possessed by 
these writings which deserves to be pointed out ; their un* 
\ rivalled efficacy in leading a young mind to think. By the 
perspicuity of expression which Reid employs, and the 
uncommon clearness of his conceptions, he excites the 
reflection of his readers upon their own mental operations 
so skilfully, that they are scarcely sensible of the exertion. 
And unquestifmably the finest school for this most iippor- 
tant and difficult of all acquirements, the power of refiect- 
ingon the opecations of our own minds, is the writings of 

' REIGNY (Louis Abbl Beffroi), commonly called 
Cousin Jaques, a very eccentric French writer, was born 
at Laon Nov. 6, 1757. From his eighteenth to bis twenty- 
. second year, be taught rhetoric and the belles lettres in 
several colleges, and came to Paris in 1770, where he was 
made a member of the Mus6e and of the Lyc^m of arts* 
He was also a member of the academy of Bretagne, and of 
many other learned societies, all which seem to indicate 
r^eputation and talents. The former. he employed every 
queans to acquire, but appears in general to have been more 
ambitious of temporary than lasting fame, and thought 
himself very successful when be puzzled the wits of Paris 
with the strange titles of bis publications. In 1799 he 
began to publish, in a periodicar form, what be called 
** Dictionnaire des hommes et des choses/' which his bio- 

1 Life by Mr. Ste<rart.— Other valuable remarks and particulars may be seen^ 
in Dr. Gleig*8 Supplement to the- Encyclopaedia Britanoica; and Forbes's Life 
i»f lSeattie.-«-Ba!dwin*f I^iterary Journali &c. kc, kc. 

IM R E I G N Y. 

grapher styles a whimsical work, without informing us in 
what respect. Something political seems to have entered 
into its composition, as after he had published several 
numbers, it was suppressed by the police. He tried his 
talents likewise on the theatre ; and if success be a proof 
6f merit, had no reason to complain. His plays were, 
1. '^ Les ailes de Tamour,'' which was performed at three 
theatres. 2. ** Le club des bonnes gens," played 117 
times at. Feydau, and often reprinted at Paris: 3. ** His* 
toire universelle," a comic opera, played S7 times at 
Feydau in 1790 and 1791. 4. "Nicodeme dans la Lune,'' 
represented 373 times. 5. « La petite Nanette," &c. 
and other operas, which were all successful, and of which 
he also composed the music, in an easy and agreeable 

His other publications were, 6. '^ Petites maisons du 
Parnasse," Bouillon, 1783, 8vo, a collection in prose and 
▼erse, mostly original, but some borrowed. 7. " MaU 
borough, Tarlututa, Hurlaberla," 3 vols. 8vo ; with the con- 
tents of this we are unacquainted, as well indeed as with 
those of the following. 8. " Les Ldnes," Paris, 1785^ 
1787, 24 vols. 12mo, of which two editions were published. 

9. ** Le Courier des Planetes," Paris, 1788, 1790, 10 vols. 

10. " Les Nouvelles Luties," Paris, 1791, 8vo. 11. " Le 
Consolateur," ibid. 1792, 3 vols. 8vo; 12. " La Consti- 
tution de la Lune," ibid. 1793. 13. "Testament d'nn 
electeur de Paris," ibid. 1795. 14. " Precis historiqoe de 
la prise de la Bastille," ibid. 1789, which is said to have 
gone through seventeen editions. 1 5. ^ Histoire de France 
pendant trois mois," ibid. 1789, 8vo. This fertile writer 
died at Charenton, near Paris, in April 1810.^ 

REINECCIUS (Reinier), a learned German, was m 
native of Steinheim, in the sixteenth century. He was a 
disciple of Melancthon, and taught the belles lettres in thef 
universities of Frankfort and Helmstadt till his desub, in 
1 595. His chief publications, on history and genealogy, 
in which he was profoundly versed, are, ** Syntaglna de 
Familiis Monarchiarum trium priorum," 1574 ; *' Familiffi^ 
Regum- JudsBorum;" " Chronicon Hierosolymitaniiiti ;" 
** Historia Orientalis ;" " Historia Julia," 3 vols, folio ; 
** Methodus Legendi Historiam." • 

REINESIUS (Thomas), a learned and philosophic Ger* 
onan, was born at Gotha, a city of Tburingia, in 1587. 

A Pict. Hitt > Moreri. 


He was a physician ; but applied himself to polite literatore, 
in which be tihiefly excelled. Afber practising physic iti 
other places, hd Settled at AUenbnrg for sevenu years^ and 
was made a burgo-master. At last, baring been raised to 
be counsellor to the elector of Saxony, he went to reside 
at Leipsic ; where he also died in 1667. One of his let- 
ters relates many circumstances of his life, and shews him 
to have met with many vexations ; though, as will appear 
afterwards, he was more than ordinarily upon his guard, 
that he miffht not be involved in the troubles of the world. 


He wrote a piece or two npon subjects of his own pro- 
fession ; but the greatest part of his works relate to philo- 
logy and criticism, among which are *^ Yarianim Lectio- 
Dum libri tres,'' in 4to. Bayle says, he was one of those 
philologers who know more than their books can teach 
them ; whose penetration enables them to draw many con* 
Sequences, and suggests conjectures which lead them tp 
the discovery of hidden treasores ; who dart a light into 
the gloomy places of literature, and extend the liiAits of 
ancient knowledge. By hiis printed letters^ it would ap- 
pear that he was consulted as an oracle ; that he answered 
Tery learnedly whatever questions were brought to him ; 
and that he was extremely skilled in the families of ancient 
Rome, and in the study of inscriptions. A great eulogium 
is given of his merit, as well as of his learned and political 
ivorks, by Grsvius, in the dedication of the second edi- 
tion of Casaubon^s epistles, dated Amsterdam, August 31, 
1655, and by Haller and Saxius. He partook of the libe- 
Tality which Lewis XIV. shewed to the most celebrated 
66h(dars of Europe, and received with the present a very 
obliging letter from Colbert; which favour he retorned, 
by dedicating to him bis '^ Observations on the Fragment 
of Petronius,'* in 1666. The religion of Beinesius was 
suspected to be of the philosophical kind.^ 

REINHOLD (Erasmus), an eminent astronomer sind 
mathematician, was born at Salfeldt in Thuringia, a pro^ 
vinc^ in Upper Saxony, the 11th of October, 1511. He 
studied mathematics under James Milicbi tit Wittemberg^ 
in which university he afterwards became professor of those 
^sciences, which he taught with great applause. After 
writing a nomber of useful and learned works, he died 

February 19, 1553, alt 42 years of age only. His writings, 



124 R £ I N H O L D. 

are chiefly the following : 1. <VTheori» nove Plauetaram 
Q. Purbacbii/' augmented and illustrated with diagrams 
and Scholia in 8vo, 1542; and again in 1580. In this 
work, among other things worthy of notice, he teaches (p. 
75 and 7,6) that the centre of the lunar epicycle describes 
an aoal figure in each monthly period, and that the orbit 
of Mercury is also of the same oval 6gure. 2. '* Ptolomy*s 
Almagest," the first book, in Greek, with a Latin version, 
and Scholia, explaining the more obscure passages,- 1549, 
8vo. At the end of p. 123 he promises an edition of 
Theon^s Commentaries, which are very useful for under- 
standing Ptolomy's meaning ; but bis immature death pre* 
vented Reinhold from giving this and other works which he 
had projected. 3. 'VPrutenicse Tabulse Coelestium Mo- 
tuum," 1551, 4to; again in 1571; and also in 1585, 
Reinhold spent seven years labour upon this work, in 
which he was assisted by the munificence of Albert, duke 
of Prussia, from whence the tables had their name. Rein- 
hold compared the observations of Copernicus with those 
of Ptolomy and Hipparchus, from whence he constructed ^ 
these new tables, the uses of which he has fully explained 
in a great number of precepts and canons, forming a com- 
plete introduction to practical astronomy. 4. *' Primus 
liber Tabularum Directionum ;^* to which are added, the 
" Canon Foecundus," or Table of Tangents, to every 
minute of the quadrant ; and New Tables of Climates, Pa- 
rallels, and Shadows, with an Appendix containing the 
second Book of the Canon of Directions; 1554, 4to. 
Reinhold here supplies what was omitted by Regiomonta- 
nus in his Table of Directions, &c. ; shewing the finding 
of the sines, and the construction of the tangents, the sines 
being found to every minute of the quadrant, td the ra« 
dius 10,000,000; and he produced the Oblique Ascensions 
from 60 degrees to the end of the quadrant* He teaches 
also the use of these tables in the solution of spherical 

Reinhold prepared likewise an edition of many other 
works, which are enumerated in the Emperor^s Privilege, 
prefixed to the Prutenic Tables; such as, Ephemerides for 
several years to come, computed from the new tables; 
Tables of the rising and setting of several Fixed Stars, for 
.many different climates and times; the illustration and 
establishment of Chronology, by the eclipses of the lumin- 
aries, and the great conjunctions of the planets, and by 

R E I N H O L D. 125 

tile a|^petrance of coinels, &c. ; the Ecdcftiastical Galea* 
dar; the History of Years, or Astronomical Calendar; 
^* Isagoge Spherica,'' or Elements of the doctrine of the 
Pfiioiam Mobile ; ** H^potyposes Orbium Ccelestium,'* or 
the Theory of Planets ; Goustroction of a New Quadrant; 
the doctrine of Plane and Spherical Triangles; Commen- 
taries on the work of Copernicus ; also Commentaries on 
the 1 5 books of Euclid, on Ptolomy's Geography, and on 
the Optics of Alhazen the Arabian. Reinbold also made 
Astronomical Observations, but with a wooden quadrant, 
which observations wdre seen by Tycho Brahe when he 
passed through Wittemberg in 1575, who wondered that 
so great a cultivator of astronomy was uot furnished with 
better instruments. 

' Reinhold left a son, named also Erasmus after himself, 
an eminent mathematician and physician at Salfeldt. He 
wrote a small work in the German language, on Subter- 
ranean Geometry, printed in 4to at Erfurt, 1575. He 
wrote also concerning the New Star which appeared in 
Cassiopeia in 1572; with an Astrological Prognostication, 
published in 1574, in the German language.' 

REISKE (John James), an extraordinary scholar, and 
equally extraordinary man, who has furnished us with very 
curious memoirs of his life, was born Dec. 25, 1716, at 
Zorbig, a small town near Leipsic, of ancestors of whom 
he knew nothing, except that his grandfather was an inn- 
keeper. He was educated at the school of Zorbig until 
ten years old, then was removed to Soschen, where a gen- 
tleman, to whom he afterwards in gratitude dedicated his 
remarks on the '^ Tusculan questions,'' brought him very 
forward. Thence be went to school at Halle, where he 
complains of the length of the prayers, and of the ignorance 
of bis teacher, who knew nothing of Latin. In 1733 he 
removed to the university of Leipsic ; but instead of at* 
tending to Greek, mathematics, and polite literature, gave 
himself, ** in an evil hour," to Rabbinical learning, and 
Arabic. Such, however, was his ceconomy, that although 
during the five years be remained here, he received from 
home only two hundred dollars, he contrived not only to 
live, but to purchase most of the Arabic books then ex- 
tant, and in 1736 he had read them all. The last year, 
indeed, he obtained a scholarship of twenty dollars a^year, 

> Hutton's DietioMi^.—- Moreri, 

litlncb b^ i*igbfc b«v0 eogojed loogeri, bad i»e uot io i7$ff 
fle^ermiAOd to visii HolFan4^ without evec considering bow 
be vr9s icf tf ansel witbout a^poej. He get out^ however^ 
Srom Letp^i^ to Lifta0qbu;rg io tbe commQii waggpn, avd 
tbeoce by tb^ Elbe to Haobburgb^ wbere be visited Reioiit-^ 
vmf first received bio cooUy^ but <^ diseoveriog 
bii leammg> gave hiip lettqrs^ andbecmiM bis &sit friends 
nor, be ad<b| did tbe worthy loep of Hambq^fb aend bim 
penttiless on tbe wny. 

On bis arrival at AivistercjaQi, be waa weU received by % 
frifeod of bis inoiber*^, who bad loarried a lioen^draf^er 
there. Next day be visited DorviUe,r to whom be bad m 
letter of recommendalioii fraisa professor Wolfe^ DerviUe 
offered him 600 florins a-year to live with bimi and be Ua 
^aiHiensis ; but ReUke tdld bioi that be was^ not come to 
Holland to make bis fortune,, wbicb be coutd have doM 
belter in hisi own country, but to look for Arabic naaou* 
scripts. Dorville seemed surprised and a little angry m% 
such an answer fVom, a man who had DOt a shilling ; b^ 
afterwards^ Reiike says, ^^ vye were very - good frieod% 
though I wonder we did so well together, for we were 
aEkuch of the same temper, hasty, ^passionatej and self-^ 
willed/^ He tben went to Leydeo, where be had the moiH 
lificatioe to be told that there ,was no provision in HoUaod 
fcff strangers, that it was vacation tinie^ that the scbolaM 
were all gone, and the library quite inaccessible. H^ 
eontrived, however, to pick up a livelihood, by beiag 
corrector of the press for Alberti's Hesycfaius> and giving 
a few lessons, when be couJid procure pupiki^ At lengtb 
he got introduced to Scbukens^ who allowed him to ei^jr 
Oriental MSS. at bis bouse, and teaqb his son Arabic* At 
tbe desire of Schultens, be applied himself to tbe Arabic 
poets, and publbbed an edition of tbe ^^ Meallakat'* in 
1740 ; but they did not quite agree .about spoae passages 
i»it, and this laid tbe foundation of the misunderstanding 
between them. In the mean tine he niade a eaialogue of 
Arabic MSS. in the Leyden library, a work which eool^ 
ployed htnit some months, and for which he was rewaKded 
with nine guilders, about eighteen shillings I 

Ail this, however, be called '^ going on well,*' and pro- 
ceeds to date his misfortunes from his displeasing the 
firiendfi of Burman. When Burman seo>t his ^^ PetropiasV 
to press, he was old and bed-ridden, and tbe correction of 
tbe work fell upon Reiske. He made some alterations in 

R E I S K E. 127 

ike firat volame, which Buhnan lived to see and was 
pleased with ; but hi^peDuig to take some greater liberties 
with the teat of Petronius, in the second, all Burman^a 
friends became his enemies; his scholars deserted him, and 
DorriUe broke with him* Peter Burman, the son, wrote 
a prefisce against Reiske, which he answered in the ^< Acta 
Eroditorom/* ' During his resideace here, as he saw no« 
thing wa^ to be done in divinity, he made some progress 
in the study of physic, and intended to return home and 
piactise; but, he inforass tis, '^ straigbtness of circam« 
stances, oddoess of humour, and the love of Arabic^ 
alwajTs kept him from it.'^ 

Two things determined him to leave Holland^ the one 
was that he had ofiended Schultens by some remarks on 
the study of Arabic ; the other, that in the thesis which he 
wsote for his medical degree, be incurred the suspicion of 
maierialisiii; but having got this degree June 10, 1746, 
he bade adieu to Holland. After a long apostrophe in 
admiration of Holhtnd, which, he says, he wishes he had 
nevier seen, or never left, he informs us that while with 
Dorville, be translated into Latin, some small French tracts^ 
which that auihoi inserted in his ^^ Miscellanea Critica ;^* 
made collections for him from MSS* or other literary cu* 
riositieB ; translated his '< Cbarito'* into Latin, and collated 
the copy vriiioh Dorville had received from Cocchi at 
Elorence. They quarrelled, however, because Dorville not* 
oaty altered some parts of this translation, but obliged 
Bmske to do the same himself before bis face. 
' After some stay at his native place Zorbig, where he 
could find no opportuni^ of settling advantageously, he 
was obliged to return to Leipsic. In 1747, he tells us he 
was made professor for the publication of a tract, entitled* 
^ De principibus Mahummedanis literarum laude claris.*^ 
From this time be lived, during many years, in want and 
obscurity, frequently not knowing wbere to get bread to 
eat. What he did get, be says, was hardly earned, by 
private instruction, writing books, correcting for the press, 
translations, and working for reviews ; and thus he went 
on from 1746 to 1758 «. 

* The reader will wonder bow Reiske a reader of books, as well at a writers 

could be in such want wiih so many and would often buy them without 

4>ccopationt. As a corrector of the thinking whether he should have money 

press atone, he would have done very enough left to buy next day's dinner, 

wall ; what ruined him was, his being Besides this, hetiad the rage of pab- 

12$ R E I S K E. 

In the mean time, in 1 748, be wrote bis ^^ Progmmiaa 
de epocba Arabuin, &c/^ for wbicb he was made Arabic 
professor, but id this o6Sice be complains of being rewarded 
by an ilUpaid salary of one hundred dollars a year. In. the 
autumn of that year a bookseller at Leyden agreed.with 
bini for a publication of Abulfeda^s History in Latin and 
Arabic : tb^ first sheet was accordingly printed, and made 
bim known in France and England; and the whole, he 
8ays„ would have followed, if it had not been for his quarrel 
with ScbuUens. Keiske appears to have had an extraordi* 
oary propensity to quarrelling, and being a reviewer, was 
not sparing of the means, by reviewing in an arrogant and 
petulant style the works of those persons with whom he 
was living in apparent friendship. He even unblushingljr 
avows that a sort of revenge led him to speak ill of the 
Works of some of his friends. He speaks at the same time* 
of the bitter remorse with which he reflected on liis treat- 
ment of Schultens, who ^' had been a father to him,^* ac<* 
knowledges the acid of youthful pride which mixed ^ith 
bis criticisms,^ and yet talks of being influenced by the 
** conscience and duty" of a reviewer f 

Among the works wbicb be performed for bread, and 
umta Mtnervoy were a translation of the life of Cfayistina 
from the French, and an index to the translation of the His** 
tory of the academy of inscriptions. Thdse which he wrote 
am anwre were his criticisms in the Leipsic Acts, which 
were very numerous, his *^ Greek Anthology/' and kk 
1754 the first part of his ^< Annales Moslemici,'' dedicated 
to the curators of the university of Leyden^ who, as he 
says, did not thank him, and he sold only thirty copies^ 
After a little Arabic effusion, called ^^ Risalet Abit Wall-* 
cit,*' he began his ^' Animadversiones ad autores Grascos,'* 
and printed five volumes of them, which cost him 1000 
fhalersy of which be never saw more than 100 again* i^ I 
have, however,** be says, *^ enough for five volumes; morei,; 
and should go quietly out of the world, if I couldonce see> 
tjiem printed, for they ^xejlos ingemi met (that is supposing} 
it to be allowed that my genius has any flowers).; and sure; 
I am, that little as their worth is now known, and much aa 
they have been despised, the time will come when party 
and jealousy shall be no more, and justice will be done 

Ii«binj^ things which mouldered away bay leather, and send it to Zorbig,^ 
in a dark room, and besides this he where she sold it by retaiL Note by 
had his mother t» keep, He used to Mrs. Reiske. 

ft E I S K E. \2^ 

li^etai.^-^Should they come out in my life-time, it will pay 
toe for all my trouble : if they should not, an ever-waking 
Ood will take care^ that no impious hand seizes on tiiy . 
Work, arid' makes it his own. Possibly there may arise 
'^dmef honourable God-fearing man, who may hereafcet 
publish them unadulterated to my posthumous fame, and 
fer the good of litei'ature t such is my wish, siich are my 
prayers to God,— «-and he will hear those prayers.*' 

Ifi'1755, he was chosen fellow of GotscHed's society of 
the fihe. arts. This produced two sniall papers, which are 
in the Transactions of that society, and an acquaintance 
with bis wife, the sister of Probst, who came With him to 
Leipsic. Hei* modesty, goodness of heart, and love of 
Earned nieii, caught his heart ; but the war broke out, and 
he did not marry tilt nine years after. In 1756 he made a 
catalogue of the Arabic coins in the library at Dresden, 
and translated Thogtai in a couple of days. It came out 
with a preface and notes, containing accounts of the Ara- 
bic poet*. There were only two hundred copies printed. 
" The war now raged very fiercely all over Saxony, and poor 
Reiske was obliged to avail himself of Ernesti^s generosity, 
who gave him bis table for two yeai*S3 but in 1758, hi^ 
fortunes took a surprizing and most unexpected turn, and 
he was made independent, by being appginted rector of 
tti^schc^ol of St. Nicholas. This he tells us he had had an 
om^n of at the beginning of the year; for, rising on new 
year's day, at three o'clock in the morning, as was bis con- 
^ant custom, to pursue his translation of Libanius's letters, 
be found that he had come to a letter written to Anatolius, 
atfd the first word he read was Anatolius. '^Now,'' says 
he, ^' thought I, the year is come in which God will let 
the! light of his countenance shine upon thee; and in five 
fl^eks rfter Haltaus (his predecessor) died." 
'• About 1763 be translated Demosthenes and Thucydides 
iilto German, and married Mrs. Reiske, a woman of great 
liuhrary accoQiplishments. In 1768 he issued proposals for 
his edition of Demosthenes, which forms the first two vo- 
latiies ofhis **Oratores Graeci." On this occasion we have 
at! interesting note from Mrs. Reiske. ** When the work 
went to press, only twenty thalers of the subscription 
[ftoiiey btid cOme in. The good man was quite struck down 
with this, and seemed to have thrown away all hope. His 
grief went to my ^oul, and I comforted him as well as I 
could, and persuaded hrm to sell my jewels, which be at 

Vol. XXVI. K 

)30 R E I S K E. 

length came into^ after I had convioced him that a few 
9hining stones were not necesss^ to my happiness." The 
work at length appeared in 1770. His <^ Theocritus,** puh^* 
Ijshed in 1765, be calls a bookseller^s job, and it certainly- 
is not the best of his critical efforts. It was published ia 
2 vols. 4to, to which he would have added a third, could 
be have agreed with bb bookseller. His '^ Plutarch'* and 
'^ Dionysius Halicarnassensis** were also edited by him for 
the booksellers ; but the ^^ Oratores Grasci** was the work 
of bis choice, and one on which his reputation may safely 

Reiske died Augnst 14, 1774. Much of his character 
may be learned from what he has himself told us. Mrs. 
Reiske, who completes his memoirs, attributes to him a 
hi.igh degree of rectitude, and adds, that he often blamed 
himself in cases where he deserved no blame, and always, 
thought he ought to be better than he was. He though^; 
ill of mankind, and we have seen that some part of his owa 
practice was not very well calculated to lessen that batjL 
opinion in other minds. When speaking of his ill-treat- 
ment of Scbultens, who had accused him of irreligion, he 
denies this, and adds, ^* the worst he could say of me, hap-' 
pily for me, was, that I was a proud, insolent, and ungrate- 
ful young man.** 

Mrs. Reiske informs us that his unexampled love of let- 
ters produced not only all the works be has published, and. 
all the MSS. he left behind him \ but every man who had 
any thing to publish, might depend upon his countenance 
and protection. He gave bopks, advice, subscription, evea. 
all that be bad. Nay, he niad^ up to several people tb^t 
bad treated him ill, only in order that he might make their, 
works better. He was also a man of grea^ charity. As a 
scholar his character is too well known to require a prolix, 
detail of bis various knowledge. He had read all the Greek 
and Latin authors, and all the Arabic ones, more .thaa 
once, and was . likewise acquainted with the best Italian, 
French, English, and German writers. He read Tilloib- 
son^s and Barrow*s sermops constantly, and used to traqs*. 
late them for bi^ wife into French. His memfory was ao 
wonderful that he remembered all he had heard, and. could 
repeat a sermon he had heard almost verbatim. In the lastt 
days of his life he called all his learned wprks trifles. '^ All- 
these troublesome labours,*' said be, '^ cannot preserve me 
from the judgment seat, at which I must soon appear-<-my 

bhiy iconfidiititffe prbdeedb froin the thbUgAts ot bavihff 
lived' uprighdy before God:'* 

H»^ ddminerde tfith the leilrned was ^ m extensive. 
Amori^liis c6i¥espbnddnts b^ ^ainefate^ Abrescb^ Albert!, 
Albifibs^ Askew, Bandini, Battbblotnei, Bernard, Biau- 
feohi, Bildfer, Bbridam, flnd%, Gteher, Gronovias, Ha- 
Vei'cariip, Hemstbrhuys, Miichaelis, Osel, cardinal Quirini, 
Reidiarns, ^ebtisch, Wolfe,' ind' Wittembach. Of some 
of these, hoWever, he speaks with little respect. Of hh 
wotte, tweiity^seveh of which are etiumerated by Harles, 
we have noticed the principal. He wrote his own life as 
far as 1771, which was continued by Mrs. Reiske, and 
piiblished in 1783.' 

* RELAND (Hadrian), an eminent orientalist, was born 
at Ryp, a village in* North-Holland, July 17, li576. His 
father was minister of that village^ but afterwards removed 
tx) Alkmaar^ and then to Atnsterdam, in which last city 
tlelahd was educated with great care ; and at eleven years 
of age, having passed through the usual courses at school,^ • 
was placed in the college under Surenhusius. During three 
y^ars of study under this professor, he made a great pro- 
griess in the Hebrew, Syriac, Chaldee, and Arabic lan- 
guages ; and at his leisure hours applied himself to poetry, 
in which he was thought to succeed. At fourteen, he was 
sent to Utrecht ; where he studied under Grsevius and 
Lensden, acquired a more perfect knowledge of the Latin 
at)d oriental tongues, and applied himself also to philoso- 
phy, in which he afterwards took the degree of doctor. 
At seVehteen, he entered upon divinity under the direc- 
tion of . Herman Witsius and others ; but did not abandon 
,ther oriental languages, which were always his favourite 
stiidy. After he had resided six years at Utrecht, his fa- 
ther sent him to Leydeit, to continue his theological stu- 
dies undet Frederic Spanheim and oth^rk ; where be soon 
- received the offer of a professorship at Linden, either in 
pfailosopby or the oriental languages. This he would have 
accepted; though only two and twenty ; but his father*s 
iH state of health would not allow hirti to remove so far from 
Amsterdam. In 1699, he was elected professor of philo- 
sophy at Harderwick, but did not continue there long ; for," 
king William having recommended him to the magistrates 

> Life ttt tb«yd> itLM«t3)^*a ]U«M«, vol. VII.*<p-Hartotf «le yitii pbilplofortttt/ 
vol. IV.«-Saxii Ooomast. 

1S2 R E L A N D. 

of Utrecht, he was offered in 1701 the professorship of 
oriental languages and ecclesiastical history, which be rea- 
dily accepted. In 1703, he took a wife, by whom he. had 
three children. In 17 13, a society for the advancement 
of Christian knowledge was established in England, as was 
that for the propagation of the gospel in foreign part» the 
year after ; of both which Reland became a member. He 
died of the small-pox, at Utrecht, Feb. 5, 1718,. m hi» 
forty -second year. He was a man of an excellent disposi- 
tion, and of great humanity and modesty, of great learn- 
ing, and had a correspondence with the most, eminent 
scholars of his time. 

He wrote and published a great number of works, in 
order to promote and illustrate sacred and oriental learn- 
ing ; the chief of which are these ; ** De Religiooe Mo- 
hammedica libri duo,*' 1705, 12mo. The first book con«» 
tains a short' account of the faith of the Mahometans, ii> 
an Arabic manuscript with a Latin translation ; the second 
vindicates them from doctrines and imputations falsely, 
charged apon them. A second edition, with great addi**- 
tions, was printed in 1717, 12mo. *^ Dissertationum Mis- 
cellanearum Partes Tres," 1706, 1707, 1703, 12mo. These 
three parts are not always, found together. They comprize 
thirteen dissertations upon the following curious subjects: 
« De situ Paradisi Terrestris ;'* " De Mari Rubro ;" " De. 
Monte Garizim ;" " De Ophir ;'* " De Diis Cabiris ;" 
<* De Veteri Lingua Indica;?* ^* De Samaritanis;'* "De 
Reliquiis veteris lingUBB Persicse ;" " De Persicis vocabulis 
Talmudis;*' ^^'Dejure Militari Mohammedanorum contra 
Christianos bellum gerentium ;*' '* De Unguis InsuJarum 
quarundam orientalium ;'' ^' De Unguis Americaoi^ ;*' " De 
Gemmis Arabicis." His next work was, ^^ Antiquitates- 
SacrsB Veterum Hebrseorum," 1708, 12mo; but the best 
edition is that of 1717, 12mo, there being many additions. 
He then published ^^ Dissertatlones Quiuque de.Nummis 
veterum Hebraeorum, qui ab inscriptarum literarum forma 
Samaritani appellantur. Accedit dissertatio de marmoribus 
Arabicis Puteolahis,'' 1709, 12mo. But his greatest wojrk 
was "Pals^stinaex monumentis vejieribus illustrata, & cbar- 
tis Geographicis accuratioribus adornata,.^' Trigect. ,1714^ 
2 vols. 4to. This edition is superior, in all respects to that 
of Nuremberg, 1716, 4to. ^' De Spoliis Templis Hiero* 
solymitani in arcu Titiano Romas conspicuis liber, ca A 
figuris>" 1716^ l2mo. 

R E L A N p. 133 

lUlaiid publisbed qoany smaller tbiiigs of his^own, among 
ivhicb were Latin poems and orations; and was also con- 
cerned as an editor of books written by others. His works 
are all in Latin, and neatly printed.' 

REMBRANDT (Van Ryn), an eminent painter and 
engrayer, was born at a Tillage nealr Leyden, in 1606. 
The real name of bis family was GERR£TSZy but from having 
resided early in- life at a village upon the banks of the 
Rhine, he obtained that of Van Ryn. Of his personal 
history we have very few particulars. His father was a 
mijler. After an unsuccessful attempt to avail himself of 
the advantages of a college education at Leyden, he is 
said to have been indebted for bis earliest instruction as a 
painter to Jacques Vanzwaneaburg. He afterwards studied 
under Peter Lastman at Amsterdam^ under whose name a 
print is in ^circulation, which the author of the supplement 
to the worka ^ Rembrandt denominates ** Lot and his 
Daughter/' but which is intended to represent Judah and- 
Tamar. Had this print, says Rembrandt's late biographer^ 
been in fact the production of Lastman, it would have ap- 
peared that Rembrandt had been much indebted to his pre- 
ceptor, as well for the manner of his execution in his etch* 
ings,. as for the style of his design ; but it is the work of 
Van Noordt, probably after a design of Lastnuin, and is 
certainly posterior in poin.t jof time to many of those of 

Rembrandt was first brought into notice by having taken 
•a picture to the Hague, and offered it for sale to an able 
connoisseur; who, conscious of his merit, treated him with 
4cindnesi$, and gave him a hundred ftorins for iu By this 
. incident both hiinself and the public were made acquainted 
with his worth ; and hence aros^ the reputation' and suc« 
xess he afterwards enjoyed. Incessant ^occupation soon 
crowded upon him, and many pupils applied for admission 
into his school, with each of whom ^he received 100 florins 
a year ; and whose copies of his pictures he uot unfre- 
quently sold as orig>ifials, after bestowing a short time upon 
them himself. By these means, aided by incessant in* 
<)ustry, and the sale of etchings, which he produced with 
<great facility and skill, lie accumulated considerable 
wealth : his income, according u» Sandrart, being, for a 
length of time, at least 2500 florins yearly, 

* Clen. I)ict.*-Niccron, vol. h — BunnaD Trajcct. Erudil.— rSaxii Onomast. 

134 R E M B R A N 9 T. 

His pl»ce of re^idence^ diiring this 8.<ic0e$6ful diiqplay of 
hU talents, was Amsterdam, where bis peculiarities pro-* 
cured him the character of a humourist, whilst his. abilities 
astonished and delighted his contemporaries, and he pro« 
duced those works which .still gratify si^cceeding ages. The 
peculiarities of his mind are as much obseryable in the 
manner of producing his effects, as in the choice ofthe 
luaterials. The execution of his: earlier works waa in a 
style highly laboured, with great ue^cbness, and patient 
completion of the figure^ ; such is. that of the pictiure of 
the woman taken in adultery atMnAugec^tein'^ As .he 
advanjc^d in arj^ he took liberties with the pencil, wixstught 
lyith all the broad fnloess of the brushi aad left the tohch 
iindisturbed : he eveti employed the stick, the pallet-katifei 
or his fingers, accor4ingly as they were most capable of 
producing the effect he desired when, seen at a pi»per 
distance^ disregarding the ap{»earaace of the mrork upon* a 
dosjer inspection. 

, la his pictures is.exhibited a total inattention to the taste 
of the antique ; he is e¥:eu said lo hare mcfde it a subject of 
ridicule, and to. have jocosely denominated a coUeotroa jof 
old armoun and rich jdresses, which he had collected^pd 
employed to study and paint from, ^^ his antiques J' These 
he evidently used as his models, though fi«qufSDtly in most 
heterogeneous combinjition ; but by an innate power of seiss*- 
ing the most striking effects produced by light, and shade, 
superadded to the most perfect mastery over the .materials 
of the. pallet, healwaya excited an interest, either. by ori^ 
gioality or beauty. 

It is not, however, the approval of his power in the tech- 
nical part of the art, which can Oi ought to satisfy the ob- 
server of the works of Rembrandt. .He wa^,-says Fuseli, a 
meteor in art. Disdaining to acknowledge the usual laws 
of admission to the Temple of Famej he hokUy forged his 
own keys, and entered and took possession of a moat coor 
spicuous place by his own power. He was undoubtedly a 
genius of the first class in whatever is not. immediately re- 
lated to form or taste. : |n spite of the most portentous de- 
formity, and without considering the speU of. his .chiaro- 
scuro, such were his powers of i\ature,. such the grandeur, 
pathos, or si9iplicity, of his composition, from the most 
elevated or extensive arrangement to the ipeanest or jmost 
homely, that the most untutored and the best ctiltivated 
eye, plain common sense and the most refined sensibility. 


dwell on them equally enthralled. Shakspeare alone ex-* 
cepted, no one conrtbined with such transcendant excel- 
lence, so many, in all other men, unpardonable faults, and 
reconciled us to them. He possessed the full empire of 
light and shade, ahd the tints that float between them. 
He tinged his pencil with equal success in the cool oi^ 
dawt), in the noon-tide ray, in the vivid flash, in evanes- 
cent twilight, and rendered darkness visible. Though 
Aiade to bend a steadfast eye on the bolder phaenomena of' 
nature, yet he knew how to follow her into her calmest 
abodes, gave interest to insipidity or baldness, and plucked 
a flower in ev^ry desert. Few like Rembrandt knew how' 
to improve ati accident into a beauty, or give importance 
to a trifle. If ever he had a master, he had no followers. 
Holland was not made to comprehend his power : the suc- 
ceeding school consisted of colourists, content to tip the 
cottage, the hamlet, the boor, the ale-pot, the shambles, 
and the haze of winter, with orient hues, or the glow of 
setting summer suns. 

Mr. Daulby, Who, in his late ** Catalogue of the works of 
Rembrandt,'' has appreciated his character with great pre-* 
cision and perspicuity, and differs not much, upon the 
whole, iirom Mr. Fuseli, observes, that whatever may be 
thought of Rembrandt as a historical painter, his portraits 
are deservedly held in the highest esteem. The accuracy 
of his pencil insured a striking resemblance, whilst his skill 
in the msLnagemeht of light and shadow, and his thorough' 
acquaintance with the harmony and eflect of his tints, 
tabled him to give to his subjects an appearance of reality 
so striking, as in some instances to have actually imposed 
on the senses of the spectators. Thus, a picture of his 
maid- servant placed at the window of his house in Amster- 
dam, where he fixed his permanent residence about 1630, 
is said to have deceived the passengers for several days. 
This fact is at least authenticated by De Piles, who bad the 
curiosity when he was in Holland, to inquire after this 
picture, and finding it was well penciled, and possessed a 
great force, purchased it, and esteemed it as one of the 
highest ornaments of his cabinet. All Rembrandt's pictures 
can be purchased only at very high prices. There are 
many fine specitnens of them in this country, and many in 
the royal collection at Paris. We know not, however, 
whether Rembrandt's merits are not more familiar, in o;e- 
neral, from his prints, than from his pictures. Of these. 

136 H E MB R A NOT. 

ever since his time, collections have been formed in ev^f 
part of Europe, and even the emulation of sovereigns baa 
bpen excited, and the treasures of royalty expended in tbcar 
acquisition. \ . ' 

His prints, which are partly etchings, and partly en- 
gravings, performed with the point of the graver in a sin* 
gular manner, have all that freedom of touch, spirit, aiid, 
greatness of effect, discoverable in hi^ paintings, supposing, 
them to be assisted by the variety of colours. Considering, 
the great quantity of etchings which \ie made, we cawnof; 
suppose they should be all equally well executed, or equak 
in value. Mr. Gilpin, who has resolved the. expellence :Of. 
Rembrandt as a painter into, colouring only, observes th%t 
his prints, deprived of this palliative, have only his infe-o 
rior quallBcations to recommend them. These, be. states, 
are, expression and skill in the management of light, exe- 
cution, and sometimes composition. His expression has. 
ipost force in the character of age.^ Hem^rks as, strongly, 
as the hand, of time itself. He possesses too, in a grea^ 
degree, that inferior kind of expresspn, which gives its 
proper and characteristic toqch to drapery, fur, metal^ 
and every object he represents. His management of light, 
consists chiefly in making a very strong contrast, which b^s- 
often a gopd effect ; and yet in many of his prints^ therct i^r 
1)0 effect at all ; which gives us reason to think, he eiiher* 
bad no principles, or published such prints before bis prin*, 
ciples were ascertained. His execution is peculiar to him.- 
self It is rough, or neat, as he m^ant a sketch, or a^ 
finished piece ; but always free and masterly^ It produces^. 
its effect by strokes intersected in every direction; and 
comes nearer the idea of painting, than the execution of 
any other master. 

There is perhaps no branch of collectorshipthat exhibits 
more caprice than that of prints in general, or of Reqi- 
br^ndt's prints in particular, which appears by the different 
estimation in which the same subject, is held, merely on; 
account of a slight alteration in some unimportant part. 
Mr. Daulby instances this in tbe^ Juno without the crown, 
the Ooppenol with the white back-ground, the Joseph 
with the face unshaded, and the good Sapnaritan with the., 
horse's tail white, ^ which are regarded as inestimable l 
whilst the sarhe subjects, without these distinctions,^ are; 
considered as of little comparative value. Strutt mentions, 
that, in consequence of a commission from an eminent coU 


lector, he gave foity-MiC guineas for the Coppenol with the 
white back-gfound, i. e. before it was dniebed i when, the 
tone evening, at tbe same Bale, he bought a moiit beautiful 
impression of tbe sf me print finished, distinguished by hav- 
ing a black back<-gjround, &c. which had an address to Rem* 
brandt at the bottom, written by Coppenol himself (for he 
was a writing-master of Amsterdam, and this print is his 
portrait), for fourteen guineas and a half. In the second 
instance, he adds, that he exceeded his commission by thjo 
balf guinea ; but in the first did not reach it by nearly 
twenty guineas. Mr. Dauiby s^ems to be of opinion that 
Rembrandt, who loved money, availed himself of this hu- 
Qiour in collectors. Tbe facility with which be could 
change tbe eifect of his etchings, by altering, obliterating,, 
or workhigon them again, enabled him to provide sufficient 
amusemeut for his admirers ; and hence varieties frequently 
occur which are not easily explicable. He is even said to 
have frequently suSered himself to be solicit^ed before be 
would consent to dispose of them ; and it is a well-attested 
fact, that the print of ** Chrisrhealing the sick,'* usually 
denominated the *^ Hundred Guelder," was so called be-* 
cause he refused to sell an impression of it under that 
pcice. Of this print we may remark that it is generally. 
esteemed the chef d^oeuvre of Rembrandt, being highly 
finished, the characters full of expression, and the effect; 
of the chiaroscuro very fine. Gilpin mentions twenty gui- 
neas, as the price of a good impression of this print; Mr.. 
Dauiby thirty, to which twenty more, we are assured, must 
now be added. Captain Baillie purchased the plate in 
Holland, and retouched it for publication, in 1776, at four 
guineas to subscribers, and five to non-subscribers. It has 
since been cut up, but there are ipnpressions of the two 
groups from the left extremity, one above the other. 
Bembrand^^s rarest and most expensive portraits are those 
of Wtenbogardus, called in Holland, ** ihe Goldweigher,'* 
and in France " the Banker;" Van Tol, the advocate, sold 
as high as fifty-guineas ; and the burgomaster Six, of equal, 
value* This burgomaster was Rembrandt^s particular friend 
and patron, and had the largest collection of his prints 
that ever was formed in his life-time. Strutt^lves 340 
as the number of Rembrandt's prints ; but the largest col- 
lection known, that of M. De Burjyy, at the Hague, col- 
lected between the years 1728 and 1755, consisted in tbe 
whole, including the varieties, of 655 prints. 


This great artist died at Amsterdam in 1 BBS, or, ae6ord-' 
log to some, in 1674. The little known of his perBonel 
eharadter is not favourable. He was extremely fond of 
money, and not very scrupulous in his mode of procuring- 
it. He is also represented as being fond of low company ; 
a degrading taste, which seldom fails to affect a man's pro-^ 
fession, whatever it may be.* 

REMIGIUS, or REMI (St.), a celebrated archbishop 
of Lyons in the ninth century, and grand almoner to the 
emperor Lotharius, succeeded Amolo, in. the above see^ 
about the year 853 or 854. ' There being other prelates of 
this name, we find some confusion as to their actions and 
writings ; but it is supposed to be this St. Remigius, who, 
in the name of the church of Lyons, wrote an answer to 
the three letters of Hincmar of Rheims, and others, ii> 
which he defends St. Augustine^s doctrine on grace and 
predestination, which he apprehended to have been at-^ 
tacked by the condemnation of Godescalc. This answer 
may be found in the " Vindiciae Predestinationis et Gra- 
tise," 1650, 2 vols. 4to, and in the Library of the Fathers; 
as also a translation by the same author, *^ On the con- 
demnation of all men in Adam, and the deliverance of 
some by Jesus Christ.*' He presided at the council of 
Valence in the year 855, and others of the same kind ;' 
and, after founding some pious institutions died Oct 28, 
in the year 875. Others of his works are in the " Library 
of the Fathers." • 

REMIGIUS, or REMI (St.), a very celebrated arch- 
bishop of Rheimsj was born of an illustrious family, and heir 
to great wealth. He was raised to the see of Rheims about 
the year 460; distinguished himself by his learning and 
virtue, converted and baptised king Clovis, and die4 about 
January 23, in the year 533. Some Letters, and a Testa-: 
ment, in the library of the Fathers, and in Marlot's History 
of Rheims, are attributed to him. ' 

REMIGIUS of Auxerre, was a learned French Bene* 
dictine monk in the ninth century, and brought up in the 
abbey of St. Germain, at Auxerre, whence he derived that 
appendix to his name by which he is distinguished. Hav-^ 

1 Pilkington, — Daulby*t <^ Di*8crfptiv« Catotogoe,** 1796, 4to atnd Svo. — 
StruU's Dictionary. — Gilpin*s Eisay on Prints.— Argenviile, vol. .111.— Sif J. 
Keynolds's Works j see Index. 

• Cave, vol. 1. — Duprn. 

3 Cave, vol. 1. — Fabric. Bib!. Lat. Med. 

R E at I G I U S. 139 

jn^ ma^ ^r£»t pf bficie^jcfy iq profane and isocred lkera« 
ture^ he wai appointed principal teacher in the scfaooli 
%ietaagihg't6 his monastery^ 9ind afterwardi taught at Rbeioift 
viith- great reputation, until; he went to Paris, and opened 
tfa^.firist public school in that city, after learning, had sunk 
unde):!tbe jravages of the Normans. His works are, U 
<' CoDimentarius in omnes Daridis Psalmos," Cologne^ 
tSMf aihfithodtzed collection of opinions from the fathers.. 
ii. ^^ Enarrationes in posteriores XI. minores Propfaetat,^ 
Aatnierp, 1545, with the ^< Commentaries'* pf Oecume^ 
nius upon the Acts of the Apostles, and their Epistles, 
«|nd ihose of Aretbas upon the book of Revelation ; and 
^f Exppsitio Missa;.*' A ^''Conoimentary upon the Epistles 
ef St. Paul,'^ has been also ascribed to him, but on doubt* 
ful authority. It is more certain that he left behind hiol 
f^ A Commentary on the Musical Treatise of Martianus 
.Capella," which is among the MSS. in the king of France's 
library. No; 5304. * 

RENAU D'ELISAGARAY (Bernard), an able naval 
architect, was born in 1^52, in Beam, descended from the 
ancient bouse of Elisagaray iu Navarre. The count de 
Vermandois,' admiral of France, engaged his services in 
16791, by a pension of a thousand crowns; and his opinion 
jponcerning^the construction of ships was preferred to that 
of M. Duguesne, even by that gentleman himself. In 
consteqiience of this, Benau received orders to visit Brest 
and th0 other ports, that he might instruct the ship-buil- 
ders, whose sons of fifteen or twenty years old he taught 
ito build the largest ships, which bad till then required the 
experience of twenty or thirty years. Having advised the 
Ibombardment of Algiers in 1680, he invented bomb*boats 
ibr that ea:peditton, and the undertaking succeeded. After 
the admiral's decease, M. Vauban placed M. Renau in a 
situation to conduct the sieges of Cadaquiers in Catalonia, 
of Pfailipsburg, Manheim, and Frankendal. In the midst 
of this tumultuous life be wrote his *^ Th^orie de la ma- 
DGsuvre des Vaisseaux," which was published 1689, Svo. 
The king, as a reward for M. Kenan's servicest, made him 
captain of a ship, with orders that he should have free ac* 
cess to, and a deliberative voice in the councils of the ge- 
nerals, an unlimited inspection of the navy, and authority 
4;o teach the pfficers any new methods of his invention ; to 

A Cave, vol. I.— Dupia. 


140 R E N A U. 

"whicb.- was added a pension of 12,000 jfivret. The grand 
master of Malta requested his assistaMe to defend that 
island against the Ttriics, who were expected to besiege 
it; but the; siege not taking place, M. Renau went back 
to France, and on his return was appointed cooosellor to 
the iiavy, and grand .croix of St« Louis. He died Sept. 
30, 1719. ,He had been adnutted an honorary member 
of the Academy of Sciences in 1699. He has left several 
Letters, in answer to the objections raised by Huy gens and 
Bernouilli against his Theory abovementioned* He was a 
man of reflection, read little, but thought much ; and, what 
appears a greater singularity, he meditated more deeply 
when in the midst of company, where he was frequently* 
found, than in solitude, to which he seldom retired. He 
was very short, almost a dwarf, but adroit, lively, witty, 
brave, and the best engineer which France has produced, 
except M. de Vaiibaa. * 

RENAUDOT (Eusebius), a French writer, very learned 
]R Oriental history and languages, was born at Paris in 
1646 ; and, being taught classical literature by the Jesuits^ 
and philosophy in tbe college of Harcourt, afterwards en- 
tered into the congregation of |pe oratory, where he did 
not continue long. His father b^ing first physician to the 
daupbiq, he was early introdued to scenes, where his parts, 
his learning, and his politeness, made him admired. His 
reputation was afterwards advanced aad established by se- 
_vcural learned works, which he published. In 17O0, heat-^ 
tende.d cardinal de Noailles to Rome; and receivied great 
bonqi^rs, together witli tbe priory of Frossey in Bretagne, 
from popp Clement y. Returning by Florence be was 
honoured in the santie manner by the great duke ; and was 
also m.ade a men)ber of the academy Crusca. On iiis 
returii to France be devoted himself entirely to letters, 
and composed a great number of learned dissertations,, 
which are printed in the " Memoirs of the Academy of 
Inscriptions," of which he was a member, as well as of the 
French academy. He died in 1720. Voltaire blames him 
for having prevented Bayle's dictionary from being printed 
in France. This is v«ry natural in. Voltaire and Voltaire's 
followersi; but it is a more serious objection to Renaudot, 
that, while biB love of learning made him glad to, corre- 
spond with learned Protestants, his cowardly bigotry prer 

I Cbaufepie.— Diet. Hist. 


Tented, him from avowiiig the connection. Not long before 
Dr. Pocock's death that eminent orientalist received a letter 
from Renaudot, in which he professes a very high esteem* 
for the doctor, desires the liberty of consulting him in alL 
the doubts that should occur in preparing his ** Collection 
of Liturgies/^ &c. and promises, in return for this favour, 
to make a public acknowledgment of it, and preserve a 
perpetual memory of the obUgation ; yet, when the above . 
work appeared, be travelled out of his way to reproach 
Dr. Pocock with a mistake, which was perhaps the only one , 
that could be discovered in his writings. 

Renaudot bequeathed his extensive library to the abbey . 
of St. Germain des Pres. His works are, a collection of. 
controversial pieces on the celebrated work respecting 
" the perpetuity of the Faith f " Historia Patriarcharum 
Alexandrinorum Jacobitarum,'' 1713, 4to, &c. " A Col- 
lection of ancient Greek and Oriental Liturgies," 1716, 
2 vols. 4to. <^ Two ancient Accounts of the Indies and 
China, with learned remarks,' ' 1718, &vo. "A Defence 
of the Perpetuity of the Faith," 8vo, against Aymon's 
Book. Several Dissertations in the Memoirs of the Aca- 
demy of Inscriptions. *^ Defense de THistoire des Patri- . 
arches d' Alexandria," 12aio. A Latin translation of '^The . 
Life of St. Athanasius," written originally in Arabic, and 
inserted in the edition of this Father's works by Muntfaa- . 
con, &c. ' . 

RENAUDOT (THE0PHRi5TUs), a physician, and a man 
learned in many respects, is said to have been the first au- 
thor of Gazettes in France in 1631. He was born at Lou- 
dun in 1583, and died at Paris, where he had spent the. 
greatest part of his life, in 1653. He left besides his Ga- 
zettes, a continuation of the " Mercure Fran^oise" from , 
1635 to 1643, in 25 vols. 8vo, the last six of which are the 
worst; but the most scarce were published by Renaudot. . 
He wrote also " Abr6g6 de la Vie et de la mort de Henri ^ 
de Bourbon^ prince de Gondii" 1646, 4to; " La vie et'la 
mort du Mar^chal de Gassion," 1647,, and "The Life 
of Cardinal Michael de Mazarin," brother of the prime 
minister of that name, 1648, 4to.^ 

RENNIGER (Michael), or, as Wood says, commonly 
called Rhanger, a learned divine and Latin poet, was born 

* Nieefon^ YOls. XIL and XX.— Moreri. — Diet. Hist.*— Twells*s Life of Pococic> 
p. 80. « Diet. Hi8t.--Moreri. 

142 k E N N I G E R. 

in Hamf^irei in 1*529, and educated ait Magcblen bdleg^ 
Oxford. Her6 he took his bachelor's degriee,- in Marcii 
T54f5*y was chosen fellow in 1547^ and aftei^wards completed 
bis ihaster's degree. In king Edward^s reign^ he was mudb 
esteemed as a pious preacher, and learned nian; but as be 
bad embraced the reformed religion, he was obligied' to' 
leave the kingdom on the accession of queen Mary, an'tf 
lived mostly with some other English exiles at Strasburgfa., 
When queen Elizabeth came to the throne, he was made 
one of her chaplains, and proved a zealous champion for 
the reformation. Wood says he refused- several preferments, 
accepting only a prebend in the church of Winchester, and 
about the same time the rectory of Crawley near that city*.' 
In 1567 he was installed precentdr and prebendary of Enl- 
pingham in the church of Lincoln. In 1573, he took his 
degrees in divinity, and in 1575 was made archdeacon of 
Winchester. In 1583, he had the prebend of Rjfeculver- 
land, in the church of St. Paul, Londoh,' bestowed on bitn; 
He died Aug. 26, 1609, aged eighty-nine, and was btrHed- 
in the church of Crawley, under the communion table. 

His works are, 1. <^ Carmina in mortem duorumfratrunt 
Suffolciensium, Henrici et CaroH Brartdon,"* Lond. 1552, 
4to. A specimen from this rare volume is given in Mr. 
Bliss's edition of the ^^ Athence,** from a copy in the Bod- 
leian. 2. *^ De Pii V. et Gregorii XIII. furoribus contra 
Elizabetham Reginam Anglise," ibid. 1582, 8vo. 3. *^ An 
Exhortation to true love, loyalty, and fidelity to her ma- 
jesty," ibid. 1587, 8vo, to which is added a treatise against^ 
Treasons; and 4. ** Syntagma hortationumtid Jacobum Re- 
gem AnglitB," ibid. 1604, 8vo. He also translated from 
Latin into English, bishop Foynet^s " Apology or Defence 
of Priests* marriages.'* Bale, who gives Dr. R6nniger a 
high character, attributes other works to him, but withotit 
specifying whether in MS. or print ; and there are, if we 
mistake not, some of his MSS. in Bene*t college library.^ 

REQUENO (Vincente), a learned Spanish Jesuit, was 
born in Grenada about J 730. After a liberal education, h\ 
which he made great proficiency in philosophy and matbe* 
niatics, and discovered much taste for the fine arts, he 

't' In 1561, bishop Qrindatl put choose a provost of Eton ; but Reniiiger, 
down his name among the persons being a married man, was rejected witU 
from whom queen Elizabeth might some others in the same situation. 

1 Tanner and Bale.-*Ath. Ox. toI. L n«w edit.— Stryp^'g life jof . Pariwr, ^. 

R E Q U E N a 14$ 

tetired to. Italy on the expulsion of his order. Tn 17 M ha 
9^0t to the society opened in Madrid . tof the fine arts, a 
oneaioir which gained the Qrst prize; and. in 17S8 be car-* 
med off the prize proposed by the academy of Seville* 
These two memoirs, which were printed in 1789, at Seville^ 
met with the approbation of all the foreign literiiry JQurnals; 
He had already obtained considerable fame on the conti- 
nent from his elaborate work, printed at Seville in 1766, 
on the ^' Roman Antiquities in Spain,'' and had contributed 
very much to Masdeu's critical and literary history of Spain, 
printed in 1781, &c. 'But perhaps he is best known to 
artists and mea of taste, by his <^ Saggi sul ristabilimento 
4eir antica arte de' Greci, e de' Romani Pittori," vol. I. 
Venice, 1784. The second edition of this elegant work 
vas published in 2 vols. 8vo, at Parma, by Mr. Joseph Mo-* 
lini in 1787, The author's object was, as the title indi-^ 
catea, to investigate and restore the ancient art of Grecian 
and Roman painting, and therefore in his (irst volume he 
give» a circumstantial account of encaustic painting as 
pra4;ti^^d by the ancients, by which the lustre of their works 
is preserved to this day. He proves that they not only 
used the encaustic art in painting, but em|)Ioyed it in var^ 
Dishing their statues, and even their litensiis, ships, houses, 
&c. After descanting on the disadvantages that arise from 
painting in oil, he discloses the method of preparing the 
materials employed in encaustic painting, with the manner 
of using them.; and substantiates this system by the opi- 
nions of many members of the Clementine academy of 
Bologne, and of several professors of the academies of Ve- 
nice, Verona, Padua, &c. also of others who, beside him- 
self, have tried them ; particularly at Mantua, where under 
the. patronage of the marcfuis Bianchi, many pictures were 
panted, of which Requeno gives an account. Artists, 
however, have not in general been very forward to adopt 
this plany which, as the author explains it, differs very 
qauch from what has been proposed by Count de Caylus, 
dochin, Bachelier, Muntz, and others. The abb6 Requeno 
vdied at Venice in 1799.* 

. RESENIUS (John Paul), a learned Danish divine, was 
the son of a Lutheran clergyman, and bom in Jutland, Feb. 
2, 1561. After his grammatical education, he went to the 
university of Copenhagen, and was afterwards made co- 

1 Diet. Hist Supplement. 

144 " R E S E N I U S- 

rector of the school of Vibourg. In 1585,' beiiig*appoii!(^ 
tutor to the young Frederick Koseokrantz, be travelled with 
him through. Germany, France, Italy^ &c. for seven yeard, 
part of which we must suppose was spent' in studying at 
some of the universities. On his return in 1592, he was 
appointed philosophical ' professor in ordinary, and after* 
wards extraordinary professor of divinity in the university 
of Copfsphagen. In J 594, having -been created doctor inf 
that faculty, he removed to the chair of ordinary professor. 
In 1606, when the king, Christiern VI. paid a visit to his 
ralation, king James, in England, who had married his 
sister, Resenius accompanied him as his chaplain. In 
1615 he. was appointed bishop of Rdscbildt in Zealand^ 
which he held until his death, Sept 14, 1638, ag^d seven^^ 
ty-seven. He was a man of great liberality, and bestowed 
in the course of his life 5500 crowns on schools and hospi^ 
tals. Besides a translation of the Bible into the Danish 
laqguage, published in 1605 — 7, he. published a great num- 
ber of theological dissertations and sermpns in the same 
language ; and the following works : *^ Parva logica," La-^ 
tin and Danish, 1605, 1610; *' Institutiones geometricae,^ 
1612; "Parva rhetorica,'' 1619; ** Scholia in arithmeti-^ 
cam GemmaB Fjrisii,'* 1611; and ^* De sancta fide in Deum, 
libellus apologeticus," Latin and Danish, 1614.^ 

RESENIUS (Peter John), probably of the same family 
as the preceding, a counsellor and professor in Copenha^ 
gen,, was born there June 17,1625. His father and his 
grandfathers, both by the father's and mother's side, were 
bishops of Zealand. He was appointed subf-principal of 
the college of Copenhagen in 1646; and having quitted 
that employment the following year, he set out to visit fo- 
reign countries. He studied, during four yearsj polite 
literature and law in the university of Leyden, after which 
lie went into France, Spain, and Italy. He remained a 
whole year in Padua, where he applied himself chiefly- to^ 
the study of the civil law ; was elected counsellor of the 
Oerman nation in that. city ; and vice-syndic of the univer-' 
sity, in which quality he made a speech in the senate ot 
Venice, and obtained a privilege for that university; and 
before he left Padua he took bis doctor's degree in law, the 
i ith of September, 1653. He returned to Denmark by the: 
way of Germany, and was appointed professor of moral- 

' Morert. • 

ft £ S E N I U 9. Hi 

philosophy in the university of Copenhagen, Noremi>er 
^25^ 1657 f afterwards consul of that city, counsellor of ihe 
supreoie council ; and lastly, president of Copenhagen^ 
jand counsellor of justice. He was ennobled the 18th of 
.January, 1680, and treated counsellor of state the 6th of 
May, 1664. He formed a very fine library, which he left 
to the university of Copenhagen, the catalogue of which 
.was printed at Copenhagen, 1685, 4to. 

His works are, 1. ** Edda Snorronis Sturlesonii triplici 
lingua Islandica & LatinV 1665, 4to. 2. <V£dde S«- 
mundiance pars dicta havamaal, complexa Ethicam 
Odini: estque & islandic^ & Latine,'* 1665^ 4to. 3» 
** Eddoe Sseoiaudianee voluspa, continens Philosophiam 
Danorum, Norvegorumque antiquissimam, additis Gudmun- 
di Andrese Islandi annotationibus,** 1665, and 1673, 4to» 
4. << Inscriptiones Havnienses, Latinee, Danicae, & Gerr 
manic® ; una cum addita narratione de Tycbone Braheo 
diversisque ipsius et sororis ipsius SophisB Brahese epistolis,** 
1668, 4to. 5. <* Jus aulicum vetus Regum Norvegorum^ 
dictum HIRDSKRAA,'' 1673, 4to, 6. *< Havnise deline^ 
atio topographica in esre expressa, un^ cum brevi partium 
& locorum enarratione, Danice & Germauice,^* 1674. 7. 
*^ Samsoee descriptio & delineatio cum figuri^,** 1675, foK 
8» *^ Friderici II. Hist Danice. in folio cum figuris,** 1675» 
9. *< Lexicon Istandicum Gudmundi Andrees Islandi, cuni 
pra;fatione de ejusdem vita,*^ 1683, 4to. 10. ** Leges 
Cimbricae Valdemari secundi Regis Danici, Germanice, in- 
terprete Erico Krabbio, equite Danico,*' 1684, 4to. Ih 
*^ Legea civiles & ecclesiasticse Christian! Secundi,'* &c. 
1684, 4to.^ 

RETZ (John Francis Paul De Gondi), a celebrated 
cardinal, was born in 161^. He was a doctor of the Sor-*- 
bonne, and afterwards coadjutof tobis uncle the archbishop 
of Paris ; and at length, after many intrigues, in which his 
restless and unbounded ambition engaged him, became a 
cardinal/ This extraordinary man has drawn his own cba«^ 
racter in his Memoirs, which are written in a very unequal 
manner, but are generally bold, free, animating, and pleas- 
ing, ^nd give us a very lively representation of bis conduct. 
He was a man who, from the greatest degree of debauchery, 
and still languishing under its consequences, preached to 
the people^ and made himself adored by them. He breath- 

* Moreri.-^6eD4 Diet— Freberi TheatrQm.-^Sax}l Onomftitiooft. 

Vol. XXVL L 

146 - H E T Z. 

ed nothing but the spirit of faction and sedition. At the 
hge of twenty-three^ he had been at the head of a conspi- 
racy against the life of cardinal Richelieu. It has beeh 
«aid that he was the first bishop who carried on a war with- 
out the mask of religion ; but his schemes were so unsuc- 
cessfuli that he was obliged to quit France. He then 
went into Spain and Italy, and assisted at the conclave at 
Rome, which' raised Alexander YIU to the pontificate ; 
but this pontiff not making good his promises to the cardi- 
nal) he left Italy, and we^t into Getmany, Holland, and 
England. A(^er having spent the life of an exile fbr five 
or six years, he obtained teave upon certain terms to return 
to his own country; which was the more safe^ as his friend 
cardinal Mazarine died in 1661. He wa^ afterwards at 
Rome, and assisted in the conclave which chose Clement 
IX. ; but, upon his return to France, gave up all thoughts 
t>f ptxblic affairs, and died at Paris, Aug. 24, 1679. The 
latter part of his life is said to have been tranquil and ex«- 
emplary. At this period he wrote his Memoirs, in which 
there is a considerable air of impartiality. In order to judge 
of this, however, the reader is advised to compare them 
with those of Claude Joti, his private secretary. Both 
works have been published in English, the former in 1774, 
4 Vols, the latter in 1775, 3 vols., l2mo. Some friends, 
with whom the cardinal entrusted the original MS. fix^d a 
mark on those passages, where they thought he had disfao*^ 
noured himself, in order to have them omitted, as they 
were in the first edition ; but they have since been restored. 
The best French editions of these Memoirs are those of Am* 
sterdam, 1719, 7 vols. 12mo, and 1731, 4 vols, small 8vo.. 
This cardinal was the author of other pieces; but these, 
being of a temporary kind, v^iitten as party pamphlets to 
aerve particular purposes, are forgotten.* 

REUCHLIN (John), a learned German, who contributed 
tnnch to the restoration of letters in Etirope, was born at 
Pforzheirtx in 1450. His parents, perceiving his talents 
and turn for books, were easily persuaded to give him a 
liberal education, and sent him to Paris, then the Seat of 
literature in these western pafts^ with the bishop of Utrecht} 
where he studied grammar under Joannes^ Lapide, rheto** 
ric under Gaguinus, Greek under TIphernas, and Hebrew 
tinder Wesselus. Being returned to his own country^ b^ 

-1 Mor6ri.-^Dict. Hi^t.^VoStaiv^a i^iecle de lifttris XiV. 


took the degree of doctor in philosophy at Basil, where be 
lived four years; then went to Orleans to study the law, 
and was admitted doctor in 1479. He taught the Greek 
language at Orleans, as he had done at Basil ; and com- 
posed and printed a grammar, a lexicon, some vocabula' 
ries, and other works of a like nature, to facilitate the study 
of that language. By ell this he gained extraordinary re- 
putation; for, the knowledge of the two languages was at 
that time so rare an accomplishment, that it was actually 
made a title of honour. This appears from the following 
inscription of a letter : *^ Andronicus Contoblacas, natione 
GraecuB, ntriusque linguae peritu?, Joanni Reuchiino,^' &c. 
that is, << Andronicus iContoblacas, a Greek, skilled in both 
languages, to John Renchlin,*' &c. 

After some time, Eberhard, count of Wirtemberg, being 
to make the tour of Italy, Reuchlin was chosen among 
others to attend him ; chiefly because, during his residence 
in France, he had corrected bis own Gi^rman pronianciatioh 
of the Latin, which appeared so rude and savage to the Itar 
liians. They were handsomely received at Florence by Lo- 
renzo de Medicis, the father of Leo X. and became ac- 
quainted wfth many learned men there, as Chatcondylas^ 
Ficinus, Politian^ Picus earl of Miranduta, &c.* They pro- 
ceeded to Rome, where Hermolaus Barbarus prevailed 
with Reuchlin to change his name to Capnio, which signi- 
fies the same in Greek as Reuchlin does in German ; that 
is, iw^kt. Count Eberhard entertained so great an estieem 
for Capnio, so he Was afterWards called, that, upon his re- 
turn to Germany, he made him ambassador to the etnperoir 
Frederic IIL; who conferred many honours upon him, and 
made him many presents. He gave him in particular ah 
ancient Hebrew manuscript bible, very neatly written, 
with the text and paraphrase of Onkelos, &c. Frederic 
died in 1493; and Capnio returned to count Eberhard, 
who died also about three months after the emperor : when, 
an usurpation succeeding, Capnio was banished. Here- 
tired to Worms, and continued his studies : but the elector 
Palatine, having a cause to defend at Rome sorte time 
after, selected him as the ablest man for his purpose ; and 
accordingly, in 1498, Capnio made ati oration before the 
pbpe .arid cardinals concerning the rights of the German 
princes, and the privileges of the Gerriaan churches. He 
remained 'more than a year at Rome ; and had so much lei- 
ftmre as to perfect himself in tbe^ Hebrew tongue tinder Ab- 



^Urnh ft Jew, and also in the Greek under Argyroipylris. He 
had some trouble in bis old age by an unhappy differeaetf 

' with the divines of Cologne, occasioned by a Jew named 
PfeiSerkofn. This man, of whom we have already given a 
brief adcodnt (see PFEFFRRCoaN), to shew his zeal for 
Cbristiaftity, advised that all the Jewish books, except the 
Bible, should be burnt; but the Jews having prevailed on 
the emperor to allow them to be examined firs^ Capnio, 
who was tiniversally acknowledged lo excel in this kind oJF 
learning, was appointed by the elector of Mentz, under 
the authprity of the emperor, to pass a judgment upon theses 
writings. Capnio, who bad too much gooil sense to adopt, 
in its full extent, this wretched policy, gave it as hisopi-^ 
nion, that no other books should be destroyed, but those 
which were found to be written expressly against Jesuf 

^Christ, lest, with the Jewish books on liberal arts and ser- 
ences, their language itself, so important to the churchy 
should perish. This opinion was approved by the emperor, 
and the books were by bis authority restored to the Jews. 
Pfefferkorn and bis supporters were exceedingly enraged 
against Cs^pnio, and pursued him with invectives and accu- 
sations even to the court of Rome. His high reputation in 
the learned world, however, protected him ; and bigotry 
met witbn mosi mortifying* defeat in hii honourable ac-» 

The spleen of the ecclesiastics against Capnio was stiU 
ftirtber increased bj ft comedy abounding with keen satire,- 
which this writer, whose genius was not inferior to bt» 
learning, ptoduced ; the chief design of which was to e«* 
pose the ignorance of the monks. It was at fir^t only cif* 
culated in manuscript, but afterwards found its way into 
the press, and was published in 1507. In the latter part of 

' his Ufe/ the advafrsaries of Capnio had too much, reason to 
exult over him ; for notwithstanding all his learning and 
celebrity, be was scarcely able, by teacbipg the Greek and 
Hebrew languages (which he did in several different schools) 
to preserve himself from absolute want; nor must it be 
forgot that be was th« preceptor of Melancthon. He spent 
his las< days at Trebingen, where he died in 1522.. His 
.faculties, which were naturally vigorous^ were cultivated 
with great industry; His mind was richly stored with vari- 
joua eruditior^and bis character was eminently distinguished 
l^y probity and urbanity. His.principal wprks.were, " An 
Epitome of the History -of the four £mpires;" the ^'Life 


0f Constantine tbe Great," fr6in Eusebios; " De VeAo 
mififico/- " De Arte Cabalistica,*' and ** Letters from 
teamed meny*^ Zurich, 1558. He is also supposed, but 
unjustly, to have been the chief author of the celebrated 
iirork, entitled ** Epistolae Obscurorum Virorum,"* 

REVES (James de), or Revius, a learned Dutch divine, 
the son of a burgomaster of Deventer, was born in 1586, 
and educated at Amsterdam, Leyden, and Franeker. In' 

^ 1610 he travelled into France for farther improvement, and 
resided two years at Saumur, Rochelle, and Orleans. 
Having taden orders, be was, in 1641, chosen principal 
and' first professor of the theological college of the states 
of Holland and West Friedand at Leyden. He died at 
.Leyden in 1658, at the age of 72. His works five very 

' iHHneroos ; the principal are, ** Belgicarum Ecc1esiastjica«> 

"rum Doctrina et Ordo," &c.; ". Historia Pontificam Ro- 

manorum contracta, et ad Annum 1632 continuata ;*' '^Da* 

. Ventrite' illustrates, sive Histories Urbis Daventriehsis,'* 
Lib. vi. 1 65 1, 4to. He also pubiished ^n improved edition 
cf "The Book of Psalms," in Dutch verse, by Pjstcr I?.a- 
thenas, and be was concerned in revising the Dutc^ yer- 
sMn of the CHd Testament^ . which wm prin.ted at. Leyden 
in 1637.* 

REVI€KZKY, or REVITSKY (Count Charles), a 
German statesman, but^ more known as an accomplished 
scholar and bibliographer, was bori^' if) Hungary Nov. 4, « 
1787. Among bis other diplomatic appointnients he re* 
sided for some years in London as envoy from tbe Imperial 
court, and afterwards in a private capacity. He died at 
Vienna in August 1793. 

With great judgment, and- at a considerable expence, 
be collected a library most rich in scarce, valuable, and 
beautiful books, and obtained suph fiime in this depart* 
ment of literature, as to be ranked with the Vallieres, 
Pinellis, and Lomenies of tbe day. Of thii excellent li- 
brary, he printed a deiBcriptive catalogue under the title of 
^ BibKotheca Greca et Latina» compTectens auctores fere 
omnes Gp^ecise et Latii veteris, &c. cum delectu editionum 
turn p'rimariarum, principum^ et rarissimariifny quum etiam 
optimarum, splendidissimarum, atqae nittdissimarum, quas* 
Usui mei paravi Periergus DfiLTOPHiLtTSy** Berlin, 1784^ 

» Melchior Ad«iD«^Nicefoii» vol. XXV^^Hody de Gmeis liliiAriVM.-->]>«. 
jiin. — CaVe. — Saxit Onboiftst. — Brack«r. 

* Nio$roii» vol. XXX.— Foppen B;M. B«lf ,— ||[«Ywi. 

150 R E V I C K Z K V. 

1794, 8yo* To some of these catalogues Were prefixed a 
letter to M. L..A. D. ^» tf. Denina, and a preface. Three 
aupplements to this catalogue were afterwards published by 
him, which are not easily procurable. Although the su* 
perlatives in the title smack a little of the dealer, rather 
than the private gentleman, the count has not exceeded 
the bounds of truth, and perhaps few men were better 
qualified to form a collection deserving of such praise^ 
with the boundless zeal, he had also the extensive know-^ 
ledge of a collector, and understood and spoke readily the 
principal ancient and modern languages. His frequent 
removes made him acquainted with every public and pri* 
vate library on the continent ; and he never missed an op*^ 
portunity to add to his collection whatever was most curi-» 
ous and valuable at sales, or booksellers* shops. Tbb 
library is now in England, and in the possession of a noble* 
man who knows its value, and whose own library at pre- 
sent exceeds that of any subject in Europe. When cQunt 
Revickzky came to London, he made an offer to earl 
Spanser to dispose of the whole collection to his lordship. 
What the terms were is variously reported. It seems 
^reed, however, that it was for a sum of money to be paid 
immediately, and an annuity, which last the count did not 
live long to enjoy. The count was himself an author, and 
published the ** Odes of Hafez,*' known here by Richard-* 
son's, translation ; a treatise on Turkish tactics ; and an 
edition of Petronius, Berliti, 1735, Svoj formed oq the 
editions of Burman and Antonius. ^ 

REYHER (Samuel), a German lawyer and mathemati^ 
cian, was born April 19, 1635, at Schleusingen in the county 
of Henneberg, and was educated at Leipsic and Leyden. 
Be was afterwards appointed preceptor to the young prince 
of Gotha, then professor of matbems^tics at Kiol, 16,55, 
and some years after professor of law in the same place, 
where be died Nov. 22, 1714, being then counsellor to 
the duke of Saxe Gotha, and member of the Royal Academy 
of Sciences at Berlin. Reyber translated Euclid's works 
into Germap with algebraical demonstrations, and wrote 
aeveral works iu Latin, among which, that entitled* ** Ma^ 
thesis Biblica/' and a very curious Dissertation on the Io« 
scriptious upon our Saviour's cross and the hour of bis 
crucifixion, are particularly esteemed.^ 

1' Gent. Mag. vol. LXIV.— Dibdin's Bibliomania ami Classics. 
9' Moreri.— 'Diet. Hist. 

R E Y N E A U, 151 

KEYNEAU (Charles-Rcne), commonly called Fat^ec 
ReyneaUy ^ noted French mathematician, was born at 
Bris^ac^ in the province of Aiyou, in 1656. At twenty 
years of ^ge he entered himself in the congregation of the 
Oratory at Paris, and was isqou after sent, by his superiors, 
to teach philosophy at Pejsenas, and then at Toulon. His 
employment requiring some acc^uaintance with geometry^ 
he contracted a great affection for this science, which he 
Qultivated and improved to so great an extent, that he was 
called to Angers in 1683, to nil the mathematical chair ; 
and the acadamy of Angers elected him a member in 1694. 

In this occupation Father Reyueau, not content with 
making himself master of every thing worth knowipgi 
vjrhipb the modern analysis, so fruitful in sublime specula- 
tions and ingenious discoveries, had already produced, 
undertook to reduce into one body, for the use of his scho<r 
lars, the principal theories scattered here and tber^ in 
Newton, Descartes, Leibnitz, 3ernouilli, the I^eipsic Acts, 
the Memoirs of the Paris Acad^^my, and in other works ;, 
treasures which by being so widely dispersed, prpved 
much Icisg useful than they otherwise might have been. 
The fruit of this undertaking, was bis " Analyse Demon- 
tr^^,*' or Analysis Demonstrated, which he published in 
1708| 3 vols, 4to, He gave it the n^me of *' Analysis 
Demonstrated,'' because he demonstrates in it aeveral me- 
thods which had not been handled by the authors of the(n| 
with sufficient perspicuity and exactness. The book wa$ 
so well approved, that it soon becarne a ^laxjm, at least in 
France, that to foUov^ him.waa the best, if not the only 
wayi to make any extraordinary progress in the mathema* 
tics I and be was considered as the first master} .a^ the 
Euclid of the sublime geometry. 

Reyneau, after thus giving lessons to those who uiider-> 
stood something of geoipetry, thought proper to draw up 
some for such as were utterly unacquainted with thf^t 
science, This produced in 1714, a Tolume in 4to, on cal- 
qulntion^ under the title of ^^ Science du C^lcul des bran- 
deur»»" of which the then censor royal, a very intelligent 
apd impartial judgCi says, in his approbation of it, that 
<< though several books had already appeared upon t!^^ 
si^me 9ubjeptf such a treatise as that beror^ him was still 
vfanting, as in it every thing was h^indled in a manner suf- 
ficiently extensive, and at the same time with all possible 
exactness and perspicuity.^' In fact^ though most branches 

152 R E Y N E A U. 

of tbe mathematics bad been well treated of before that 
period, there were yet no good elements, even of practical 
geometry. Those who knew no more than what precisely 
such a book ought to contain, knew too little to complete 
a good one ; and those that knew more, thought tbem« 
selves probably above the task, for which Reyneau was well 
qualified. In 17 16 he was admitted into the royal academy 
of sciences of Paris, as what was then called a free assq* 
ciate. The works already mentioned are alt he published 
except a small piece on *^ Logic/^ He left, however, in 
MS. materials for a second volume of his ^^ Science du 
Calcul.'' He died much regretted, as he bad always been 
highly respected, in 1728, at the age of seventy-two. ^ 

KEYNOLDS (Edward), an English prelate of great 
eminence and talents, the son of Austin Beyuolds, one of 
the customeiB of Southampton, ' was born there in Novem-^ 
ber 1599^ and educated at the free-school. In 1615 he 
became post*master of Merton-college, Oxford, and in 
]62Q probationer^fellow, for which preferment hie was in*: 
debted to his proficiency in the Greek language, and bis 
talents as a disputant and orator. After he had taken his 
master's degree he went into orders, and was made preacher 
at Lincoln's-inir, where he acquired much popularity. He 
^Iso was preferred to the rectory of Braynton in Northamp- 
tonshire. Finding himself inclined to acquiesce in tfae:^ 
breach that was to be made in the church at least, if not' 
tbe state, when the rebellion broke out in 1642, he joined 
the presbyterian party, and in 1643 was nominated one of- 
the assembly of divines, took the covenant, and frequently 
preached before the long parliament. That he was in their 
eyes a man of high consideration, appears from their nam-^ 
ing him, in September 1646, one of the seven divines au* 
thorized by parliament to go to Oxford, and to preach in 
any church of that city, in lieu of the preachers appointed 
by the university. - , 

In this mission he and bis colleagues were at first inter* 
rupted by certain enthusiasts among the soldiers, headed 
by one Erbury, who maintained that the ordination of these 
divines was unlawful, and that no ordination was necessary 
for any man who had gifts. Thiff was a favourite topic in 
those days, and is not yet exhausted. In the foUo whig year 
he was nominated to thel more obnoxious office of one of 

' * . t 

*. MartiQ'ff Biog. FliUM»-^HattdS*8 DicU-^M.oreru ^ 


the visitors of the university, and in Feb. 1 648 was chosen 
vice-ohaneellor, on the recommendation of the earl of 
Pembroke, then chancellor of the university. In this last 
office he was to continue until August 1649. He was also^ 
by a mandate from parliament, which now was supreme in 
ail matters, created D. D. In March 1 648 he was ap- 
pointed dean of Christ church, in the room of Dr. Fell^ 
who. was ejected with no common degree of violence, Mrs. 
Fell and her family being literally dragged out of the 
deanery bouse by force. Dr. Reynolds being admitted into 
office in form, Wood says^ *^ made a polite and accurate 
ontition,^' in Latin, in which^ ^' he spoke very modestly of 
himself, and how difficult it was for a man that had ses 
questered himself from secular employments to be. called 
to government, especially to sit at the stern in the&e rough 
and troublesome times; but since be bad subjected himself 
to those that have authority to command him, he did de-^ 
sire that good «i(ample and counsel might prevail more ia 
this reformation than severity and punishments^**. . 

Notwithstanding bis acting with bis brother-visitors in 
all the changes and ejectments they brought about in the 
university, he at length refused the erigagement <' to be 
true and faithful to the commonwealth of Englaud, as esta- 
blished without a King and a House of Lords,** and there- 
fore was in his turn ejected from his deanery, in 165i« 
H« lived afterwards mostly in London, and preached there, 
as vicar of St. Lawrence-Jury. On the prospect of the 
restoration he joined with general Monk, to bring in the 
king, using his interest for that purpose in London, where 
be was the pride and glory of the presbyterian party. Tiu 
Pierce, in the ii^troduction to bis ** Divine Purity defend- 
ed,** says he was a person of great authority as' well as 
fame among tiie Calvinists. 

When the secluded members were admitted ag^in to 
parliament, they restored him to his deanery of Christ- 
cburcb, in May 1659. And in May following, 1660, be^ 
whh Mr. Edmund Calamy, was made chaplain to his ma- 
jesty, then at Canterbury. After this he preached several 
times before the King and both Houses of Parliament ; and 
in the latter end of June, being de^ed to quit his deanery, 
he was the next month elected, by virtue of the k4ng*r 
letter, warden of^^le£ton*college, and was consecrated 
bishop of Norwieh Jan. 6, the same year. Sir Thomas 
prowne, who knew, him well, gives bim the character pf 91 


person of singular affability, in^knes9» and bumibiy, of 
great learning, a frequent preacher, and constant resident, 
Bnt a more full account of our author is given in a funeral 
sermon preached at Norwich by the reverend Mr, Riveley, 
in July 1676, in which his character as a man of piety and 
learning, and as a divine and prelate, is highly praised. 
Wood, in his *^ Athenoe," says he was " a person of ex^- 
cellent parts and endowments, of a very good wit^ fancy, 
and judgment, a great divine, and much esteemed by ail 
parties, for his preachings and fluid style.'' In his ^^ An* 
nals" he is incHned to be less favourable. It was perhup^ 
naturally to be expected that one who had taken so active 
a part in the revolutionary changes of the times, and yet 
afterwards accepted a bishopric, should not be much a 
favourite with either party. Wood also insinuates that 
Dr. Reynolds was much under the government of his wife, 
whom be calls ** covetous and insatiable," and concludes 
in these words : ^^ In this I must commend him, tliat be 
hath been a benefactor (though not great) to Merton-col- 
lege, that gave him all his academical education (for which 
in some manner the society hach shewed themselves grate^ 
ful), ai)d 'tis very probable that greater he would have 
been, if not hindered by his beloved consort." 

Dr. Reynolds assisted at the Savoy conference, and on 
the first day, according to Neal, spoke much for abate* 
ments and moderation, *^ but afterwards sitting among tbo 
bishops, he only spoke now and then a qualifying word, 
but was heartily grieved for the fruitless issue of the con«* 
ference." The same author says that he was *^ prevailed 
with to accept a bishopric on the terms of the king's de- 
claration, which never took place," But another of bia 
biographers says, *^ His education gave him no prejudice 
to monarchy or episcopacy ; and when a man can ad* 
vance himself with a good conscience, why may he not 
leave what interest only had engaged him in i Let theo^ 
that blame his last turn, justify him, if tbey can, in the 
former. He was now submitting to authority, however be 
had opposed it. Their standing out, and keeping up e 
schism, when they were put upon nothing but what they 
owned indifferent, has a worse look than returning frotn 
wrong to right," &c. Dr. Reynolds, however, after the 
government was completely re-establisbed, became a con*' 
stant resident in his diocese, and mixed no more with 
affairs of ttete. He died at the episcopal palace at Nor* 

R R y N O L D S. 16$ 

wicbjan. 16, 1676| ftg^d seventy <>six. He was bdrieid at 
the upper end of the chape) (buUt by hirnseif in i662) 
joi^niog to the bishop's palace in Norwich. Over bis grave, 
^pn after bis death, was fastened to the wall a niaiH>le 
table, on which bis epitaph in Latin was engraven. 

His works are, " The Vanity of the Creature," on 
Ccelfs. i. 14. ^* Sinfulness of Sin," on Rom. vii. 9, and 
on vi. 13. " Use of the Law," on Roro. vii. 13. " Life 
of Christ," on ) John, v. 12. '^ An ExpU<:ation of the ex 
Psalm.'' '* Meditations on the Holy Sucrament of the 
Lord's last Supper," ** Explication of the 14 Chapter of 
Uosea, in seven Humiliation Sermons." <^ A Treatise of 
the Passions and Faculties of the Soul of Man;" all or most 
of which having been printed several times in 4to, were 
collected in one lar^e folio at London in 1658, with the 
author's portrait, and w^nt by the name of '^ Bishop Rey- 
nolds'^ Works," They were much bought up, read and 
recomaiended by men of several persuasioiis ; and are 
written in a style superior to the generality of works of 
divinity in that age. " Thirty Sermons" preached on 
several occasions, betweea 1634, and bis death, some 
of ^bich bad been printed several times, were reprinted 
in the second edition of his works, at London, 1979, folio. 
Among them is bis Latin Sermon preached at Oxon. 1649^ 
entitled ** Animalis Homo," on 1 Cor. ii. 14. He also 
wjTOte the '^ Assembly of Divines' Annotations," on Eccle* 
ais^tes, which were so much admired that many learned 
m^D of , the presbyterian persuasion, wished that the rest 
had been all wrote parish K firuditione. He also was the 
author of the '^ Epistolary Preface to William Barlee's Cor* 
reptory Correction," &c, of some notes of Thomas Pierce 
concerning God's decrees, espec id tiy of reprobation ; which 
booky with the Epistolary preface, a second of Thomas 
Whitfield, and a third of Daniel Cawdrey, sometime of 
jCambridge, were < printed at London, 1656, 4to. He is 
abo said to be the author of ^' The bumble Proposals of 
aiHidry learned, pious Divines within this Kingdom, coot 
cerning the engagement intended to be imposed on them 
for: their subscriptions," London, 1650, 4to, One sheet 
iwas published in December 1649. John Ducy pub<» 
jisbed an. answer, entitled ^^ Just Re^proposaU to bum^ 
ble Proposals: or, an impartial consideration of," &c. 
London, 1650, 4to, four sheets. And it is probable that he 
wrote several other things besides those above-mentioned ; 


particularly his ^^ Meditations on tb^ Fall of Peter,^* a 
short twelves, never inserted in any of the folio editions. 

Of the family of bishop Reynolds we find mention of hit 
son Edward, who was educated at St. Paul's school, and a 
fellow of Magdalen-college, Oxford, archdeacon of Nor« 
wich, and prebendary of Worcester. He was also for forty 
years rector of St. Peter's Northampton, and died in hii 
sixty-ninth year, June 28, 1698. He was buried in Kings- 
thorpe church, near Northampton, where is a monument 
and inscription to his memory. Dr. Knight says, he was 
^ a very able and judicious divine, and a very worthy son 
of so good a father.'' Some notices of two of the bishop's 
descendantfi may be found in Cumberland's life. \ 

REYNOLDS (Henry Revell), a late eminent physi- 
cian, was born in the county of Nottingham, Sept. 26, 
1745; and his father having died about a month before^ 
the care of hin devolved on his maternal great-uncle and 
godfather, Mr. Henry Revell, of Gainsborough ; by whom 
he was sent, at an early age, to a school at Beverley in 
Yorkshire, then in great repute under the government of 
Mr. Ward. Having early shewn a disposition for his pro- 
fession, his uncle placed him, at the age of eighteen, a^ a 
commoner at Lincoln college, Oxford. It was in the se- 
cond year of his residence at this university that he bad 
the misfortune to lose his uncle and benefactor, the die^ 
mory of whom was ever cherished by him with a bious iLnd 
grateful affection,- and who left him a small landed property 
in Lincolnshire, by which he was enabled to prosecute the 
object that he bad in view. He continued at Oxford till 
the early part of 1766, when, in order to the pbtaining 6f 
bis medical degrees sooner, he was admitted, by a bene 
decessit from Oxford, ad eundem to Trinity college, Cam- 
bridge, and he kept a term at that univefsity. In the 
summer of thro year he went to Edinburgh, and resided' 
there two years, and after attending a course of medical 
studies, returned in 1768 to Cambridge, when the degree 
of bachelor of physic being conferred upon him, he went 
to London, and attended as pupil at the Middlesex hospital. 

The following year he became a resident physician at 
Guildford; and married Miss Wilson, in the oiionth of 
April 1770. By the advice, however, of his friend. Dr. 

* Atb. Ox. Tol. II. — Wood*f Annals. — Neal'i Paritani. — Gent. Mag. toU 
LXX:Vlir. p. 29^«LiTe8 of English Blsbopi, 1733, Sto, by SaliQoiu^Kjiight't 


ttilcky afterwards Dr. Hack Saunders, be settled in Lon- 
don, in Lamb's Conduit-street, in the summer of 1772. 
Tbe next year be took tbe degree of doctor of physic at 
Cambridge^ and was immediately afterwards elected pby- 

''sician to the Middlesex hospital. In 1774 he was chosen 
f fellow, and at tbe same time a censor, of the college of 
physicians. He soon became the object of particular no- 
tice and regard by tbe eminent physicians of that day, doc- 
tors Huck, Fothergill, and sir Richard Jebb ; and tbe high 
opinion which tbe latter gentleman bad formed of bis pro- 
fessional abilities, and personal character and manners, 
and tbe consequent expression of that opinion, and recom- 
mendatipn of Dr. Reynolds to bis majesty, were the ori- 
ginal cause of bis being called into attendance upon tbo 
king in the memorable period of 1788. In 1776 he wim 
appointed to speak the Harveian oration ; and, although 
his modesty would not suffer biro to print it, it has been 
thought worthy of being compared with the most classical 
of these harangues. In the course of it, he exactly dor 
scribed that mode, which he ever observed, of performing 
the various duties of his profession, and of dispensing its 
various benefits. In 1777 Dr. Reynolds was elected phy- 
sician to St. Thomas's hospital ; and from this period his 
business gradually increased, till, in tbe progress of a few 
years, he attained to the highest fame and practice in his 

^.profession. In every successive illness of our revered so- 
vereign since 1788, Dr. Reynolds's attendance on his ma- 
j<^sty was always required; and his public examinations 
before parliament are recorded proofs of his high merits as 
a physician, a gentleman, and a scholar; while his ap- 
pointments to the situations of physician extraordinary to 
the king in 1797, and physician in ordinary in 1806, evince 
the estimation in which his sovereign held his character 
and his services. When he was called into attendance at 

' Windsor, he was suffering under a rheumatic affection, 
which h^d been oppressing him for some time. The 
anxiety attiiched to such an attendance as tbe illness of his 
xnajesty required, had on this occasion a very powerful, if, 
not a fatal, influence. Tbe first day that he seriously felt 
the fatigues of mind and body was, after bis examination 
before the House of Lords, the etiquette of this branch of 
parliament not allowing a witness to sit down, Dr. Rey- 
nolds, who, in consequence of his having attended his 
majesty in all his previous similar illnesses, w» examined 


at greater length than his other brethren were, was kept 
st^ndingTor t«ro hours, and the next day waii reloctdmly 
compelied to remain the whole of it in his bed. Oft the 
folioiying, however, he retorned to Windsor ; but from 
this time hid appetite began to fait, and bis strength and 
flesh visibly to diminish. In the month of March, 181!, 
these symptoms had sp much inereased, that his (tiends 
besought him to retire from his anxious attendance at 
Windsor, to spare his mind and body entirely, ahd to dti- 
Tote himself solely to the re-establishment of his own 
health; but unfortunately for his family, his friends, and 
the public, he would not be persuaded. While any powers 
were left, to his majesty's service he resolved that they 
should be devoted : and thus he persevered till the 4th df 
May, when he returned to London extremely ill ; and 
from that day his professional career was stopped. Hav- 
ing been confined to his room for nearly three weeks, he 
was prevailed upon, by his excellent friends Dr. Latham 
and Dr. Ainslie, to go to Brighton, where he remained 
two months. Sometimes during this anxious period h^ 
would seem to rally, but the appearances were deceitful ; 
they were the mere struggles of a naturally good constitu- 
tion, unimpaired by any intemperance, against the inroads 
of a disease. At the eiTd of the month of July, he re- 
turned to his house in Bedford-square, where he lingered 
until Oct. 23, on which day he expired, very deeply re- 
gretted for his talents, virtues, and professional skill and 
humanity ' 

Rl.YNOLDS (Sir Joshua), the most illustrious painter 
of the English school, was born at Plympton, in Devon- 
shire, July 16, 1723, His ancestors on both sides were 
clergymen. His father had no adequate provision for the 
maintenance of his large family, but appears to have libe- 
rally encouraged his son's early attempts in that art, of 
which he afterwards became so illustrious a professof. 
When but eight years of age, Joshua had made himself 
master of a treatise, entitled " The Jesuit's Perspective,*' 
and increased his love of the art still more, by studying 
Richardson's " lYeaiise on Painting." In his seventeen|:h 
year, he was placed as a pupil under his countryman, Mr. 
Hudson, whom, in consequence of some disagreement, he 
left in 1743, and removed to Devonshire? for three years, 

1 Gent. Maf. vol. LXXXII. Part If. p. 82. 


during which, after some waste of time, which he ever la*- 
mented, he sat down seriously to the study and practice of 
his art. The Brst of his performances, which brought him 
into notice, was the portrait of ca])tain Hamilton, father of 
the present marquis of Abercorn, painted. in 1746. About 
this time he appears to have returned to London. 

In 1746, by the friendship of captain (afterwards lord) 
Keppel, he had an opportunity to visit the shores of the 
Mediterranean, and to pass some time at Rome. The 
aketch he wrote of his fetplings when he first contemplated 
the works of Raphael in the Vatican, so honourable to his 
modesty and candour, has been presented to the public 
by Mr. Malone, and is a present on which every artist must 
set a high value. He returned to LondoU in 1752, and 
soon rose to the head of his profession ; an honour which 
did not depend sottiuch on those he eclipsed, as on bis 
retaining that situation for the whole of a long life, by 
powers unrivalled in his own or any other country. Soon 
after his return from Italy, his acquaintance with I>r. 
Johnson commenced. Mr. Boswell has furnished us with 
abundant proofs of their mutual esteem and congenial 
spirit, and Mr. Malone has' added the more deliberate opi- 
thion of sir Joshua respecting Dr. Johnson, which may be 
introduced here without impropriety. It reflects indeed as 
Much honour on the writer as on tfale subject, and was to 
have formed part of a discourse to the academy, which, 
from the specimen Mr. Malone has given, it is much to be 
rec;retted he did not live to finish. 

Speaking of his own discourses, our great artist says, 
" Whatever merit they have, must be imputed, in a great 
measure, to the education which I may be said to have had 
under Dr. Johnson. I do not mean to say, though it cer- 
tainly would be to the credit of these discourses if I could 
say it with truth, that he Contributed even a single senti- 
ttient to them : but he qualified my mind to think Justly. 
No man had, like him, the faculty of teaching inferior 
minds the art of thinking. Perhaps other men might have 
equal knowledge, but few were so communicative. His 
great pleasure was to talk to those who looked up to him. 
It was here he exhibited his wonderfql powers. In mixed 
company, and frequently in company that ought to have 
looked up to him, many, thinking they had a character for 
learning to support, considered it as beneath them to en*- 
list in the train of his auditors : and to such persons he 

60 ft£VN0LD8. 

certainly did not appear to advantage, being often idipe^ 
tuous and overbearing. The desire of shining in conver- 
sation was in him indeed a predominant passion ; and if it 
miist be attributed to vanity, let it at the same time be 
recollected, that it produced that loquaciousness from 
which bis more intimate friends derived considerable ad- 
vantage. The observations which be made on poetry, on 
life, and on every thing about us, I applied to our art, 
with what success others' must judge*^' This sh6rt e:xtract 
is not unconnected with a conjecture which many enter- 
tained, that sir Joshua did not compose his lectures him- 
self. In addition to his own declaration here, as far as re- 
spects Dr. Johnson, who was chiefly suspected as having a 
hand in these lectureS} Mr. Northcote, who lived some 
years in his house, says, in his memoirs, '^ At the period 
when it was expected he should have composed them, I 
have heard him walking at intervals in his room till one or 
two o^clock in the morning, and I have on the following 
day, at an early hour, seen the papers on the subject of 
bis art which bad been written the preceding night. I 
have had the rude manuscript from himself, in his own 
hand-writing, in order to make a fair copy from it for him 
to read in public : I have seen the manuscript also after it 
bad been revised by Dr. Johnson, who has sometimes al- 
tered it to a wrong meaning, from his total ignorance of 
the subject and of art; but never, to my knowledge, saw 
the marks of Burke's pen in any of the manuscripts Th^ 
bishop of Rochester, also, who examined the writings of 
Mr. Burke since his death, and lately edited a part of them, 
informed a friend that he could discover no reason to think 
that Mr. Burke' had the least hand in the discourses of 
Reynolds.** And Burke himself, in a letter to Mr. Ma- 
lone, after the publication of sir Joshua's life and works, 
says, ** I have read over some part of the discourses with 
an unusual sort of pleasure, partly because being faded k 
little in my memory, they have a sort of appearance of 
novelty ; partly by reviving recollections mixed with me^ 
lancholy and satisfaction. The Flemish journal I had never 
seen before. You trace in that, every where, the spirit of 
the discourses, supported by new examples. He is always 
the same man ; fhe same philosophical, the same artist-liko 
critic, the same sagacious observer, with the same minute- 
ness, without the smallest degree of trifling.** We may 
safely say, this is not th6 language of one who had himself 

R E Y N O L P S. l«l. 

coAtributed much to those discourses. Aad if neither 
Johnson nor Burke wrote, for Reynolds, to whom else 
among his contemporaries shall the praise due to those in* 
valuable compositions be given, if Reynolds is to be de* 
prived of it ! 

In consequence of his connexion with Dr. Johnson, Mr. 
Reypplds furnished three essays in the Idler, No. 16^ on 
false criticisms on painting, which may be recommended 
to the serious perusal df many modem connoisseurs ; No« 
79, on the grand style of painting ; and No. 82, on the , 
true idea of beauty ; of which Mr. Boswell informs us the 
last words, '*and pollute his canvass with deformity,*' were 
added by Dr. Johnson. These essays have been very pro- 
perly incorporated with sir Joshua's works, by Mr. Malone^ 
as they were his first literary attempts, the earnest of those 
talents which afterwards proved that he was as eminent in 
the theory as in the practice of his art. 
. It is much to be lamented, that the world was deprived 
of this great artist before he had put into execution a plan, 
which bis biographer, Mr.Malone says, appears, from some 
loose papers, to have been revolved in his mind. ^* I have, 
found,'' says that author, ^* among sir Joshua's papers, some, 
detached and unconnected thoughts, written occasionally, 
as hints for a discourse, on a new and singular plan, wbich^ 
he seenis to. have intended asa.history of his mind, so far 
as concerned bis art; and of his progress, studies, and 
practice; together with a. view of the advantages he had 
enjoyed, apd the disadvantages he had laboured under, in 
the course that he had run : a scheme, from which, how- 
ever liable it might be to the ridicule, of wits and scoffers 
(of which, he says, he was perfectly aware), he conceived 
the. students, might derive some useful documents for jthe. 
regulation of their own conduct and. prac^ce." Suoh. a 
cpiDposition,, fropa such a man, written after he had spent 
a'long life. in successful practice, with none to guide him i 
who had chosen a line of art for himself, stfimped with ori* 
ginality ; and in which he had to. unfold principles, and 
elucidate them by practice; and.cpmpetent as, he was to^ 
explain the. operations of his own miud; could not fail of 
b^ing Jnteresting and useful in the highest degrep^ . , - 

In. 1781, during the s^ummer, be a tour through. 
Hpliaiid and the. Netherlfmds, wiUi a view of examining: 
critically the, ii^rks of the celjebrated masters of the Dutch 
and Flemish schools. An account of this journey, written 

Vol. XXVI. M 


by hifliself, eontaiaiog much lexceHent criliciiin on the 
^«of hs tff Hufbens, VMuiyk^, RemWaiMlty fte« in tfa« churched 
ftfidk diffittfent ooUeotions at AMwerpi Brussab* Ghent, the 
BufiseMoii^f f ailerf, and at AMtterdaoi, wa» poblbhed after 
bis death ;. it concludes with a masterly-drawn character at[ 
Rubens. In IT^S, in cofMeqoeace of the emperor's 9op- 
pressaen ef some feligfous beeses^ be again visited Plan* 
devS) pmiebftsed aome ptcturea by Rubens, and devested 
sererai mere days to the contemplation and- further lates^ 
trgation of (he perfovmauces of that great man. On his 
retiirfti he remarked that bis own-ptctures^ wanted fbree 
and brilUaney^ and he appeared^ by hna subsequent prac* 
tioe^ to hate benefited by the observations he had made* 
This year, on the death of Ramsay, he was made principal 
painoer in ordinary to his majesty, and conttdued so till 
bia diMn^ 

For a very long period> he had enjoyed an almost unin<« 
t^ropted* state of good health, except that in 17SQ he was 
for a short time afflicted with a paralytic stroke. A few 
weeks, however, perfectly restored him, and he suffiered 
no inconvenience from it afterwards. But iiv July 1789, 
whilst be was painitng the portrait of lady Beaaehamp, he 
found his sight so much affected, that it was with difficulty 
be could proceed with his work ; and notwithstanding every 
assistance that eould be procured, he was in a few months 
totally deprived of the use of his left eye. After some 
struggles^ he determined, l^at his remaining ej'e should 
atse suffer, to paint no more : and though be w^s thus de- 
prived of a constant employment and amusement, hei^ 
tained his usual spirits, and partook of the society of b^ 
friends with apparently the same pleasuve to which be bad 
been accustomed ; and was amused by reading, or hearing 
others read to him. In October 1791, however, bis spirits 
began to fait him, and he became dejected^ fucHii an ap- 
prehension tbat an inflamed tumour, which took place over 
the eye tbat bad perished, might occasion the destruetten 
of the other also. Meanwhile be laboured under a more 
dangerous disease, which deprived him both of his spirits 
and his appetite. Ihiring this period of great aAictien td^ 
all his friends, his malady was by many supposed ti^ be 
imaginary^ and it was en^neousty eoUoeived^ that by eirer* 
tion he might shake it off; for he was wholly iimable to^ 
e^l^ain to the physicians the nature or seat of tA^ disorder. 
It was only about a fortnight before bis death that it was 

fojuodt to be in the li^eri the ipordinate growth of vihiebi 
n it a£beicwarda appef^redy had in^oiaiiieded all the fiioo- 
liooB of life* Of this disease, %vbich be bpre. with great 
fortitude aed> pa&ience^ be died^ after a coofineioeBt of three 
jMondM, at bis home in Leieester-square^ on. Tbertdajr 
eTeniogy February 33> 1792, at the age of sixtjMiine. 

In, ttature> sir Joshua ReynoUU was rather ^ixief the 
middie: siae^ Qf a flerid Qompleyion, roandisbi blunt fea** 
tures, and a lively pleasing aspect ; not corpulent, though 
somewhat iaolined to it( and extremely active. With 
osaoners imcooiaionly polished and agreeable, he possessed 
a ooQstant flo w of spkits, which rendered him at all times a 
most detimhle Qompauion : always ready to be amused, and 
to contribute to the amusemeut of others, and anxious to 
receive information on every subject that presented itaalf s 
and though he had been deaf almost from the time o£ his 
return from> Italy ; yet, by the aid of an ear-trumpet, he 
was ei^bled to partake of the conversation of his friendt 
with great facility and convenience. On the 3d of March 
his remains were interred in the crypt of St. PauPs, near 
the tomb of sir Christopher Wren, with every honour that 
could be shewn to worth and genius by an enlightened na<« 
lion ; a great number of the mDst distinguished persons 
attending the funeral ceremony, and his pall being sup- 
ported by three dukes, two marquisses, and .five other no-* 

In oiany respects, both as a man and a painter, air 
Joshua Reynolds cannot be too much studied, praised, and 
imitated by every one who wishes to attain the like emu 
Aence. His incessant industry was never wearied into de« 
•pondency by miscarriage^ nor elated into neglect by sue* 
cess. Either in , his painting-room, or wherever else he 
passed his time, his mind was devoted to the charms of his 
professipn* All nature, and all art, was his academy, and 
his. reflection was ever en the wing, oompreheoatve^ vi* 
goiDus, diacfiminatittg, and retentive. With taste to per- 
cftsre all the varieties af the picturesque, judgment to se^ 
tect, and ed^ill to combine what would serve bis piirpos^^ 
few have ever been empowered by nature to do more from 
the fund of their own genius.: ami none ever endeavoured 
Bsore to take advantage of the labours of others^ He made 
a eplehdid and useful collection, in which no expenee was 
spared* His house was filled, to the remotest comers, with 
easts ffMi. the antique atatues, pictures, drawing^, ajid 

M 2 . 

164 R K Y N' O L D S! 

prints, by various masters of aU the diflFerent sbhools; 
Those he looked upon aft his library, at once objects^ of 
amusement, of study, and eompetitionf. After hit death 
they were sold by auction, with his miclaimed and ud«* 
finished works, and, together, produced the ' sum of 
16,947/. Is. 6d. The substance of his whole property, ac-^ 
euinulated entirely by his pencil, and left behind after a 
life in which be freely parted with his wealth, amounted <to 
about 80,000/. 

The acknowledged superiority of sir Joshua Reynoids'st 
professional talents, and the broad basis on which it is 
founded, makes it tiow unnecessary to be collecting suf- 
frages to add weight to the general opinion ; but a review 
of those powers which rank him as a man of genius, and 
distinguidi him among the most eminent of his profession,: 
may not be without its interest. 

His early education was not strictly academic, at he 
himself regrets ; nor to any extent did he ever eultivater 
the elementary principles of design, but, as portraits were 
to shape bis fortune^ faicility of composition, or laborious 
application to the refinements of an outline, were 'less ne«- 
cessary. Whether he would have been as eminent in his-> 
torical painting as he was in that department which it was 
his lot to pursue, would be now an inquiry as useless a» 
unsatisfactory. That his powers Were gre«Lt in whatever 
way they were employed, will be readily acknowledged ; 
his tscste was too refined, and his judgment too correct^ to 
tolerate defects which were not counterbalanced by some 
advantages; but as his early practice was exclusively de-^ 
voted to portraits, and as it was the chief employment: of 
his whole life, it cannot remain asubject of choice to whar 
branch of his profession a fair analysis of his merit ought 
to be refehred. 

From the first examples of sir Joshua, as well as from 
his own confession, on seeing the works of Raphael in the 
Vatican, it would seem evident that the ornamental parts 
of the art had absorbed his previous studies, audi made the 
deepest impression on his mind. Little, therefore, coukl 
be wanting to induce him to pursue that plan of study, 
which at the same time that it was the most congenial to 
bis feelings, was in the highest degree important to give 
interest to individual representation. In pursuing histstu* 
dies when abroad, he embraced the whole field before him r 
but bis time was not spent in collecting or making servile 



.copies, but in; cofiteroplating tbe principles of the gre^t 
maaters^ that he might the more effectually do what he 
-has cecomQiended to others, follow them in the road with- 
<Kii treading in their steps; and no man ever appropriated 
to himself with more admirable skill their extensive and 
var4ed powers* 

The style of portrait-painting by Hudson and Ramsay^ 
.who were the only persons of any practice when. sir. Joahpa 
returned from abroad, was uniformly dry and hard, with*- 
4>utany feeling for chiar-oscura, and with, little diversity pf 
.attitude and expression ; the full dress, which the custom 
of the day prescribed, prescribed also limits to their imar 
ginatioasy and they never gave themselves the trouble to 
.diacrimfinate betweea the character of nature, and the. cha- 
racter of iiAshtOQ^ Sir Joshua, with a more comprehensive 
view of his art, shewed how portrait might be geneTa^^edy 
so ias to identify the iadividual man with the dignity of bis 
• thinking powers. In dre9s, be selected and adopted what 
was most conformable to the character of his subject, withr 
out implicitly following the fashion or offending tjiie pre^ 
judice which it begets. . 

In the pursuit of those high attainments to which. he 
.arrived, he evidently had Rembrandt and Correggio.more 
particularly, in his mind. The magical effect, and richness 
of colouring of the I>utch master, seems to have be^n with 
!!him a constant source, of reflection and experiment to rival 
bis., inimitable powers. Co.rreggio gayO' all that grace and 
harmony could supply, and sir Joshua in. .his infantine por- 
traits, is^beyood all competition without an equal. His fe- 
,male pprtraits are also, desigiiad wjth an exqui.«iite feeling of 
^aate and . elegance ;. and for that variejty of compositipn 
which pervades his works, it will be in vajin to seek a rival 
in the most illustrious of his predecessors. 

His works of the historical kind shew great strength of 
-mind, and leavet us to regret that thi^ land of pprtrait paintr 
ing bad not given him equal opportunity to cultivatcr it; 
but, from the want of that habit which practice would .hajire 
;giveu him, he was used to say that historical effort cost him 
too mi^ch* He better knew what he wan ted. than pQssess^d 
a promptitjude of giving' form and substance tp bis feelingi. 
.His count U^lino, for pathos and grandeur of design, p^rr 
haps yields to no composition that was ever made of that 
subject 5 and bis Holy FamiK, when eombiued with it, v-^ilj 


terve to fthow, al one view^ the oomprehenftiveneM ttnd dl- 
Tersity of his genius. ' 

The colouring of sir Joshua, which has been ^esewedif 
Ihe subject of the highest admiration and praise, has also 
been the most familiar topic of animadversion and eensur^. 
By the jocose be has been charged with ^^ coining off with 
Dting colours," but by less indulgent friends, with the more 
aerious accusation of having made experiments at their e3(« 
jietMie. In the pursuit of exoellence, he war oertalnly no^ 
content with the common routine of pmotice ; and, as be 
thought for himself, so be inv^entMKl new nvethods of ea^ 
Vodving those thoughts. That he was sometimes unsuc^ 
>Mssnit eannot be dented ; but one failure seems to bave 
-kid a hfumhred TOices to report it, and in lirit^metical pwK 
IMWtion to bave increased aa envy ^raa created by his tfrni^ 
scendafnt superiority. Upon due reAeotion, bewetrer^ wheh 
«he apace is considered through wbieh he passed to arrive aft 
^e high professional rank he acquired, there can be lit«te 
tioobttbat the astonishment will be, net at the many, b«vt 
ib/& few txceptidnable works be produced; and ev^n €ff 
these it is no hyperbole to say, that as king as the true 
principles Of iMTt are admired, his ^< faded pictures** will be 
Ibund to pesftess a power of mind which has not often beM 
stiffpasoed even by the best productioni^ of his own time. ' 

REZ20NI00 (AKTHOVY Jk^SlSPH, count) an e^sccelient 
Kfhoba*, marshal of the camp, obamberkin to bis royal bigb- 
nets tfete infbnt duke of Parma, ahd governor of that citadel, 
ivM born at Camo in 1709. He acquired diatinetion in the 
aviiiy and ^ eoart, but muat bate devoted much of bis life 
to literary |lursuit». Hia fSfrst publication was a folio volume, 
tainted at Cemo in 1742, entitled ^ De aoppositia mihtafH 
'BUe itipt^iit Benedicti Od^esdiatci^ qui pontifex maKimus 
anno 1676, Innoiseotii prcenomrne ifuit renunciatits.'' Hm 
-neM Was a volttme of poetry, ** Musaram Epinicia,*' ad- 
^l^ned to Louts XV. Paima, 1757; but that siAikik m<m 
-eiatitlefei bkn tb aotice was his ^* Disquisitienes PlrAianss, silve 
dto tilriuvque Plinii patria, scriptis, codicibus, editionibu^, 
atque ititerpretibus,** Parma, 17'63, 2 vols. fol. Of tbaa 
Ernest! speitks Tory bigbly in hia ecKtien of Fabrieius*s Bibl. 
Latina. Brunet mentions some *^ Aeademioal Dtseetmie^* 
in Italian, ptibtished by count Reaseonico in 1779, 8vo. He 

1 Life prefixed to hie works by M^loDeff-Ltfe hy ^rihoote.— Pilhin|lotk.-^ 
Per the character of lir Joshua as an artist we were indebted to Rich. DDpp^, 
cfq, who drew it up for the British Essayists, vol. XXXJU. preface. 

R P Z Z O N I C O. i^7 


4ieA Mar<^ l^, 1785. jHis sou, the Couvt (^astone i^h- 
-JU TowjE Rezzonico, was born in Paroa abotit 1 74^. Up 
j|Fa« ^rly initiated i^tp scieaoe aiid poiUe }jt^atura> aiMl 
«Q c0n9i«I«rab]e were kh attainmentSi that in bis earlii^i^t 
yaouth he was chosen fellow of the poetical acaden^y i\\ 
.itoi»ef known binder the name ol; Arcadia. The reigQii^ 
4jake of Patvna having erected in his nketrcpoUs air Acadi^nay 
of fine artSy count IUzkoihco was ap>pointed its pr^sadeat ; 
hikt, by some vicis&itudesy was uUerly disgraced at cQurt^ 
und deprived^ not only of ibe place of president of the aca^ 
deiiiyi» b4it even of that of beredijtary cbai»b«eTlali;). Ufi w^ 
th^ietoxe obliged to leave Parnaa- He ^rst undertook h^t^g 
4Qurs tbrQogh £urope« especially in France and £nglap4» 
during which he be^apie coflipieltely ^a^ter o^ both lan*- 
guages ; and «.t.bjbs relnrn to UtAy he A>ed bi» gre»idepi^ ifi 
•Home, though he often made loo^ excursions itg Naplea a^fl 
Florence. AfmUskg biniaeif of btis aia^ple lei^r^, be wrote 
several works m prose and poetry^ ^h<e former of no great 
verity bvt from bis poeiiio^l works be de^rves to be placed 
iwoftong ibe best Italiim poe^ts of bi^ ige. He was disl^ii^ 
^uished by livelinesis of iiOiBgeryi profNriety of d)iction, e^ 
ACtness of epi^bett and by' a e(94>leees^ of ^^pros^ion aiK- 
tfjmred by d^eep stud^y o| iheOreek md JLatin ii^mii^, {Ijia 
Y'ersi&cation, bowefier^ wns iNimotbuig barsb>«and the mwn- 
iog of soai^ pbraoes obsci»ro» 0e died in \79Mf Jkftf^fiye 
years of agf . He ^9fi bigbly . enier^med by itbe Itajiap 
aobiMty, and men of JleUeirs» for Abo el^gaoee ^^f ^U mat^ 
aers and the ejof)ue»ce of *his cpoveiwtion* Tbe^e .^aalitie^ 
were,, howei^er, in. ^e opioiw of #ome» obaour^d by m 
iffimoderftte selff lov«» fWd ao. irrati^^al predilecuw for Ms 
owiQ.woirk^. A c0mpietie coileotjo9 of his poetical vfmki^ 
in two veliueses i^]a# i^mnt^d nt Ptaropa by ibe o^]obi:fU;e4 

RHAJZES^ galled etso Albnbecvnr Mpibagied» oiie of tb^ 
jOQsfe idis<;iagiyabcdi of tbe Arabif^n pfoysaci^n^y w9^b<^H^t 
Saif m iho previooe K>f <^rasani abpat ^b^ year 859. 
He watis first mttob addicu^ tp wnsic, ^nd i§ f»id oot vp 
bave amdied mediaine u«til h^ was tj^iriy years of ^^ 
when he removed to Bagdad, become inde&(tigqJ]^ m k'v^ 
afipiicaiiom aad l^aYing obt^ir^ 4he ihigbe#l:. repn^a^on, 
was aelec^ o»t of a hi%i%dred .eininmt pby«iqia449, . who 
lyere tbea i«sideni elb &gdad, to superiBtend tl>e ce}^- 

1 Diet, Hist. — Sa^cii Onooaast. 

109 R H A Z E S. 

* • 

brated hospital of that city. His biographers speak of 
him- as the Galen of the Arabians ; and from his long life 
and constant p^^ctice, during which he paid the most assi- 
duous attention to the varieties of disease, he obtained the 
appellation of the experimenter, or the experienced. He 
viras said also to be profoundly skilled in all the sciences, 
espepially in philosophy, astronomy, and nrusic. He tra- . 
veiled much in pursuit of knowledge, andmade frequent 
journies into Persia, his native country, and was much 
-consulted by several princes, particularly by Almansqr, 
the chief of Chorasan, with whom he frequently corre- 
sponded, and to whom he dedicated several of his .writ* 
ribgs. Two hundred and twenty-six treatises are said to 
hate been composed by Rhazes, amoiig which the ten 
books addressed to his patron' Almanzor,' were designed 
as a complete body of physic, and n^ay be deemed the 
great magazine of all the Arabian medicine; the ninth 
book, indeed, which treats of the cure of diseases^ was in 
such general estimation for several centuries, that it was the 
text'book of the public schools, and was commented. upon 
'by the most learned professors^ - Yet, like the rest of the 
Arabian writings, it contains very little more than the 
substance of the works iof;Ahe Greeks, from whom the 
Arabians borrowed almost all their medical kiwwledge. 
Theyhiave, indeed, and Rhazes in particular, given the 
^first disitinct accQunt^of the small-pox ; and- Rhazes wrote 
also- the first treatise ever^composed respecting the diseases 
of children. His book on the affecttons'of -rthe joints con- 
tains an account of some remarkable cures, effected chiefly 
by copious blood-letting. He des(»'ibes the symptoms of 
hydrophobia very well ; and also some diseases peculiar to 
-ei^stern countries, and first noticed the disease called spina 
ventosa. Rhazes had the reputation of being a skilful al« 
chemist ; and is the first, as Dr. Freind haa shewn, who 
mentions the use of chemical, preparations in roedicioe. 
•He has a chapter on the qualifications of a^physician ; and 
a singular tract on quacks ' and impostors, who appear to 
baye been at least as numerous, and ingenious in their 
contrivances as in more recent times. 

Rhazes lived to the age of eighty, and lost his sight : b« 
died' in the year 932. His works that have come down to 
us through the medium of translations in Latin ai^/ U A 
sort of common-place book, entitled " Continens," or 
^* Libri Continentes." 2. A much more perfect work, the 

R H A Z E S. 169 

'** Libri Decern, ad Alihansorem/' publiabed mt VeatM, 
I ^10. 3. Six books of aphorisms, published under the title 
of *' Liber de Secretis/ qui Aphorismorum appeUatur/' 
Bononis, 1489. 4. A tract on the small-pox, often trans- 
lated, and printed with the title of ^ De Pestileotia :" the 
best translation is by Chanuing, London, 1766.' 

RHENANUS (Beatus), a very eminent scbcdar' and 
editor, was bom, in 1485, at Schelestat, a town of Alsace. 
The name of4iis family was Bilde; that of Rbenaoos had 
been adopted by Ins father, who had considerable property 
at Rhenac, his native place. His mother died in his infiui- 
cy, and his father, who never married again, bestowed bis 
whole attention for some years on bis education. After 
some instruction in his own country, he was sent to Paris, 
Avhere he studied Grreek, rhetoric, and poetry, under the 
best masters. He then pursued his studies for someyears 
"at Strasburgh, and afterwards at Basil, where he contracted 
an intimacy with Erasmus that lasted during their lives, 
accompanied with mutaal respect and friendship. In 1 520, 
he returned to Schelestat, in his thirty-fifih yeAr, just iu 
time to take leave of bis father, who died the day after his 
arrival. . . 

Dupin remarks, that Rbetianus was one of those learned 
then, who embrace no particular profession, and whose 
"only business it is to cultivate the sciences, and Jtheir only 
ambition to become behefiactors to the republic of letters. 
Rbenahus was so much disposed to this kind of life, that he 
'Obtained from Charles V. an exemption from ail empk>y«- 
ment of a public nature. He had even no thoughts of 
marriage until near the end of his life, nor was that made 
public, as soon after hotfound himself attacked by the dis*- 
order which at last proved fatal. His physicians prescribed 
the waters of Baden, in Swisserland, but finding his disor- 
der increase, he returned to Strasburgh, where he died, 
'May 20, 1547, in his sixty-^second year. He made no 
will- but a verbal one. He left his library to bis native 
'place, Schelestat. He was a man of extraordifnary- mild« 
ness of temper, an enemy to contests, and of singular mo* 
desty and probity. Although, by bis intiiisacy with Eras- 
^mtls, and some of the early Reformers, he was enabled to 
* see many of the errors of the church of Rome, he adhered 
to her communion to' the last: he said and wroteenougb, 

J Fr^P(i> Hist, of Pbysic— ]S!(>yj Diet. Hist, de Medicint?. — Ree«'ii Cyclopad. 

170 R H E N A N U S. 

boweyer, to be classed with some ppotesitant writets ou tbetr 
•ide. Bessa, If ko in oae of those, attempts to di»tingvi«b 
Itie shave he bad in eacoamn^ing the efforts of the refgrinem^ 
with that more geeeral fiftoie he derived from his services to 
iitterature» Aodjoins cordiallj in the j>raises bestowed on his 
talents and ttmiable disposition. One only objection is 
mentioned by most of ius biogmpbers, and that }s his par- 
simony, of which, however, no very clear proof is afforded, 
0Heefit E pua upon his nam^ *^ Seatus est ^tuSf attameii 

' Hn works are, I. a very valuable edition of ^^ Tertullian^ 
Opera,^' Basil, l£r21, £ok. from original MSS. Dnpin speaki^ 
IdgUy of the notes aad pre&ces, as well as of the author of 
them. 2. ^^Auctores bistori® Eoclesiasticse,'' vis. £use- 
bias, Pamphilas, Nicephorns, Theodore^ &c. Basil, 1 523^ 
I.SS5, and Paris, 1541, 2 vols. fol. 3. <^ S. Basil. Sermo 
ide diflerentia Usise et Hypostasisit" Paris, 1513, foL 4. 
^ Synopsis de laudibvs Calvitii com scboliis,'^ Basil,- 1519, 
4tx>j 1521 and 1551, ^vo, added also at the end of Eras* 
snus's '^MorisB Enoomium.'* 5. ^ S. Gregorii Nanziaozeni 
mcitjb et Epistol® Tbemistoum,'' Paris, 1513, 
foi. 6. *^A Latin translation of the works of OrigeSQ)" 
•whieh Erasmus left unfinished, and was completed by oor 
jmthor, at Basil, 1536, fol. with a preface addressed lo 
flevman, arcfabittbop of Cologne, containing a life of Erasr 
mas. This last be abo kioorporated in the dedication tp 
Charles V. of tbe edition of Erasmus's works, printed at 
Basil in 1540. 7. '' Maximus Tyri4i^'' Basil, 1519, fo). 
with Paccius's tranalation, and a preface and corceetious 
by Rbenantts. 8. ^< Baptista Gaairinus de modo et ordine 
docendi ac disoendi," Str^burgb, 1514, 8yo. 9. ^^Mar^ 
eeili Vb^lii de maiitise laudibus,'' &c. Basil, 1518, 4to. 
10. ^^ Lud. Bigs opasculorum metricor^im bbri, et Pontii 
Faulini carmefi Janibicnm,'VilSttasbttfgb, 1509, 4to. 11* 
«< Thomas Mori epigfaoimata Latins, pleraqne e Gmeis 
^ersa, ad enoevdaftiim ipaias exemplar e^cusa,'' Basil, 1580* 

12. '' VelleisM PkteneuliM,!' Basi4 1^20, foL tbe princeps 
-mliit^i primed by f roben, and CnroAed by tbe editar fmm 
4be Codex Murhaoeasis ; it is an edition of eMUeme caritgr* 

13. ^'^Tsuiitas," Baaii^ 1633 and 1541). 14. <' Li vi^ deca- 
des, feres,'^ fiasiJ, 15JS5, M. often reprinted, and bis^noMfs 
added to subaeqneiit editions. 15. *^ Senecm de morie 
Claudii Indus,'* in Erasmus's and some other editions of 
Seneca. 16. << C^nintus Curtius,'^ Basil, 1517> and Stras- 



fciii^j 1$18, fbl. 17. " PliDii Hist Nat/* Basil, li2e, 
^ol. J 6. ^^Joannis Geileri Keiserbergii, &c. vita," pre- 
£Ked to the << Navicula fatnorum," 1510, 4fco. 19.' <<i£-. 
neie PUtottict Chriitiani de immortaUitate animse," Basil, 
1516, 4ta 20.^<Xysci EncbindioB," ibid. 1316^ printed 
with the preceding. 21. <* Liceiuii Erangeli Sacerdotis, 
praeffttio in Mfirsilii defensorem pacis pro LudpTicp IV. Itnp. 
4MlTersus iniquas usurpatiooes ecdesiasticoxam," 1522, fol. 
This is onei of the wof ks which broagbt on Rbenaous the 
charge of timidity, tii not avowing his aversion to the usur-' 
-paltiiMiis of his church. He assumes here the name of Licen- 
tius JEvanffdus. 22. ^'Illyrici provinciarumatrique imperio, 
cum Romano, turn ConstantiaopoJitano aervientis deacriptio,'^ 
published with the ^^Notitia dignitatom Imp. Romaini,?' 
Parts, 1602, Svo« 23. ^^ Procopii Ceesariensis de rebus 
ijiotboorum,'' &c. Basil, 1531, fol. 24. ^^ Reram Gemui- 
Bicarom libri ires,*' Basil, 1531, fol. Of this, which is 
mteemed one of his best works, there have been several 
editions, the last by Otto, 1693, 4to.^ 

RH£NF£RD (James), a celebrated oriental scholar, was 
Jboro ac Mulheim, in Westphalia, Aug. 15, 1654« After 
studying at the college of Meuis, a city in the duchy of 
Cleves, and travelling for some time, be accepted an invk- 
' nation to becofue rector of the Latin collie in the city of 
Fvaneker ; but resided it in 16SO, and removed to Amster- 
dam, where he was einployed in the capacity of tutor, and 
enjoyed, at the same time, a ikvourable- opportunity for 
conversing^ with learned rabbis, and improving his know- 
ledge of rabbinical learning. In 1688 he was appointed 
pK>fessor of the oriental languages and philosophy at the 
university of Franeker ; and remained in this' olEBce nearly 
thirty yeai^s, during which he was thrice chosen reo* 
tor of the university. He died Nov. 7, 1712, in the 5dth 
year of his age. His learning was extensive ; but most 
pfofoond ifii the Hebrew, iochiding the Rabbinical, the 
Cbaldee, and Syriac languages. Among his wodcs maybe 
fiientioned, 1. *^ De Antiquitate Chavacteris hodierni Jo- 
<daiici,'' 1696, 4to, iu which be . endeavoured to esublish 
the claim of jdie prescot Hebrew characters to the highest 
antiquity, and to prcwe that the SaSMwitan ckamoters weve 
bonf6wed from the Hedbrewl ;'* S« ** Gomparatio Expiatio- 

1 Melcbior Adam. — Vreheri Tbeatram.— •Dnpin.— Bullart Academie det Sci- 
jtnces. Vol. il.'^Bezse Icones.— vNiicerpm vo^ XX^VilL— Jortin's I^ife of Erin!' 
nms. See Index. /«• 

172 R H E N A N U S. 

,Tiis anniFersariffi Pontificis maximi in Vet. Test, com utlicn 
acque asterna ExpiationisChristi Domini/' 1696. -S. '^ In- 
vestigatio Praefectonihi et Ministrorum Syuagogae/' 1700, 
4to. 4. ** Disserlatioiiuin Theologico-philolegtcarum de 
Stylo Novi Testamenti Syntagma, quo continentur Olearii, 
Cocceii, &c. de hoc genere Libeili/' &c. 1701, 4to; 5. 
^'Arabarcbai sen, Ethnarcba Judasorum/* 1702, 4to. 6. 
'^ De Statdis et Aris, falsis verisque Dei et Hominum Inters 
nunciis,'' in illustration of Exod. zx. 23, 24, 1705, 4to. 
7. *' Observationum selectarum ad Loca Hebrsea Nov. Test, 
partes sive Disput. Tres," 1705, 4tb, &c. He also left 
unfinished, but partly printed, a work, entitled <^ Rudi* 
men ta Grammatics Harmonics^ Linguarum Orientalium, 
HebrtBse, Chaldaicse, Syriacae, et Arabics^." ^ 

RHETICUS (Georgb Joachim), a celebrated German 
astronomer and mathematician, was bom at Feldkifk in 
Tyrol, February 15, 1514. After imbibing the elemenl» 
of' the mathematics at Zurick with OswaJd My cone, be 
went to Wittemberg, where be- diligently cultivated- that 
sciencie, and was made master of philosophy in 15S5, and 
professor in 1537. He quilted this situation, however, two 
years after, and went to Fruenburg to profit by the instroic* 
tions of the celebrated Copernicus, who had then acquired 
great* fame. Rheticus assisted this astronomer for some 
years, aad constantly exhorted him to perfect his wofk 
V De Revolutionibus,'' which he published after the death 
of Copernicus, viz. in 1543, folio, atNorimberg, together 
with an . illustration of the same, dedicated to Scboner. 
Here too, to render astronomical calculations more accurate, 
•he began bis very elaborate- canon of sines, tangents and 
secants,, to 15 places of figures, and to every lOsecomis 
of the quadrant, a design which he did not live quite, to 
complete. . The canon of sines however to that radius, Jcht 
every 10 seconds, and for every single second in Ae first 
• and. last degree of the quadrant, computed by. him, was 
published in folio at Francfort, 1613, by Pitiscos, who 
himself added a few of the' first sines computed to 22 pkces 
of figures. But the larger work, or canon. of sines, tann 
gents, and secants, to every 10 seconds, was perfected soikl' 
publisbed after bis death, vis; ia 1506, by his discipleiVa;- 
Jentine Otbo, mathematician to the electoral prince pah- 
tine^ a particular account and analysis of which work nisy 

* Niceron^ toIs. I. and X.— Morcri. 

R H E T I C U S. 175 

be seen in the Historical lAtroduction to Dr. Rotton^s Lo» 

After the death of Copernicus, Rbeticus returned to 
Wittemberg, viz. in 1541 or 1542, and was again admitted 
to his office of professor of mathematics. The same year, 
by the recommendation of Melanctbouy he went to Norim-^ 
berg, where he found certain manuscripts of Werner and 
Regiomontanus. He afterwards taught mathematics at 
Leipsic. From Saxony he departed a second time, for 
what reason is not known, and went to Poland ; and from 
tbence to Cassovia in Hungary, where he died December 
4, 1 576, near sixty'-three years of age. 

His ^^ Narratio de Libris Revolutionum Copernici,'' waitf 
first published at Dantzick in 1 540, 4to ; and afterwards 
added to 'the editions of Copernicus's work. He composed 
and published ** Ephemerides,*' according to the doctrine 
0f Copernicus, till 1551, and projected other works, and 
partly executed them, though they were never published^ 
of various kinds, astronomical, astrological, geographical, 
i^hemical, &c. All these are mentioned in his letter to 
Peter Ramus in the year 1568, which Adrian Romanusin- 
serted in the preface to the first part of his Idea of Matbe* 

RHODIGINUS (LuDOVicusCcEUUs),by Scaligernamed- 
ibe Varro of the age, was a learned Italian, whose proper 
name was Ludovico Celio Richeri* He was born at Rovigo 
about 1450, and studied at Ferrara and Padua, and France. 
On his return to Italy, he filled the office of public professor 
at Rovigo for some years, but in 1503 opened a school at 
Vicenza, where he continued till 1508, when. he was in- 
vited to Ferrara by duke Alfonzo I. In the year 1515, 
Francis I. nominated him to the chair of Greek and Latin 
eloqtience in Milan, as successor to Demetrius Chalcoody- 
lay. In 1521 be returned to Padua, and in 1523 he was 
deputed from his native place to Venice, to congratulate 
the new doge. In 1525 he died of grief, on account of the 
defeat and capture of Francis at the battle of Pavial His 
principal work is entitled ^^ Antiquse Lectioues,*V of which 
he published sixteen books at Venice, in 1516, fol. and 
* fourteen more were added after his death in the editions of 
Basil, 1566, and Francfprt, 1^66. Vastus expresses bfe 

1 Hntton'a Diet.— >Vossi«if dc Scienf. Mathemat— Melobior AdMn.-^Morari. 

17* K fi O D O M A N: 

wonder^ aodi even indignation^ that saleartfed a ixfiycdlaagr^ 
was so little known.^ 

( RHOOOMAN (LAUR£NC£)y a leai'ned German, was bom 
ifi 154^9. at Sassowerf, belonging to the counts of Stoifoerif 
in Upper Saxony, wbo, induced by an early dicpiay of ta«« 
}eiit% bore the expence of his education at the college «f 
Dfield. He continued there sis years ; and made so great 
SI progress in literature, that be was thought fit to teach in 
the n»ost eminent schools and tbet.uTost flourishing universi^ 
ties. He was especially skilled in tbe Greek tongae, and 
composed some Greek verses, wb'teb were much adixHre<^> 
but Scaliger did not think him equally bapf>y in Lati»^ 
poetry. He was very successful in a i Latin translations of 
*^ Diodorus Siculus,^' which Henry Stepfhens prevailed otk 
him to undertake; and it was puUisbodin 16M, with Ste« 
pbens's text. He translated also into Lsitiri the Greek poiefa 
of Qnintus Galaber, concerning the taking of Troy; and 
added some corrections to it. At last, he was appointed 
professor of bistory in tbe university <^ Wittemberg, and 
died there in 1606. His other works were, 1. *^ Hiiatorid 
vitas & doctrrnas Martini Lutberi carmine heroico descrip^ 
ta«'^ 2. ^^ Descriptio Historiae Ecclesiae, sive populi Dei,^ 
PolitisB ejusdem, & rerum praecipuarum quse in illo populo 
acciderunt, Grseco carmine, cum versione Latina e regione 
t^xtus GraBci," Francof. 1581, 8vo. 3. *^ Poesis Chris* 
tiana, id est, PalestinaB sen Histortae sacras Gra^o-Latinas* 
libri 9," Marpwrgi, 15S9; Francof. 1590, 1630, 4lo. 4, 
*< Tabulae Etymologise Grascae,'* Francof. 1590, ftvo. A^ 
*f Memnonis Historia de IlepublicaHeraolieiisiiimy& reh\» 
Popticis EclogsB : sen excerptae & abbreviatae narratiiMoes 
in Sermonem Latinum translatae^," Helmstadii, 1591, 4to«. 
a. " Epitbalamia sacra," Jenas, 15i94, 4to; 7. ** Ex Mem- 
none, de Tyrannis Heracleae Pontics Ctesia & Agatbar-*- 
chide excerptae Historiae Gree«^ & JLatine partim ex Laur^ 
Rhodomani interpretatione," Geneva, 1593, 8vo. 8w 
*^ Theologiae. Christianae tyrocinia, catdnine betoico Gva^ 
co-Latino in 5 libros digesta," Lips. 1597, 8va' 
. RH LINK EN (David), an eminent scholar, was born afe 
Stoipe in Ponierania, on tbe 2d of January, 1723. . Hirt 
parents, being in good circumstances, and of the belter 
order of tbe b«irgesse8,.destioed him, from his early years» lor 

I Vossiu» Hist. Lat Moreri.— Tirabos«hs.^Bb«Bi's edMafa.*— £nui Oo«- 

^ Gen. Diet. — Bailiet Jugemeos.—- Saxii Oaornkst. - 


R H U N K E N. 175 

the okif rcbr After receiviag sotne inttruotioa io tbe 3obool 
of Stolpe, in tbe priocipies of his mother-tongue, be was 
sept first to Scblave, and afterwards to Koenigsberg, for 
edtiCftiion in the classical languagesy tiie usoal course of 
wbicb stodies be finished attbe age of twenty -two. Witb 
some diffiealty he then obtained bis parents' consent to re- 
pair to Gottingen, and study Greek nndqr Matthew G^s* 
Der^^at that time tbe great ornaraent of that university. On 
his way to Gottingen^ he passed through Berlin^ and went- 
te« ^sit the Saxon university of Wiuenoberg. There be 
was so oiiich pleased with the lectures and conversation of 
J* D* Kntter, professor of history and civil law, and of 
J. W« Berger, professor of oratory and antiquities, that be 
persanded his parents to allow him to continue his studies^ 
for some time at Wittemberg, before he should proceed to 
Gotitingen. He remained with these professors two yearSi- 
ftiid, under their aaspices, took a degree in laws. He went 
then to perfect bis knowledge of Greek, not with Gesnerat 
Gottingen, as be intended, but under the celebrated Hem* 
sterhuis of Leyden. Hemsterhurs received this ingenuous- 
youth with great kindness, gave him the readiest a6sisuiiice> 
in bis favourite studies, recommended him to good employe 
ment as a tutor, and at length used e^^ery means to -secure- 
tiis af^ointment toa professorship in the university in which 
he himself taught* Hbunken appUed with great seal t<> 
Gveek >and Roirian literature, and at the same time made- 
bkaself highly acceptable by tbe gentleness of bis manners, 
tbe liveliness of his conversation, and by his taste anc) skill 
in the favourite amusements of the place* . 

His 6rst printed display of critical Greek erudition, was 
ip^an epistle upon certain Greek commentaries on the title 
in the Digest De Adtocatis et Procuratoribust He gave 
next, at Hemsterhuis's persuasion, an edition of the Greek 
LaxieoD of Timsus, for the illustration of words and phrases 
peculiar to Plata ThiBivas published in 1754, 8vo. Next 
year be went to Pafis^ with a view chieBy to inspect the 
libraries of that city and their manuscript treasures. Here 
he formed an acquaintance with Dr. S. Musgrave and -Mr. 
T. Tyrwbitt, who was then examining some of the MSS.^ 
particvlarly those of Euripides. During a year's residence 
in that metropolis, Rhunken passed most of bis time in the 
king's library, and in that of the Benedictines of St. Ger-> 
main's ; ' transcribed a number of unprinted remains of an. 
eient Uterature, and ooH&ted many manuscripts and rare 

176, R H U N K E N. 

editions of the most popular classical authors.. Ih Ocfobef > 
1 757 be was appointed reader in Greek lit^ature, .and thus 
became assistant to Hemsterbuis in the university of Ley*, 
den, and upon the death of peudendorp, professor of 
.Latin oratory and history, be was advanced to the- vacant,, 
chair of that eminent scholar. In 1763, be married Ma-, 
rianne Heirmans, a young lady of uncommon beauty and 
accomplishments, the daughter of a gentleman who bad, 
long resided as Dutch consul at Leghorn. 

In the course of his studies he discovered in Aldus's coI« ^ 
lection of the " Rbetores GrsBci,^' a valuable fragment,, 
unknown to modern scholars, of the treatise of Longinusoa. 
the Subljime, which was, by his favour, afterwards pub- 
lishied in Toup's excellent edition of that work. On the 
death of his old master Hemsterhuis, be. did justice to. his. 
memory in an elaborate eulogy, from which our account of 
Hemsterhuis was taken. He soon after published an excel-, 
lent edition of the rhetorical treatise.of Rutilijas Lupus, andi 
in. 17.79, a most valuable edition of Velleius Paterculus» 
Next year be gratified the learned world with, the- Hymoa. 
of Homen One of his last labours was, the supetintending 
a new. edition of Scheller^s Latin dictionary^ With. all these, 
studies, as well as his professional engagen^ents, hefaundi 
leisure to attend to the pleasures of the chase, of whicb he. 
was very fond. He died May 14, 1798,. in. the 76tb. year. 
of his age. He left a niece and a daughter tptally uupror 
vided for, but the- government. of Batavia purchased bi^i 
library for a pension granted to tbem. This library « was. 
rich in scarce books, and valuable . transcripts from otbor. 

Wbyttembacb, whom we have followed in, this, sketch,;. 
draws the character of Rbunkenius at some length*. His. 
knowledge and hi$ learning are unquestioned. In otb^r 
respects be was lively, cheerful, andga)'', almost to >crimi-«. 
nal indifference, but he knew bis own value and conse*, 
quence. He said once to Villoison, '^ Why did not yj^VL 
come to Leyden to attend Valckenaer and me ?*' He ooce< 
showed, with pride, a chest of MSS. of Joseph Scaiiger to 
a Swede called. Biornsiball — '< Ah!" said Biornsthall, 
^^Ihis is a man who wants judgment,'* alluding to his.epi- 
taph, but playing a little too severely on the equivoque. 
Rbunkenius grew angry, and replied with, warmtbr ^^ Be^ 
gone with your ignorance-'^ — " aufer te bine ciam, tuo slu-. 
pore.'' A German professor, to whom, b^ showed th^ same 

R m; 14 s: f: N. m 

colliittkHi^ oWferted, « We i<6w write in Qetx^Xij mtht 
own language, and cannot comprehend the ob«titiacy of 
those who continue to write in Latin*** ** Professor,'* re- 
plfed' Rhfurikeniils, <« look thert fbr a lihtarjr bf Getman 
bd6ks,*' i-eftssing to show Mm ^y thing iifiot«.* ^ 

KIBADENEIRA (PiftEti), a celebrated Spartish Jesnltl^ 
wcfcs botn at Toledo, in 1^27; fend was enrolled liy St. Igw' 
imtitls Among bis fevonrite di4*i^l64 in 1540, before thft'. 
socidtjrbf the Je^stiits had received the papal ^nctioii.' Iti' 
1*542 be studied ftt Paris, dtid feftei^wferdsf at Padufe, whef^^ 
be was sent to Palenrio ib tendh rb^oric. After many, and 
long travds for fh6 prdpagati^h of thi* interestar of ttie' so-' 
ciety in vdiriott^ prirts of Eui^obe, h^ died dt MadHd, Oct. 
Ji 1611. One of \i\i Visits was with the duke 6f Fefii td' 
England, in 1558, Md bis inquiries ben^, or what he mside' 
8ul^eqti6hrly, c^Cotffaged hihi to publish a treatise "Oi^ 
tbe^ English schism/^' 1594, Bi^o, in which, it is said, theiTeT 
is less rancour abdAbrichony than might have been expect-' 
edj ' sihti iome ciurlatfs anecdotes respecting^ the piersonal 
cbara6t<hr 6f que^ii Mary. He is, howevier, chitfly known 
for bfs 'Lires of vfeiious Saints a^d J^sttits, and as thefotin- 
dc^r 6f tbdt biography of the Jesuits which Alegambe iind 
otb^ti^aflerwiirds idiprdi^eil itit^d^a work of s6me importance/ 
Oflfe df hi& priiidpal li^^s, pfdblished se^ratdy, is that of 
the founder, St. fgnalius de Loyola. Oi? this work there^ 
bav6 been se^ei^l editions, the first iii 1572, and the se-^* 
dond with addtttons in 1 5S7, in neither of which he ascribes' 
any miracles td his master, and is so far frbmi supposing ^^i^' 
tbaf he enters into an itiquiry, whence it couM happen thatr 
so holy a man had not the gift'of miracles bestowed upon 
bim, tod really assigns very sensible ireasohs. But notwith* 
standing all this, in an abridged edition 6f his life of Igtia- 
tius, published at Ipresin 1612, miracles are ascribed to 
Ignatius, and Ribadeneira is nlade to assign, as fais^ reason' 
for ndt in^rting sucU aecoiints before, that though h^ heani 
dftbetid iti 1572, dieywere not Sufficiently authenticated. 
Bishop Douglas, who i^ inclined to blame Rib^d^neira for 
this insufficient apology, ha$ omitted to notice that jfchid' 
Ipres edition of the life was published a ye^r after Ribade- 
neirk'is ddatfit, and therefore it i^ barely possible that the 
miracles, and all that is said aboiit thefm, might have been* 

supplied by some zealous brother of the order* His ^' Lives 


> yil* RhnnkMii, by Whyttenbaeh. 

Vol. XXVI. N 

179 \R I e A R D. : 

of the Saints^* were translated into EagHsb^ and published 
in 2 vols, 8vo.* 


RICARD (Dominic),- a learned French writer, was born 
at Toulouse, 'March 25, 1741, aod entered into the con- 
gregation of the Christian doctrine, and became a distin^ 
guished professor in it. . He quitted the society after some 
years, and took up his ' residence at Paris, where he em- 
ployed himself in instructing youth, and in literary pur8uit3« 
He was celebrated for. bis deep knowledge in the Greek 
langui^e, and engaged in. the great task of translating tb€^ 
whole works, of Plutarch; . .Between the years 1783 and 
1795 he publbhed bis version of that philosopher's moral 
works, hi 17 vol$..12nio; of the Lives be only published 4 
vols. 12mo. He.published likewise a poem, entitled ** La 
Sphere," in eight cantos, .1796, 8vo, which contains a 
system of astronomy and. geography, enriched with notes, 
and notices of Greeks Latin, and French poems, treating 
on astronomical subjects. Ricard died in 1803, lament^ 
as a fnan of most friendly and. benevolent disposition.* 

RICAUT, or RYCAVt (Sir Pjciii), an English tr^veU 
ler, was the tenth son of sir Peter Ricaut, probably a .mer- 
chant in; London,, and the author of some useful worksy 
who was one of the persons excej^ted in the /^ Propositions 
of the Lords and Comtnons^ ' assen^bled in parliament, *^ for 
1^ safe and. well* grounded peace, July 11, 164^, sent tp 
Charles I. at Newcastle." He also paid .<£. 1500 for his 
composition, and taking. part with his unhappy sovereign^. 
Ais son Paul was born in London, and admitted scholar of 
Trinity college, Cambridge, in 1647, where he took hi^ 
bachelor's degree^ in 1650. After this he^ravelled many 
years, not only in Europe, but also in Asia and Africa | 
s^nd was employed in soinp public services.* In 166 1, when 
the earl of Winchelsea was sent ambassador extraordinary 
to the Ottoman Porte, he went as his secretary; and vvhile 
he continued in that station, which was* eight years^ he 
^ wrote ** The present State of the Ottoman Empire, in three 
books ; containing the Maxims of the Turkish fplitie, their 
Religion, and Military £>iscipUne," illustrated with figures, 
^nA printed at London, 1670, in folip, and 16?5 in Svp, 
and translated into French by Bespier, with notes^ andani? 

_ ' Alegam)>e. — ^OougUs's Crilerion, p. 64.— Diet. Hitt:— Freheri'Tbeatnidir 
'« Diet. HUt. 

R I '6 A tJ T. i|d 

tufladyersions on some mistakes. During the same time, he; 
htid occasion to take two voyages from Constantinpple to 
L-ondon ;, one of them was by land, through Hungary, 
wjiere he remained some time in the Turkish camp with the 
famous vizier, Kuperlee, on business relating to England, 
in 1663 be published the ^^ Capitulations, articles of peace,^* 
&c. concluded between England and the Porte, which were 
very much to our mercantile advantage, one article being 
that English ships should be free from search or visit under 
pretence of foreign goods, a point never secured in any 
former treaty. After having meritoriously discharged his 
office of secretary to lord Whichelsea, be was made consul 
for the English natidn at Smyrna ; and during his residence 
tb^re, at the command of Charles II. composed " The pre- 
sent Slate of the Greek and Armenian ChQrches,anno Chris- 
ti 1678,'' wbi^h,'upon h'is retuVn to England, h^ presented 
with his own hands to his majesty; and it was published in 
1679, 8vo. Having acquitted Fumself, for the space of 
eleven years, to the entire satisfaction of the Turkey com- 
pany, he obtained leave to return to England, where he 
lived in honour and good esteefn. The earl of Clarendon, 
being appointed lord lieutenant of Ireland in 1685, made 
him his principal secretary for th^ provinces of Leinster 
abd Connaught; an'd James II. knighted him, constituted 
Kim one of the prJvy council for Ireland, and judge of the 
high court of admiralty,- which h^ enjoyed tilt the revolu- 
tion in 1688. Soon after this, he was employed by king 
William as his resident with the Hanse-towns in Lower 
Saxony, namely, Hamburg, Lubeck, and Bremen ; where 
he continued for ten years, and gave the utmost satisfac- 
tion. At lengthy worn out with age and inBrmities, he 
bad le^ve in 1700 to return to England, where he died, 
I)ec. 16 oF that year.' He wis fellow of the Royal Society 
for many yeai^s before his decease;' and a paper of his, 
upon the ** Sable Micd,'* or " Mures Norwegici,'* is pub- 
lished in the Philosophical Transactions. He understood 
•perfectly the Greek, both ancient and modern, the Turk- 
isb^ Latin, Italian, and French languages. 
, H^ was the author of other productions, besides those' 
ajready mentioned. He wrote a continuation of Knolles^s 
^* history of the Turks," from 1623 to 16-77, 1680, in 
folio; and again from 1679 to 1699, 1700, in folio, mak- 
itig, together with Knolles's, three volumes. He was, from. 
Urn fptdk knowtedge of Turkish affairsi better qualiNv 

1^ 2 


than any other person for this work, but he is inferio;* ia 
Koollest in historical naerit He continued Platina's '* LiveM 
of the Pqpes^*' from 1471 to his own time, and translated 
from the Spanish of Garcilasso de la Vega, into English, 
^* The Royal Commentaries of Peru, in two parts,*' folio ; 
and "li'hjB Spanish Critic,'* 1681, 8vo, from Gratian.' 

RICCATI (VinceNiT), an able mathematician, was born 
in 17Q7 at Castel. Franco, in the territory of Treviso, and 
in 1726 entered among the Jesuits, and taught mathematics 
at Bologna, till the, suppression of his order in 1773. At 
this period he returned to his native place, and died there 
of acholic, in 1775, aged sixty-eight, leaving some good 
mathematical works ; among others, a large treatise on the 
'' Integral Calculus,** 3 vols. 4to. He had been much em^ 
ployed in hydraulics, and such was the importance of his 
services in this branch, that the republic of Venice or* 
dered a gold medal, worth a thousafod livres, to be struck 
in honour of him, in 1774.* 


RICCI (Matthew), a celebrated Jesuit, was bom Oct« 
6, 1552, of a good family at Macerata. He went to the 
Indies, finished his theological studies at Goa, taught rhe- 
toric there, and being in the mean time appointed mis^ 
sionary to China,, learnt the language of that country, nor 
did he neglect mathematics^ which be had studied at Rooae 
under the learned Clavius. After many troubles and diffi- 
culties, he arrived at Pekin, where he was esteemed by 
the emperor, the mandarins, and all the learned, acquii^sld 
great reputation, drew a map for the Chinese, and was 
permitted to preach the Cbx'iscian religion. He purchased 
a house at Pekin, where he built a church, and died there, 
in 1610, aged fifty-eight, leaving some very cirrious me<- 
moirs respecting China, which &ther f rigaalt has made 
use of in writing his history of that vast empire. Father 
d^Orleans^ a Jesuit, who published a ^* Life of Ricci,** In 
)693, 12mo, says, that this father drew up a short cate* 
cbism^^for the Chinese, in which he introduced scarcely afiy 
but such points of morality and religion as are most con« 
fiormable to Christianity. These words of father d*Orleafis, 
aays L*Avocat, have furnished the eaemies of the Jesuits^ 
with abundant patter for critical reflectrona.* 

' Y Biog. Brit.— Cold's MSS. Atheuae Cantab, in Brit Mus.— Henry Clarendoi^j 
estate Lettera." — Granger. 
, » VaVffMi Vta lnOoruaw vol. XVI. » Marefi-^aict. Hte dkli^Atodib 

R I C C I. ill 

RICCI (Michael Angelo), a learned Italian eccte* 
siasticy was born at Rome in 1 6 1 9. He was created a car- 
dinal in 168 1, but did not long enjoy that dignity, as he 
died in 1689, at the age of sixty-four. He was well skilled 
in the pnre mathematical sciences, and published at Rome, 
in 4to, " Exercitatio, Geometrica," a small tract, x^-hicfh was 
reprinted at London, and annexed to Mercator's *^ Logarith«* 
motechnta,'' chiefly on account of the excellency of the 
argument *' de maximis et minimis,^' or the doctrine of 
limits; where the author shows a deep judgment in ex- 
iiibiting the means of reducing that lately discovered doc<^ 
trine to pure geometry. * 

RIOCI (Sebastian), an artist of temporary feme, was 
born at Belinno, near Trevisano, in 1659; and having 
discovered an early genius for painting, was conducted bv 
his father to Venice, and placed as i, disciple with Fred. 
Gervelli, a Milanese artist of good reputation, with whom 
he studied for nine years. He afterwards improved hi9 
"practice at Bolo^a, &c. by copying, and obtained the fa- 
vour and patronage of Rannuccio, the second duke of 
I^arma. By the liberality of that prince, he was honour^ 
ably maintained at Rome, studying the. productions of the 
best ancient and mx)dern masters ; and there he formed that 
manner which distinguishes his productions, and for a while 
raised hint into the highest esteem. Having quitted Rome, 
iie retunied to Venice, where be was so eageriy solicited 
for his paintings, that he had scarcely time to take even 
necessary refreshment. His fame spread through Europe^ 
axid he received an invttation to the court of the emperor 
at Vienna, to adorn the magnificent palace of Schoenbrun^ 
From thence he was encouraged to vi^it London, where he 
was immediately and incessantly employed by the court, 
the nobility, and persons of fortune. Here he remained 
ten years, with his nephew and coadjutor, Marco Ricci, 
who painted skilfully scenes of architecture and landscape 
at Burlington house /and Bulstrode. He acquired great 
wealth by the immense opcupa^on be found ; and then 
returned to Venice, where be remained until his dejeith, 
in 1 734, tn the seventy-fifth year of his age. 
" Ricci was one pf the few, comparatively speaking, who 
enjoy during their livefi ttie utmost extent of their fam^. 
In bis history, that portion of renown which attaches to 

1 HtttCon'i I>ict.«-^Ufidi Hilt. Lit. d'luUe.-^FAbrottt VHil tXtX. tol. II. 

182 RICO I.* 

bim 4^ei with him, or nearly so. In fact, be «iras a ina^. 

phinist, one who, being conversant in the rules of art, and 
skilful in the application of. the means, dazzled where be. 
could not instruct, and deluded by ingenuity without judg«^ 
ment, and art without, expression. His works ..ace to be 
found in many of our great bouses, as svell as tboae^ of his 
nephew. At Chelsea, where be. painted the altar-piece, 
and at the British ]M[useiiiii|.the]:.e.a][^. considerable pictures 
of bis p^inting^ bijit they do not ris^ in esteem by continued 
observat^n ; and yet, unfortunately, they had sui&cient 
influence in their day to lead the artists astray frofp the 
contemplation and imitation of the works of KaphaeK and 
the greater masters of the Italian school. Walpole informs 
us that Sebastian excelled particularly in imitations of Paul 
Veronese, many of which he sold for originals ; and onc4^ 
deceived even La Fossjs. When the latter was conviiicecl 
of the imposition, be gave this severe but just , reprimand 
to Sebastian : ^' For the future take. my advice; paint no-^ 
thing but Paul Veroneses, and .no more Ri<x;is/' ^0)^4 
Orfprd adds that Ricci left England on finding it d^ter^ 
mined ^' thp.t ^jr James Thornhill should paint the cupda 
of St Paul V"' ■ ' ; ' . , ? 


RICCIOLI (John Baptist), a learned Italian astirono* 
mer, philosopher, and mathematician^ was born in 1598, 
at Ferrara, a city in Italy, in the dominions of the pppcf* 
l^t sixteen years of age be was admitted into th^ society o^ 
the Jesuits, and the progress he made in every branch c^ 
literature and science was surprising. He was first appointed 
to teach rhetoric, poetry, philosophy, and scholastic divi- 
pity, in the Jesuits* colleges at Parma and JBoIogna ; yet 
applied himself in the mean time to making observations 
?f} geography, chronology, and astronomy. This was his 
li^turaj ijent, and at lengtMie obtained leave from his sii«t 

Seriors to qujt all other employment, that he might devote 
imself entirely to those sciences. , , 

He projected a large work, to be divided ^ntQ three 
parts, and to cont^n a complete system of philosophical^ 
mathematical, and astronoinicall knowledge. . The first\f>f 
these parts, which regards astronomy,.. came out at Bo* 
logna in 1651, 2 vols, folio, with this title, . ^f J. B. RiccioU 
Almagestum Novum, Astronomiam yeterem novamcju^i 

^ Piftinston.— WalpolVs Aneodotft.— fieeB*t Cydopsdia. 

R I C C I O L I. 185 

ctuoaplectens, ^objservatioDilHis uliofuin et propriu/DoVisque' 
tbeorematibus, picobjem^tihus ac ta^yqlis promotam:*' . lUc* 
cdoli ifQiutied Ptolemy in this work, by collecting dod.di*. 
gj^sUng into proper order, with observations, every thing* 
ifiiqient and mpdern, which related to bis subject ; so that 
Qjffi^endus very justly called his work, ^^ Promptuarium et 
thes^uruQi iugentem Aatronomiia.*' In the first volume of 
this work,, he treats of the sphere of the world, of the sun 
and moon, with their eclipfiies ; of. the fixed stars, of the 
planets, of ttve comets,^ and newst^rs, of the several m^iin- 
dane sy^ms, and six sections of general problems serving' 
tp astronomy, &c. In the second volume, be treats of. 
t^-igqnometry, or the doctrine of plane and 8phei'ic9l txian-- 
gles ;, proposes to giye a treatise of astronomical igsitri^-. 
Qiepts, and the optical part of astronomy- (which part was: 
never published) ; treats of geography, hydrography, witbt- 
an epitOirne of chronology. The third conipi^bcnds ob- 
seivi^tions of the, sun, moon, eclipses, fixed stars, and pla«r 
sets, with precepts find tables pf tbp primary and seqpn-. 
flary motions, and other astronomical tables.. Bij[:ci(olji 
printed also, two jofiher works, in folio, a,t Bologna, viz. 
2, ^^Astronomia ^efprmata," 166jf; the design of which 
was, that of considering the various hypotheses of several 
astronomers, and the di^culty thence arising of concljiding 
^ny thing certain, by comparing together all the best ob-i 
nervations, ^nd eix^mining what is most certain in them, 
thence to reform the principles of astronomy. 3. ** CbrO'* 
fiologta Reformata," 1669. Riccioli died in 1671, atse-» 
yenty-three years of age.* » , . 

RICCOBONi (Louis), a com^c actor and writer, bora 
at Modenain ]1674, came to France in 1716, and distin* 
guished himself as the best actor at the Theatre Italien. 
Religious motives induced him to quit the stage in 1729 ; 
and be died in 1753, much esteemed for the decency of 
his manners, and bis amiable disposition. . He was. the an* 
thor of a number of comedies, which Ijad a temporary suc- 
cess, and which contain much comic humour. One of 
them, entitled ** Les Coquets,*' was revived a few yearf 
since. He also wrote ^^ Pens^es sur la Declamation ;'' 
** Discours sur la Reformation du Theatre ;'' ** Observa'* 
tions sur la Comedie et sur ie Genie de Moliere ;" " Re* 
^exions Historiques et Critiques sue les Theatres de TEu- 

I FabroBt Vila italoron, toL U.— Hnttoa^t^DicUoMrj. 

]f4 R 1 C C O B O 1* I. 

rope;** and ^'Histoire da Theatre Itaties,-' t Tdsi S##; 
which, with bis ** Reflections Historical and-Griticat ujfKMI 
all the Theatres of Europes'*^ which appearedin 17S8| ooft- 
tains tpaoy judicious observations relative to the stage iW 
general, and to the lyric theatre in particular. His second 
wife, Marie Laboras de Meziek£s, was also an actress 
on the Italian theatre, which she quitted with her husband i 
but her writings are novels, the scenes of which she fre- 
quently laid in England. They are all of the sentitAental 
csM. She also translated Fielding^s *^ Amelia/* Her works 
were printed collectively in 10 volunoes, Neufehatel, .l2ino, 
and Paris, 9 vols. i2mo, and some of her novels have beeto 
translated into English. She died Dec. 6, 1792, reduced 
by the troubles of the time to a state approaching to want; 
aad soon after a new edition of her works, with a life, ap* 
J^ared in 18 vols. 12mo.^ 

RICHARD, abbot of St. Victor in the twelfth cehfciiry, 
was a native of Scotland. After such education as his 
country afibrded, in polite literature, the sacred Wriptures, 
and mathematics, which we are told were the objects of his 
early studies, he went, as was much the custom then, to 
Pans. Here the fame of Hugh, abbot of St. Victor, in- 
<ltlced him to retire into that monastery, that he might 
l^ursue bis theological studies under so great a master. At 
the regular periods be took the habit, was admitted into 
holy orders, and so mueh acquired the esteem of his bre- 
thren, that in 1164, upon the death of Hugh, they tinani- 
mously chose him their prior,* in which station he remained 
until his death, March 10, 1173. During this time he 
composed many treatises on subjects of practical divinity, 
and on scripture criticism, particularly on the description 
of Solomon's temple, Ezekiel's temple, and ontheappa* 
rent contradictions in the bboks of Kings and Chrontcies, 
respecting the reigns of thie kings of Judah and Israel. 
Dupin speaks rather favourably of these treatises. They 
were all published at Paris in 1518, and 1540, in 2^ vols, 
folio, at Venice in 1592, at Cologne in 1621, and at Rouen 
in 1650,^ which is reckoned the nest edition.* 

RICHARD, called ANGLICUS, was an English pby- 
stcian, who flourished about 1230. He is said to have stu- 
died first at Oxford, and then at Paris, and attained a high 
degree of eminence in his profession. Tanner giveti a list 

J Diet l!$8e. ♦C>iye.--IhipW.--Btacienk!«'s Scotch tTritew, toI. I, 

R I C H A R D. 185 

of bis works, none of which appear to have been published. 
Some of his MSS. are in the New college library, Oxford.' 

RICHARD, archbishop of Armagh in the fourteenth 
<:entury, called sometimes Armachanus, and sonietimes 
FiTZ-RALPH, which was bis family name, is supposed to 
have been born in Devonshire, or, according to Harris, at 
Dundalk, ib the county of Louth. He was educated partly 
at University, and partly at Balliol, college, Oxford, under 
the tuition of John Baconthorp, whom we have already no- 
ticed as an eminent scholar of that age. He made great 
progress in philosophy, divinity, and civil law, and 'became 
BO great a philosopher and logician, ^' and in both sorts of 
theology so famed, that the whole university ran to his 
lectures as bees to their hive.'' He commenced doctor of 
divinity at Oxford, and in 1333 was commissary-general 
of that university, whence some authors have called him 
chancellor; but, according to Collier, the office he held 
was only somewhat superior to that of vice-chancellor. Hit 
first church promotion was to the chancellorship of the 
church of Lincoln, in July 1334 ; he was next made arch- 
deacon of Chester in 1336, and dean of Lichfield in April 
1337* These, or some of them, he owed to the favour of 
Edward IIL to whom he was recommended as well deserv- 
ing his patronage. 

While at Oxford he bad distinguished himself by his 
opposition to the mendicant friars, whose affectation of 
poverty, and other superstitions and irregularities, he ex- 
posed in his lectures. They were therefore not a little 
alarmed when, iu 1347, he was advanced to the arch- 
bishopric of Armagh ; and with some reason ; for, when 
about ten years afterwards, he returned to England, and 
found the contest very warm concerning preaching, hear- 
ing confessions, and other points, in which the friars en- 
croached on the jurisdiction of the parochial priests, he 
preached several sermons, the substance of which was ; 
that in cases of confession the parish church is to be pre-^ 
ferred to the church of the friars ; that for confession the 
parishioners pught rather to apply to the parson or curate 
than to a friar; that notwithstanding our Lord Jesus Christ 
was poor, when he conversed on earth, yet it does not ap- 
pear that be affected poverty ; that he did never beg, nor 
make profession of voluntary poverty ; that he never taught 

1 LelaiMi— B«le.— Pitt.— Ttnner, 

fSfi R I C H A R D. 

Pi^ople to mj^kie a choice and profession of beggary ; tba^. 
on tbe contrary, he held that men ought not to beg by in-, 
cjlination, ^or. without being forced to it by neeesfity ; jtbat' 
there is neither sense nor religion in vowing voluntary and 
perpetual beggary ; that it is not agreeable to the rule of 
Obsery.ant or Friars Minorites, to be under engagemjents 
of voluntary pov^ty, &c. &c. The friars were so enraged 
at these propositions, which certainly shew considerable 
freedom of sentiment^ tha); they procured him to be cited, 
before pope Jnnoceut VI. at Avignon, where he defended 
his opinions with great 6rmness, and maintained them,, 
although with no littl/e danger frop the malice of his op- 
ponents, to the end pf his life. The age, however, was 
not prepared to listen to him, and the pope decided in 
favour of the friars. 

He died Nov. 16, 1360, at Avignon, not without sus^^ 
picion of poison. Fox says that a certain cardinal, hear- 
ing of. his death, declared openly, that a mighty pillar of 
Christ^s church was fallen. He was unquestionably a man. 
of great talents and sound judgment. Perhaps his be§|: 
panegyric is his being ranked, by some catholic writers, 
among heretics. Archbishop Bramhall had so great an 
opinion of him, that in returning from a visitation by Dun-^ 
dalk, he made inquiry where he was buried, and deter- 
mined to erect a monument to his memory, which it is' 
supposed his death, which happened soon after, prevented* 
Richard^s body was brought over by Stephen de Valle, 
bishop of Meath, about 1370, and interred at Dundalk, 
where sir Thomas Ryves says there was a monument visi- 
ble^ although much defaced^ in 1624. 

His printed works are : 1. " Sermones quatuor, ad cru- 
cem Londinensem,*^ &c. Paris, 1612. 2. " Defeiisio cura- 
torum adversus fratres mendicantes,'^ Paris, 1496. This 
was the substance of the defence of his principles at Avig- 
non. Bale mentions the New Testament translated into 
Irish by Armachanus, which was found in the wall of his 
cathedral in 1530; but Fox, in his Martyrology,. asserts 
that the whole Bible was translated into Irish by him, and 
preserved in the sixteenth century ; and arphbishop Usher 
says that there were several fragments of this translation in 
Ireland, in his time. Bale, &c. mention several MSS. left 
t>y him.* 

: ' Collier's Dictionary and Ecclesiastical History.«-Whart6o*8 Appendix tQ 
jCaye.— >Fox's Acts and Bfonuments.— Wood's AoDal«.-*Dupin.— Harris's Wvoe.' 


HiQHA]^ of,ClRENCE8TER,ran» English histprlaiu 
f^o nanped ^rom his. bi^rtb-fila'ce^ Nourished in the faurteenth 
century. No traces of his faipily 9r cooriecti vis 
j^iscovered, bxic they appear to haise been. such as tp alFor^ 
faim a liberal education. In 1350 be entered into, the fie- 
pedictipe monastery of St. Peter, Westminster, and.hU 
name occurs in various documents of that estai)lisbment in 
J387, i397, and 1399. He devoted his leisure hours to 
th^ study of British and.Anglo-Sa^on history and antiqui*- 
ties, in which he made such' proficiency, that he is said to 
have been honoured with the name of the Historiographer. 
Pits info;;ms us, wii^hQut i^pecifying his authority, that 
Richard visited different libra^i^s ind pccle$iastic|l e^ta^ 
blishments in England, in order to collect materials. It i^ 
^t. least certain that he obtained a licence to visit Rome^ 
from his abbot, William of Colchester, in 1391, and there 
can be little doubt that a man of his curiosity viroUld im* 
prove his. knowledge on such an occasion. He is sup- 
poseci ^^ ^^^^ performed .this journey in the interval be*^ 
tween 1391 and 1397, for he appears to have been con* 
fin^d in the abbey infirmary in 1401, ,and died in that or 
t)|,e following yean His works are, *^Historia ab Hen- 
gis^ta ad aqn.. :(348,'' in two parts, The first contains thf 
'period, from the coming of the iS^xons to the death qf H^^ 
rol^y and is preserved in the public library pf Cam|)ridg^. 
Whitaker, the historian of Manchester, speaks of this . as 
evincing very little knowledge or judgment; the second 
part is probably a MS. in the library of the Royal Society, 
p. 137, with the title of " Britonum Anglorum et Saxouum 
Historia." In ' the library of Bene't college, Camhridg^ 
is " Epitome Chronic. Ric. Cor. West. Lib. I.". Othef 
Wofks of oqr author are supposed to be preserved in the 
Lambeth library, and at Oxford. His theological writings 
were, ;** T^ractatus super Symbolum Majus'et Minus," and 
** Liber de OfiSciis Ejcclesiapticis," in the Peterborough 
library. But the treatise to which he owes his celebrity, 
is that on the ancient state of Great Britain, **'0e situ 
Bi^t^nniae," first discovered by Charles Julius Bertram,^ 
projEessqr of the English language in the royal marine aca*- 
demy' at Copenhagen,, who transmitted to Dr. Stukeley 
a ti;an3cript of the whole in letters, together with a copy of 
the .map. From this transcript Stukeley published an ana- 
lysis of the work, with the itinerary, first in a thin quartp, 
1757, andl afterwards jio the second volume of bis ^^ ItiaQf« 


rarium Curiosum/' In the same year the original iUelf 
was published by professor Bertram at Copenhagen, in a 
small octavo volume, with the remains of Gildas and Nen- 
nius, under the title ** Britannicarum gentium Historise 
Antiquse scriptores tres, lUcardus Corinensis, Gildas Ba- 
donicus, Nennius Banchorensis, &c.*' This work has long 
been scarce, and in very few libraries ; but in 1809| a new 
edition, with an English translation, &c. was published at 
London. To this the editor, . Mr. Hatchard, has prefixed 
an account of Richard's life, from which we have extracted 
the above particulars, and an able defence of his merit and 
fidelity as a historian, against the objections of certain 
writers. Among these we observe that Gibbon cannot be 
reckoned, for he says that Richard of Cirencester *^ shews 
a genuine knowledge of antiquity, very extraordinary for 
a monk of the fourteenth century.** This useful and ac- 
curate republication is entitled " The Description of Bri- 
tain, translated from Richard of Cirencester ; with the ori- 
ginal treatise de situ Britanniee ; and a commentary on the' 
Itinerary; illustrated with maps,** 8vo.* 

RICHARDSON (John), a learned Irish prelate, was a 
native of Chester, but a doctor of divinity of the univer- 
sity of Dublin. Of his early life we have no particulars, 
except that be was appointea preacher to the statein 1601* 
He succeeded to the see of Ardagh, on the resignation 6j[ 
bishop Bedell, and was consecrated in 1633 by archbishop 
Usher. He held the archdeaconry of Derry, the rectory 
of Ardstra, and the vicarage of Granard in commendam for 
about a year after his promotion to Ardagh. In 1641, be- 
ing in dread of the rebellion which broke out in October 
of that year, he removed to England, and died in London 
August 11, 1654. He had the character of a man of (r^-o- 
found learning, well versed in the scriptures, and skilled 
in sacred chronology. . His works are, a '^ Sermpn of the 
doctrine of Justification,** preached at Dublin Jan. 23^ 
1624, Dublin, 1625, 4to; and ** Choice Observations and 
Explanations upon the Old Testament,** 1655, folio. These 
observations, which extend to all the books of the Old 
Testament, seem intended as a supplement to the ^ As- 
. aembly*s Annotations^** in which he wrote the annotations 
on £zekiel ; and they were prepared for publication by 
liitti some time before his death, at the express desire of 

«bi fuprt. 



archbishop Usher, with whom he appears to have loug 
Jived in intimacy.^ 

RICHARDSON (Jonathan), a painter, and a writer on 
the art of painting, was born about 1665. He was intended 
by his father-in-law, apprentice to a scrivener, with wbooi 
he lived six yeari, but by the death of his mastei', was 
enabled to follow the bent of his inclination for painting. 
He then became the disciple of Riley« with whom he lived 
four yea^rs, and finally connected himself by marrying his 
niece, ^he degree of skill which he attained, by no means 
corresponded with the ideas he entertained of the art^ 
which were certainly of a just and elevated kind. Tber<e 
are, however, great strength, roundness, and boldness in 
the colouring of his beads, which are drawn and mariced 
in the manner of Kneller, with freedom and firmness; 
though the attitudes in which they and his figures are 
placed, the draperies which clothe the latter, and the 
back- grounds from which they are relieved, are insipid 
and tasteless. It is certainly a very curious circumstance, 
tbat, when he wrote with so much fire and judgmeat^ 
dived so deep into the inexhaustible stores of Raphael, and 
was so smitten with, the qative lustre of Vandyke, he should 
so ill apply to his own practice the sagacious rules and 
hints he gave to others, full of theory^ profound in re* 
flections on the art, and possessed of a numerous and ex<< 
cellent collection of drawings, he appears to have pos* 
sesised no portion of invention, as applicable to the pain- 
tet^s art, and drew nothing well below the head ; plainly 
manifesting the peculiarity of taste or feeling which leads 
to excellence in that profession. 

Thus much, however, must be said of him, that when 
Kneller and Dahl were dead, he stood at the head oifthe 
portrait-painters in this country, and practised in it suffi- 
ciently long to acquire a tolerable competency. He quitted 
his occupation some years before his death, when Hudson, 
who bad married one of his daughters, maintained the fa- 
mily honours for a while. Richardson himself, by tem* 
perance and tranquillity of mind, enjoyed a life, protracted 
amidst the blessings of domestic friendship, to the advanced 
age of eighty, and then died. May 28, 1745, respected and 
lamented. He had bad, a short time previously, a para* 
l^tic stroke tbat affected bis arm, yet never disabled him 


^ Harm's Wart.— Atk Ox. toL I.-aJoyd** MMoiri» M. «07. 


{fotn taking bis customary walks and exercise ; and it 
after having been in St. James's park, he.died suddenly^' 'at, 
his house in ^ueen-square, on his return home. 

He had a soii, with whom he lived in great harmony, as ' 
appears by the joint works they composed. The father, in" 
1719, published two discourses; 1. '^ An Essay on the 
whole art of Criticism as it relates Uf PafniSng.** 2.- ** An 
Argument in behalf of the ScieAce df i Connoisseur.'* Irf 
1722, came out *^ An Account of some Statues^ Bas-ire- 
liefs. Drawings, and Pict6res, in Italy, &c.'* The son 
made the journey; and, from his observations and letters,' 
they both at his return compiled this valuable work. In^ 
1734, they published a thick octavo of ^'Explanatory Notes 
and Remarks dn Milton's Paradise Lost, with the Life of 
the Author." Iti apology for this last perf6rman(5e, aiid 
f6r hot being very conversant in classic literature, the fa* • 
ther said,' '* that fad hUd looked inta them through his son.'' 
Hogarth, whom a quibble could* furnish with' wit, drew him 
peeping through the nether end of a telescope, with which 
bis son was perf6rated, at' a' Virgil aloft ou a shelf; but 
Hogarth, it is but justice to add, destroyed the plate upon 
due reflection, and recalled the prints, as far as he could.- 
The sale of his collection 6{ drawings, in Feb. 1747, lasted 
eighteen days, and ' produ^^ed about 2060/. his pictures' 
about 700/. Mr. Hudson, his son4n-law,^ bought in many 
of the drawings. 

' Besides th^ works ptkbli%hed 'n\ conjunction with his fa- 
ther, there was published in 1776, five year's after the ison'^ 
•death, '< Ricbardsoniaha ; or,' occasional Reflections on the' 
Moral Nature of Man; suggested by various authors, ati*- 
ctent and modern, and exefnplifie'd from those authors, 
with several • anecdotes interispersed,' by the late Jonathan 
Richardson, jun. esq'. .Vol. L" sin amusing work, although 
tfiere are some opinions in' it vfi^hich are not altogether free'' 
from censure. He did not love to contemplate the brighlf - 
aide of human nature and actions. Besides this work, ther^* 
appeared about the same time an-8vo volume of ** Poems" 
by Jonathan Richardson, senior, with notes by his son* 
They are chiefly moral and religious meditations, biit not' 
greatly inspired by the Muse. . The son, it remains to bef" 
added, never painted otherwise than for bis amusement** 
He -died in 177-1, aged seventy-seven.^ 

» Wal^i€'ftiknecd9t«i.»Nidiolt's Boiryer, idid Colledioa of Podbs/ 

R I C H A R D SON. 191 

' RICHARDSON (Joseph), a man of letters, was origin 
nally of Hexham in Northumberland ; and was entered oi 
St. John's college, Cambridge, in 1774. Dr. Ferris, tho 
present dean of Battle, and Dr. !Pearce, now dean of^ Elj,' 
were his tutors at the university. Under the superintend- 
ance of those two excellent scholars, he acquired sound 
learning and a: correct taste. He possessed^^ indeed, an 
excellent understai>ding, and a sort of intuitive knowledge 
of mankind.; He distinguished himself at college by the 
elegance, beauty^ and vigour, of his prose and poetical 
compositions ; a love of the Muses very early in life took 
possession of his mind, and often interfered with the labo- 
rious dutjes.of .his studies. JHe entered himself a student 
of the Middle Temple in 1779, and was called to the bar 
in 1784. * iBut literary pursuits and political connections 
took up too much of his time to admit of bis pursuiug, with 
sufficient diligence, the study of the law; otherwise, it is 
highly probable that he would have become a distinguished 
ornament of the bar. The chief works in which he was 
publicly known to have taken a part were in those cele- 
brated political satires, " The Rolliad,*' and the ^^ Proba- 
tionary Qdes,'' imthe composition of which his talents were 
oonsptcuous. He wrote also. the comedy of ^' The Fugi- 
tive,^^' which was honoured by a considerable share of ap« 
plause, both on the stage and in the closet. In private, life 
so happily was the suavity of his temper blended: with the 
\iigour of bis understandings that he yvas esteemed by his 
adversaries in political principles, as well as by a very large 
circle of private friends. He was brought iqto parliament 
by the duke of Northumberland, in whose friendship he 
held a distinguished place, and by whose loan of 2000/. 
(which the duke has given up tg his family) he was enabled 
io become proprietor of a fourth part of Drury-lane theatre. 
He was suddenly taken ill on June 8, 1803, and died next 
day, leaving a widow and four daughters, to lament the loss 
pf their affectionate protector. He was interred in Egham 

.RICHARDSON (Samuel), a celebrated writer of no- 
irels, or, 99 his have been called, moral romances, ^vas 
born in 1689, in Derbyshire, but in what part of that 
bounty has not been ascertained. His father descentled of 
4 family of middling note in the county of Surrey, and bis' 

I Oenti Mag. 1803. 

I92f R I C H A E D S O N. 

business was tbat of a johten He intended his soli Samtiel 
for the ehurch) bot from losses in business, was enable to 
support tbe expence i>{ a learned edocation, and all out' 
author received was at tfae grammar school. Itapp^rs from 
bis own statement that be bad a love for letter-writingi that 
be was a general favourite of the ladies, and fond of their 
company, and that when no mofre than thirteen, three 
young women, unknown to each other, revealed to him: 
their love secrete, in order to induce bita fee give them co^ 
pies to write after, or correct, for answers to tbeir lovers* ' 
letters. In this employment some readers may think they 
can trace the future inventor of the love seerctts of Pamela 
and Clarissa, and letter-^ writing certainly gi'eW into a babit ; 
with him* 

In 1706 be was bound apprentice to Mr. John WStde; a 
printer of some eminence in bis day ; whom, though a se-^. 
vere task-master, he served diligently for seven years. He ,' 
afterwards worked as a journeyman and corrector of the pfess! 
for about six years, when be, inr 171 9,. took up bis freedom^^' 
and commenced business on bis own account, in a court iii 
Fleet'Street ; and filled up bis leisure hours in compiling 
indexes for the booksellers, and writing. prefaces, and wbati 
he calls ^' honest dedications.'' Dissimilar as their geniuses^ 
may seem, when the witty and wicked duke of Wharton (a ^ 
kind of Lovelace), about 1723, fomented tbe spirit of op** ^ 
position in tbe city, and became a member of the Wax* ^ 
chandlers* company, Mr. Richardson, thougb bis political ' 
principles were very different, was much connected with^ 
and favoured by him, and for some Kttle time was tbe prin-> , 
ter of his " True Briton,'* published twice a week. He so 
far exercised bis judgment, however, in peremptorily 
refusing to be concerned in such papers as be apprehended 
might endanger bis safety, that he stopt at the end of 
the sixth number, which was possibly his 07im production *.^^ [. 
He printed for some time a newspaper called "The Daily ^^ 
Journal;" and afterwards "The Daily Gazetteer.'* Through ^ 
the interest of his friend Mr. Speaker Onslow, be printed : 
ibe first edition of tbe "Journals of the House of Coiin* ' 
mons,'* of which he completed 26 volumes. Mr. Onslow 

* Informations were lodged against itself odiont to the people. ** Payne 

Payne, the pablisher, for Numbers 3, was found goilty ; and Mr. Ricfaardsofli' 

4, 5, and 6,, as more than common escaped* as. hi* name did ngt appear 

libels, " as they not only insulted every to the paper. Tbe daAgel* made blai 

branch of the legislature, hot mani- in liitiire still more oantiovs. 
festly tended to make the c^natitatioa 

X I C B A All so N. 19Z 

bad a high estcam hft hitfi ; and not only might, but ao- 
.tiially would, have proiooted him to some honoarable axid 
profitable station at court ; but Mr* RicbardaoQ, wboae bu- 
.^ioess waa extensive and profitable, ndjtber desired nohr 
would accept of such a favour.. 

His '^ Pamela,^^ tbe BrsA work thai; procured him a name 
as. a writer, was published in 1741, and arose out of a 
acbeme proposed to him by two reputable booksellers, Mf, 
Aiviiigton and Mr. Osborne, of writing a volume of *' Fm^^, 
miliar Letters to and fitont several persons upon business 
a^d other subjects;*' which he performed witk great rea-- 
diness ; and in the progress of it was soon led to expand his 
thoughts in the two volumes of the '^ History of Pamela^V 
which appear to have been written is less than three 
montlja. Never waa a book read with more avidity, for 
these two volumes went through five editions in one year. 
It was even recommended froon tbe pulpit, partieularly by 
Dr. Slocock^ of Christ churchy Sacrey, althongh its de^ 
fects as to oiiorat tendency are now universally acknow- 
ledged, to be so obvtoos,. that the wonder is, it ever ob-« 
tained the approbation of men of any reAection. For this 
k undoubtedly was indebted to the novelty of the plan, as 
ivell as to many individiial passages of great beauty, and 
lD.any interesting traits of character. Its imperfections, 
however, were not totally undiscovered even during ita 
popularity. Tbe indelicate scenes could not escape o\>* 
aervation; and his late biographer, who has given an ex- 
cellent criticism on the work, informs us that Dr. Watta, 
to whom Richardson sent the volumes^ instead of compU- 
Inents, writes to him, that ** he understands the ladies com- 
plain they cannot read them without blushing.'' Other 
inconsistencies in the history of Pamela were admirably 
ridiculed by Fielding in his *^ Joseph Andrews," an injury 
which Riclnrdaon never forgave, and in his correspond* 
ence with bis flattering friends, predicted that Fielding 
wdqld soon be no more heard of-**Fielding, whose popu- 
larity has outlived Richardson's by nearly half a century ! 

The snecesa of Pamela occasioned a spurious continu- 
ation of it^ called ^' Pamela in high Life ; and on thia the 
author prepared to give a second part, which appeared in 
two volumes, greatly inferior to the first. They are, as 
Mrs. Barbauld justly observes, superfluous, for the plan 
was already completed^ and they are dull ; for, instead of 
incident and passion^ they are filled with h^vy aenUment^ 


Id4 R I C H A R D S our. 

in diction far from elegant* : A great part of it aims lb' 
palliate, by counter-'cnticisni, the faults which had beeti 
-found in the first part; and it is less a continuation, than 
the author's defence of himself. But if Richardson sunk 
in this second part, it was only to rise with new lustre in 
his *^ Clarissa/', the first two volumes of which were pub- 
lished eight years after the preceding. This is unques- 
tionably the production upon which the fame of Richard- 
son is principally founded ; and although it has lost much 
of its original popularity^, owing to the change in the taste 
-of novel-readers, wherever it is read it will appear a nobl^ 
monument of the author's genius. This will be allowe<}^ 
i^ven by those who can easily perceive that it has many 
blemishes. These have been pointed out, with just dis- 
-crimination, by his biographer. Clarissa was much adr 
mired on the continent. The abb6 Prevost gave a version 
of it into Prench ; but rather an abridgment than a trans- 
lation. It was afterwards rendered more ^aitbfuUy by Le 
Tourneur; and was also translated into Dutch by Mr. Stin- 
stk*a; and into German under the auspices of the cele- 
brated Dr. Haller. 

; After he had published two works, in each of which the 
principal character is a female^ he determined to give the 
world an example of a perfect man : this design produced 
bis " Sir Charles Grandison," a character certainly instruc- 
tive, while in some measure repulsive. But that of CJ«- 
mentina is the highest effort of genius in this work. I>r.r 
Warton says, "I know not whether even 
Lear is wrought up and expressed by so many little strokes, 
of nature and passion. It is absolute pedantry to prefer an<l 
compare the madness of Orestes, In Euripides, with tbat^ 
of Clementina.^' Yet even here Mrs. Barbauld has, withr 
great aeuteness, pointed out Richardson's want of judg- 
j»ent in the management of his Clementina. It is,, as this^ 
lady justly observes, the fault of Richardson that he never, 
ke-ew when to have done with a character; and this pro^ 
pehsity to tediousness and prolixity in all his narratives,! 
while the 'bulk is increased, has undoubtedly contributed 
tO: pr6ca!i!e>him more |iaticht than willing readers, and to oc-, 
caision tb^e who hav^ once gone through his volumes, to se- 
lect favourite passages only for a second reading. 

By ihese works, a^nd by his biisiness, which was very, 
prosperous, Mr. Richardson gradually improved his for- 
tune,. -In. 1755, he was. engaging iu- buildihg^.-both in« 


Salisbury court, Fleet«-street, and at Parson^s^greeh near 
Fulham, where be fitted up a house. In 1760, be pur^ 
chased a moiety of the patent of Law-printer, and carried 
eii that department of business in partnership with Miss 
Catherine Lintot, afterwards the wife of Henry Fletcher, 
esq. M. P. for Westmoreland. 

By many family misfortunes, and his own writings, which 
i|i a manner realized every feigned distress, his nerve& 
naturally weak, or, as Pope expresses it, ^'tremblingly 
alive all o'er,'' were so. unhinged, that for many years be- 
fore hLs death his hand shook^ he had frequent vertigoes, 
atid would sometimes have fallen, had he not supported 
himself by his cane under his coat His paralytic disorder 
affected -his nerves to such a degree, for a considerable 
time before his death, that he could not lift a glass of wine 
to his mouth without assistance. This disorder. at length 
ternfiinating in an apoplexy, deprived: the world of this 
aniiable man, and truly original gienius, on July 4, i76i| 
at the age of seventy-two. He was buried, by his own ^i*. 
section, with his first wife, in the middle aile, near the 
pulpit of St. Bride's church. His picture was painted by 
Mr. Highmore, whence a mezzotinto has been taken.' . 

His first wife was Martha Wilde, daughter of Mr.'Allihg* 
ton Wilde, printer, in Glerkenwell^ by whom he had ; five 
sons aiid a daughter^ who all died young. Hia second 
wife (who survived him many years) was Elizabeth sister 
of^ Mr. Leake, bookseller, of Bath. By her he had s^ son. 
and five daughters. The son died young ;. but four of. the 
daughters survived hini; viz. Mary, married in 175.7 to 
Mr. Ditcher, an eminent Burgeon of Bath; Martha, mar- 
ried in 1762 to Edward Bridgen, esq. F. R. and A. SS..;- 
Ahbe, unmarried ; and Sarah, married to Mr.Crowther, 
surgeon of Boswell-court.: All these are now dead.- » ' . 

Mr. 'Richardson was a plain man^ wbo;Seldom' exhibited' 
bis talents in mixed company. Hie hejard the sentiments- 
of otbers'with attention, but seldom gave his own ; rather: 
desirous of gaining friendship by his modesty than his 
parts. Besides his being. a great gepius, he was^ truly a^ 
good man in all respiects; in his family, In cominerce, in 
conversation, and in every instance of conduiSct. He was 
pious, virtuous, exemplary,, benevolent, friendly, gene*-! 
rous, and humafiei to an uncommon degree ;^ glad of every > 
opportunity of dbing^ good offices to his Cello w* creatures in 
distress, and relieving many without thi^ir knawledge. His ^ 

o .2 

IM IT I C B A R D S O le 

ebie^ delight was dcung good. He was Ingbly fevered zm^St 
beloved by bit domeatici for bis happy tenper aod discreet 
eoDdttot He bad great tenderness towards bia wife and 
okildree, and great condescension towards bia servants. He 
Uraa always vei^ sedulous in business, and almost always. 
employed in it; and dispatched a great deal by the pru^ 
dence of bis manageoient His turn of temper led btm to 
improve bis fortune witii mechanical assiduity ; and having* 
mo iriolent passions, nor any desire of being trifiingly dis^ 
tioguished frosa others, be at last became rich, and left bte 
family in easy independeocQ, tbougb bis bouse and tables 
both in tawn.and country, were ever open to bis numerous, 

Besides his three gieat woriks, bis << Pamela, Clarissa,, 
and Gnwdisou^** be published^ 1. *^ The Negotiatioa of Sie 
Tboosas Roe, in bis Embassy to die Ottoman Porte^ froes 
1621 to 1€28 inclusive," &q« 1740v folio, inscribed ta 
t^e King in a sliort dedication j whitb doles honour ibe the; 
ingenious writer. 2w An edition of *< iEtop's Fables, witlfe 
Reflection^*' And^ 9. A volume of ^* Faiayiar Letters t0> 
and from several persons upbnt business, and ether sob^ 
jects.** He bad abo a share in ^ The Christen Magiazin^ 
by Dr. James Maeclerc, i74d ;'^ and in the additions to the 
aiiatb edition of De Feed's ^*l>ttv through Great Bcitaim^'^ 
<^ Sis original Letters uf)on DuelHng*^ were printed aftei* 
bb. deatl^ in ^<Tbe Literary Repository, t165,** p.MTi 
A letter of bis to Mr. Dnacombe is in the ^ Lettess dii 
eminent Persons, }933^" yoI. HI. p. 71 ; andaoeieTer^ea' 
io the *^ Anecdotes of Bowyer,'* p.46a Mr» Riehardaeii 
alsa piibUsbed a large single sheet, relasive to the manrieil 
states entitled ** The Duties of Wives^ to Husbands ;'* aiid 
was under the disagnaeabk necessity ot puUisbing ^ The 
Case of Samuel RicbaidsoD of Londony Printer, on the 
Invasion of bis Property in the History of Sir Gbaries 
Grandisoii, before pebKcation, by certain BookseUers in 
Beblin,'* wUcb bears date Sept. U, tT53^. ^< A Cdteedoi^ 
of the flsoral sentences in Passela^ Claaissa, and Grattdi'* 
son,*^ was printed in 1755, 12mp.^ 

No. St7, vol. 11. of tbe '< Rambtor,^^ it is well known; 
was written by Mr. Ricbardson ; in the preamble to wbick 
Df . Johnson styles btm *' an author from wbom> tbe ageiias 
receivied; greater fisnoers, who bss enlstigfdHiie knowledge. 
ot buman nature^ and taught the pas^ona te dioee- tt tbe- 
command of ▼ixtue*'* In 1 904^ ww publisbed *^ The Cor» 

& I C H A R DS O N. 1&7 

ftsspMdtiiteof Sramei Ricbairdft6fi/* in six vottimes octavo. 
Tbtt best coHfteqtieiKie of the desiga of piiblishmg thU coir 
lection pf letting ii the e^ceUent life und criticism on his 
works by Mrs. Bttrbattld.-*-A8 to the letters, every real ad- 
oitrer of Ricbardion must peruse tbem with regret. Such 
a display of httmati weakoess has seldom bMn permitted 
40 aully the fepiitatiou of any man. 

In our last edition some testimonies of a difiigrent kind 
to '- the merits land memory of Richardson were given. 
Of these we may atili retain the sentiments of Mr, Sher- 
kicky the celebrated Eoj^ish traveller, who observes^. << The 
^greatest efibtt of genius that perhaps was ever made was, 
forming the phm of Clarissa Harlowe.** — ** Richardson 
u not yet arrived at the fulness of bis glory.'* -^ << Ri- 
chardson is admirable for every species of delicacy ; for 
^elieacy of wity sentiment, language, action, every thing.^ 
f ^ His genius was immense. His misfortune was, that he 
did not know the ancients. Had be but been acquainted 
with one^ single principle^ * Omne supervacuum pieno de 
^ectove manat,' (ail superfluities tire) ; be would not have 
eatiated his reader as he has done, inhere might be made 
<Mit of Clarissa and Sir Charles Grandison TWO works, 
which would be both the most entertaining, and the most 
wseful» that ever were written. •>* His views were grand., 
ilis aoul was noble, and his heart was excellent. He formed 
a. plan that embraced all human natut^e. His object was 
^ benefit mankind. His knowledge of the world shewed 
btiftf that happiness was to be attained by tpan only iti 
proportion as he practised virtue* His good sense then 
ihewed him, that no practical system of morality existed ; 
and the same good sense told hith^ that nothing but a body 
of morality, put into action, could work with efficacy on the 
minds of youth.'* 

On Johnson, in his preface to Rowe observes, «< The 
oharacter of Lothario seems to have been expanded by 
]Uehardson into Lovelace ; but he has excelled his origimd 
ift the moral effect of the fiction. Lothario, with gaiety 
which cannot be hated, and bravery whtcb cannot be de- 
spised,- retains too much of the spectator's kindness. It 
was in the power of Richardson alone to^teach \k$ at once 
esteem and detestation ; to make virtuous resentment over- 
power all the bei^evolence which wit, and elegance, and 
coui!age, naturally excite | and to lose at last die hero in 
the irmtm*'" 

1 Ufp by Mn. Bsrbauld prefiitd to the CorretpoDdence.-— Nichoh't Bowytr, fcc* 


RICHARDSON (Wiluam), a learned Engliik difiae, 
was the son of the rev. Samuel Richardson, B. D. yicwr of 
Wilsbamstead near Bedford, by Elizabeth^ daughter of 
the rev. Samuel Bentham, rector of Knebworth and Paurs 
Walden, in Hertfordshire. . His grandfather was the rev. 
John Richardson, a nonconformist, who was ejected, in 
1662, from the living of St. MichaePs, Stamford, in Lin^ 
colnshire, and died in 1687. He was born at Wilsbam- 
stead, July 23, 1698, a^d educated partly in the school of 
Oakham, and partly in that of Westminster. In March was admitted of Emanuel college, Cambridge, of 
which he afterwards was a scholar, and took his degrees of 
A. B. in 1719, and A. M. in 1723. In the mean time, in 
September 1720 he was ordained deacon by Gibson, bishop 
of Lincoln, at St. Peter's, Cornhill, London, and priest, by 
the same, at Buckden, in Sept. 1722. He was then- ap- 
pointed curate of St. Olave's Southwark, which he held 
until .1726, when the parish chose him their lecturer. 
About this time he married Anne, the widow of capt. David 
Durell, the daughter of William Howe, of an ancient 
family of the county of Chester. He published in 1727, 
2 vols. 8vo, the <^ Praelectiones Ecclesiastics^*' of his learned 
uncle John Richardson, B. D. author of a masterly ^' Vin- 
dication of the Canon of the New Testament," against 
Toland. In 1724 be was collated to the prebend of W^l- 
tojD-Rivall, in the church of Lincoln* ■ 

In 1730 he published ^'Tbe Usefulness and Necessity 
of Revelation ; in four Sermons preached at St. Olave's 
Southwark," 8 vo; and, in 1733, ^' Relative Holiness, a 
Sermon preached at the consecration of the parish church 
of St. John's Southwark." He next undertook, at the re<- 
quest, of the bishops Gibson and Potter, to publish a. new 
edition of ^^ Godwin de Prssulibus." On this he returned 
to Cambridge. ip 1734, for the convenience of the libraries 
.and more easy communication with his learned contempo- 
raries;^ and in 1735 proceeded D. D. . After the death of 
J)t. Savage, he was chosen unanimously, and without his 
knowledge, master of Emanuel college, Aug. 10, 173€!; a 
rare and almost unprecedented compliment (o a man. of 
JeJ^ters, for be bad never been fellow of the college. He 
seVyed the pffice of vice-chancellor in 1738, and again. in 
l.t.69. In 17^6. be was appointed one of his majesty's 
chaplains, which he resigned in 1768. In 1743 he pub«F 
lisbed at Cambridge his new edition of Godwin, ina spleo- 

B' I C H.A RD S O rN. 19^ 

did folio, yolttiiie^. with a continiiatioo of tbe lives of the 
bishops ,10 tbe.tifloe of publicatioii ; a wort of anqoestion-' 
abk».uAili^ aod. accuracy. He was. named in the inrill g6 
archbishop Potter for an option, on.cpnditioQ^that hecan*' 
celled a leaf of ^is work, relating to archbishop Tenison's 
lukewarmnejM} in tbe matter of tbe Prussian liturgy and 
bishops. Accordingly. a new leaf was printed and sent to 
all the subscribers ; ^' but," in Mr. Cole's opinion, *^ ra- 
ther confirming the factr tiian disproving it." Both the 
original and tbe substitute may be seen in the supplement 
to the old edition of the <^ Biograpbia Britannica,*'.art. 
GRA9e» note, p. 79. The option, however, was not so 
easily obtained* It was the precentorship of Lincoln, and 
was contested by archbishop Potter's chaplain. Dr. Chap» 
man. Tbe lord- keeper Henley gave it in favour of Chap- 
man, but Dr. Richardson appealing to the House of Lords, 
the dfscree wa? unanimously reversed, and Dr. Richardson 
admitted it\io the precentorship in 1760. This aflair ap- 
peara to have bieeo consideiced of imporjtance. Warburton 
writes on it to his correspondent Hurd in approving terms^^ 
^* I would not omit to give you the early news, (in two 
words) that Dr. Richardson is come off victorious in the 
appeal. The precentprship of. Lincoln is decreed for him ; 
the keeper's decree reversed with costs of suit. Lord 
Mansfield spoke admirably^ It has been three days in try- 
ing.". Burn has inserted a full account of this cause in his 
^* Ecclesiastical Law." 

Dr. Richardson died March 15, 1775, at his lodgings at 
Emanuel college, at the. age of seventy-seven, after ia lin- 
gering decay, and was buried in tbe college chapel, in the' 
same vault with his wife, who died March ^1, 1759. . 

He was many years an honour to the Society of Antiqua* 
ries, and left in MS. some valuable collections relative- to 
the constitation of the university ; many biographjcal anec- * 
dotes preparatory to an '^ Athens Cantabrigieuses,?* which' 
be once intended to publish, and an accurate alphabet in 
bis own writing of all the graduates of the university, from 
1500 to 1 7 35 inclusive. He printed also a sermon preached 
before the House of Commons in 1764. 

His only sop, Robert Richardson, D. D, F, R. S. and S. A. 
was prebendary of Lincoln, rector of St. Anne's Westmin- 
ster, and of Wallington in Hertfordshire, which last was. 
given to him by sir Joseph Yorke, with whom he resided 
as chaplain many years at the Hague. Whilst in that 

t9» R IX H AR'O S-O IC 

employ mcrnty the paperi on bolb sidts, pi«ftoo«tallia 
of the g^ea* cause, Douglas as^est HaaHkim, being sent 
over to his eKceUency, ^. Richavdsoii, for Us own curi«^ 
osky, digested tfaesD, and drew up the state of die ques^ 
tioD, which was printed in 4to for private distrilmtion, and 
to well approved by the gentleiaen of the bar, that it was 
pnt itato the bands of the counsel for the party he espoused 
as their brief; of which peibaps there never ivas a similar 
mstance. He had the honour to see the opinion he snp^ 
ported Gon&rmed by the House of Peers. After the trial 
he was offered 400/. in the handsomest manner, but ^e^ 
cUned aoeepting it. He died Sept. 27y 17^1^ at his hooie 
xn Dean-street, Soho, in his fiftieth year. He printed 
only two occasiomd sermons. ^ 

BICHELET (GiBSAR Peter), a French writer, and noted 
as the ficit who published a dictionary almost entirely ssti« 
rioal, was born at Cheminon in Champagne, in 16S1. He^ 
was the friend of Patru and d* Abkmeourt ; and, like them^ 
applied himself to the study of the French language widi 
sueoess. He composed a dietienary full of new and nseftil 
remarks, which, would have been more acceptable if it had 
not been abo fell of satirical reiectioas and indeeencies^ 
but these were eapunged in tbe lattier editions, k wae 
first published at Geneva, 1680^ in one vol. 4to ; bnt, after 
th^ death of the author, which happened in 1698, en^ 
larged with a. great number of new articles to 2 vols, folie,' 
as is the edition of Lyons in 1721. Anotheredition, 3 vols, 
felio, was published at Lyons in 1727; and a very neat 
oae in 12 vols. 4to, at Amsterdaoi in 17S2 ; and, lastly, in 
3 vob. folio, at Lyons, 1759 — 1763, by the abb£ Gonget»^ 
Tbe abridgment of it by Gsttel, 1797 and 1803, 2 vob. Sro^' 
ia now ia siost demand in France. 

Richelet made a French translattOQ of ^ Tbe Conquest' 
of Florida,'* by Garcilasso dels^ega; to which is pre-^ 
fixed an account of his Ule. He composed spme other 
pieces, of the grammatieal and critical kind, relating to the 
Branch teague.* 

BICHELIEU (Armand do Plbssis), a celebrated car^ 
dinal and minister of France, was tbe third son of Franeia 
du Plessis, seigneur de Ricbriieu, knight of the king's 
orders, and grand provost of France, and was bom Sept 5^- 

1 Cole's MS Athene iQB;nt.Mii9.^Nlcteii'«£swy^. 
• M oren.— Diet. HisU 

K I C H E L I E U. 201 

1 M5^ tt Pari»; He wm admitted into tha Sorbonne at 
tbe age of twenty •^two, obtained a dispensation frottt pope 
PiLcd V. for tbe biabopric of LiKjon, and wag consecrated 
at Rome in 1607. On bis return, be acquired consider- 
able interest at coart, and was appointed by Mary de Me«- 
dicis, tben regent, her grand almoner; and in 1616 was 
raised. to the post of secretary of state. After the death of 
one of his inends, the marshal D'Ancre, in 1617, when 
Mary was banished. to Blois, he followed her ibither ; but, 
the duke de Luynes becoming jealous of ^him, he was 
onfered to setine to Avignon, and there he wrote bift 
^* Method of Controversy," on tbe principal points of 

In 1619 the king recalled RiobeKen, and sent him int6 
Aogottleme, where he persuaded the queen to a reeonciU* 
ation, which was concluded in 1620; and in consequence 
of this treaty, tbe duke de Luynes obtained a cardtnal'd 
hat for htm from pope Gregory XV. Richelieu, continu- 
ing his senriees after the duke's decease, was admitted, in 
1 6*^9 into tbe council, through tbe interest of tbe queen, 
and almost against the will of tbe king, who, devout and 
scrupulous, considered him as a knave, because he bad 
been ii^'ormed of bis gallantries. It h even said that he 
was insolent enough to aspire to queen Anne of Austria, 
and that the railleries to which this subjected bim were tbe 
cause of his subsequent arersion to her. Cardinal Riche^ 
lieti was afterwards appointed prime minister, head of the 
eonaeib, high steward, chief, and superintendant*gencH*al 
of the French trade and navigation. He preserved the 
Isle of Rfa6 in 1627, and undertook tbe siege of Rochelle 
against the protestaots the same year. He completed the 
conquest of Rocbelle in October 1628, in spite of the 
king of Spain, who had withdrawn his forces, of the kin^ 
of England, who could not relieve it, and of the French 
king, who grew daily more weary of the undertaking, by 
means of that famous mole, executed by his orders, but 
planned by Lewis Metezeau and John Tiriot. The cap- 
ture of Rochelle proved a mortal blow to the protestants, 
bat in France was reckoned the most glorious and benefit 
cial circumstance of cardinal Richelieu*s administration. 
He also attended his majesty to the relief of tbe duke of 
Mantua in 1629, raised the siege of Casal, and, at his re« 
turn, compelled the protestants to accept tbe treaty of 
peace which had been concluded at Alais, and completed 

fm K I C H EL I E U. 

the nun' of their party. Six months after this, cardilfai 
Richelieu, having procured himself to be appointed lieote* 
i»ant^eneral of the army beyond the mountains, took Pig* 
Aelt>ly relieved Casal a second time, which was besieged 
hy the marqtiisSpinola, defeated general Doria, by means 
of the duke de Montmorenci at Vegliana, July 10, 16 SO^ 
and made himself master of all Savoy. Louis XIIL having 
aretiif ned to Lyons, in consequence of> sickness, the queen- 
mother, and most of the nobility, took advantage of this 
circumstance to form plots against Bichelieu, and speak 
ill of bis conduct to?tbe king, which tbey did with so much 
success, that Louis promised the queen to discard him. 
The cardinal's ruin now seemed inevitable, and he was 
actually preparing to set out for Havre-de-Gnice, which 
be had diosen for his retreat, when cardinal de la Valets, 
kfiowing that the queen had not followed ber son to Ver- 
sailles, advised him first to see his inajesty. In this inter- 
view, he immediately cleared himself from all the adensa- 
tions of bis enemies, justified his conduct, displayed the 
advantages and necessity of his administration, and wrought 
so forcibly upon the king's mind by his reasoning, that,^ 
iristead of being discarded, he became from that moment ^ 
more ppwerful than ever. He inflicted the same punish* 
ments upon his enemies which they had advised forium ; 
and this day, so fortunate for Richelieu, was called ^* The 
Day of Dupes." Those who had the misfortune to incur 
his displeasure, certainly did not all deserve the penalties 
to which he doomed them ; but he knew how to make him- 
self master of tbeir fate, by appointing such judges to try 
them as were at his disposal. That aboiniuable method of 
taking the accused from tbeir lawful judges, hadj in the- 
preceding century, served as a means for the families of 
condemned persons to get their characters restored ;- after 
which the French had no reason to fear its revival; but* 
Richelieu hesitated not to adopt it^ though at the risque of 
general odium, as being favourable to his designs. By 
thus making himself master of the lives and fortunes of the 
mal-contents,' he imposed silence even on their murmurs. 
This artful minister, being now secure of his lasting as^ 
cendancy over the king, and having already accomplisfaed 
one of the two great objects which he had proposed to 
himself from the beginning of bis administration, which 
were, the destruction of the protestants, and tbe bumbling' 
the too great power of the house of Austria, b^an now 

R I CHE LIEU. 203: 

to oeiitriye ideahs for executing this second undertaLingr 
Tbe principal and most efficacious method employed hy 
the oardin»l vinh that view, was a treaty be concluded, 
January 2^, 1631, with Gustavus Adolpbos, king of Sw<e-> 
deo, for carrying the war into the heart of Germany, fie 
also formed a league with tbe duke of Bavaria, secured to 
bimself Lorrain, raised part of the German princes against 
the. emperor, treated with Holland to continue tbe war 
with Spain, favoured tbe Catalonians. and Portuguese 
when they shook off the Spanish yoke, and, in short, 
ipade use of so many measures and stratagems, that he 
Completely accomplished his design. Cardinal Richelieu 
was carrying, on the war with success, and mediating on 
that glorious peace, which was not concluded till 1648, 

. when be died in bis palace at Paris, worn out by his long> 
toils, December 4, 1 642, aged fifty-eight. He was buried 
a|t the Sorbonne, where bis mausoleum (the celebrated 
Girardon^s.master* piece) may be seen. He is considered 
as one of the most complete statesmen, and ablest politi* 
ci^tns, that France ever bad. Amidst, all the anxieties- 
which the fear of his enemies must necessarily occasion, 
be. formed tbe most extensive and complicated plans, and 
executed them with great superiority of genius. It was 

. cardinal Richelieu who established the throne, while yet 

-shaken by the protestant. factions, and tbe power, of the 
House of Aus.tria, and made the royal authority completely 
absolute, and independent, by the extinction of the petty 
tyrants who wasted, the kingdom. In the mean time be 
omitted nothing which cpuld contribute to the glory of 
Frai>€se.- HenprotQqted arts and sciences; founded the 
botanical garden at. Paris called .the. kiug^s garden ; also 
the French academy, and the royal printing-office; built 
tlje palace Mnce. called tbe Palais Royal, and gave it to bis 
majesty; rebuilt the Sorbonne (of which he was provisor) 
iri^a style of kingly magnificence ; and prepared fqr allthe 
Sf^lendour of Louis the. Fourteenth's reign. His enemies, 

* says tbe abb^ L'Avocat, unable tq deny his great talents, 
b^ijce. reproached him' with great faults ; irregularity of con- 
duct, unbounded ambition, universal despotism, from which 
e^eui the king,, bis master, did not escape; for be left 
faim,.as: tbey express it, only the power <>f curing tbe evil ; 
^ vanity and ostentation which exceeded tbe dignity of tbe 
throne itself, where all was simplicity and negligence, 
wjbile.the cardinal's court e^^hibited .nothing but pomp and 

2Q4. B I C HE LI £ U 

splendtmr; unexampled ingratieude to hh beneiaeltMlj 
qiiees Mary de Medicw, wIkmb be infattmanly emnpelled 
to end her days in Geraiatiy, in obseurirfr and indig^aice j 
and, finally, bis revengeful temper^ wbicb occasioned 9^ 
kiany cruel executions ; as those of Chalaisy Giaadier, the 
mareobal de Harillac, M. de Montmorenci, Ginqmare, M^ 
da Thou, &c. Even the queen, for having written to the 
duebess de Cbev reuse, Richelieu's enemy, and a fugitive^ 
saw all her papers seized, and was examined before tbe 
chancellor Seqoier. Mad. de la Fayette, mad. de Hautte* 
fort, and father Csussin, the king^s confessors, wei« uH 
disgraced in consequence of having offended this de^tid. 
minister. But, says bis i^logtst, there are many poims 
to be considered witb respect to these accusations : itup^i 
pears certain, from a thousand passages in the life of this 
celebrated cardinal, that he was naturally very grateful^ 
and never proceeded to punishnsent but when be thought 
state af&irs required it; for which reason^ when in hi» last 
sickness, his confessor asked *' if be forgai^e bis enemies T^ 
he replied, ^* I never bad any but those of the state." At 
tbe bead of his ** Political Testament'* may be seen hial 
justification of himself on tbe subject of these bloody exe* 
cutions, witb which be has been so much reproached. It 
is equally certain, that he never oppressed the people by 
'taxes or exorbitant subsidies, notwithstanding tbe long 
wars bie had to carry on ; and tbat, if be was severe^ in 
punishing crimes, he knew bow to distinguitb merit, and 
re ward, it generously. He bestowed the highest eccliesias*^ 
tical dignities on such bishops and doctors as be knew to 
be men of virtue and learning ; placed able and experien« 
ced generals at the bead of the armies, and entiusied pi^ 
lie business witb wise^ punctual, and intelligent men* II 
was tbis minister who established a navy. His vigilance 
extended through every part of tbe government; and^ 
aotwithstanding tbe cabals, plots, and factions, which 'W&m 
incessantly forming against him during the whole course oC 
bia administration (and which must have employed greet: 
part of his time) be left sufficient sums behind him to' carry 
on tbe war with glory ; and France was in a more pow^ful 
and flourishiog state at the time of bis deoeisse tluin wben^ 
Louis XIV. died. After stating these facts, Richelieu^ 
enemies are invited to determine wbetber France would have 
derived more advantage from being gofervied by Mary de 
Medicis, Gaston of Orleans, &c. than by this cafdinid i 

R I CHE L II U. tm 

Tbe estttbfr of Rioheltau was mi^e a dukedom in his fuvocuv 
in I6S1^ and be netteived other honours and prefermenls* 
Besides the ^* Method of Controversy" be wrote, 2. i* The 
pnnclpal points of the Catholic Faith defended, againsS 
the writing addressed to the king by tbe ministers o>f Cba<*' 
renton." 3. *' The most easy and certain* Method cf oon-^ 
verting tbose wbaare separated from tbe Church/' These 
pieces are written with force and vivacity. He wrote also^. 
^ A Ca^ecbi^D/* in which he lays down tbe doctrine of 
tbe churchy in a dear and concise manner ; and a treatises 
of piety, called, ** The Perfection of a Christian." These 
are bis theological works; and they have been dften 
printed : but that which is most read, and most worthy o( 
being read,< is^ bis *^ Polkical Testament^" the authenticity 
of wbtcb baa been doubted by some French writers, parti^^ 
euburly Voltaire. Tbe cardinal also had the ambition to^ 
be thought a dramatic poet; and, says lord Chesterfield^ 
while he aebsolotely governed both bis king and coantry, 
and waa,. in a great degree, the aii>iter of the fiiteof ait 
Europe, he was mope jealoua of tbe great repntation ot 
C€M*n«»lle, tfaan<>f tbe power of Spain ; and more flattened 
with being tbougbt (what be was not) tbe best poet, than; 
with .bekig thoegbt {vA»t be certainly was) tbe gi^eatest 
statesman in Europe ; and afiairs stood still, while he vraie 
eonceatog the esiticisai opon= the- Cid. ^ 

RICBER (Edmund):, a learned French divine, was born 
September 30^ 1 560, at CbsKMirce, in tbe dio^cese of Lan«^ 
grea. ^ He had been at first drawn into the party and sen^ 
iteients of the Letgaers^ awl enren Tentured to deibodi 
iflmeaCleaiem, but soon hastened to acknowledge bislegiti* 
ante soieereign^ after baring taken- bis doctor's degree,' 
IB90^ Richer became grand master of the college S( Le 
Moime^ then syndic of the faculty of divinity at Paris,; 
Jan nary 2, 1 606, in which office he strenuously defended 
ftbemncicnt maxims of the doctors of this faculty, and op-^ 
posed the thesis of a Dominican in 1611, who maintained 
the pope's infallibHtty, and his superiority over the coun^ 
oiL He published a small tract the same year, *^ Oh tbe 
Civil and Eceleaiasttcal Pewer^'' 8vo, to establish the prin« 
ciples on which he asserted that the doctrine of the FVencb 
cbmrob, and tbeJStorbonne, respectityg papal authority, and 
the- authority of tbe general council, were founded. This: 

> Pict U'lfL de L*Avocat3~Mor«ri.--Nist. ofFcftiice. 

fi06 R I C JEI E R. 

\\iile book made mucfatioise, and raised its author enemies in 
theNuncio, and some doctors undertook to have him deposed 
from the syndicate^ and his w'ork condemned by the faculty 
of theology ; but the parliament prohibited .the faculty fronl 
interfering in that affair. In the mean time, cardinal dii 
Perroti^ Archbishop of Sens, assembled eight bishops of his 
province at Paris, and made them censure Richer's book, 
March 9, 1 6 1 2. Richer entered an appeal (Qmime d^abus) 
from this censure^- to the parliament, atid was admitted a^ 
an appellant ; but the matter rested there; His book was 
also censured by the archbishop of Aix, and three, bishops^ 
of his province, May 24, the same year, and he was .pro- 
scribed and condemned at Rome. A profusion of pam-- 
phtets now appeared ta refute him, and he received anf 
express order from court, not to- write in bis defence;' 
The aniinosity against Richer rose at length to such a 
height that his enemies obtained- from tb6 king and the 
queen regent letters, ordering the faculty to elect another 
syndic. Richer made his protestations, fead a paper itv 
his defence, and retired. A new syndic was- chosen inf 
1612, and they have ever since been elected once in two' 
years, although before that time their office was perpetual. 
Richer afterwards ceased to attend the meetings of the 
liaculty, and confined himself to solitude, being wholly 
employed in study ; but his enemies having involved him' 
in several fresh troubles, he was seized, sent to. theVprisons 
of St. Victor, and would even have been delivered up to 
the pope, had not the parliament and*chancellor of France 
prevented it, on complaints made by the university. He 
refused; to attend the censure passed on the books of An- 
thony de Dominis in 16117, and published a declaration in 
1620, at the solicitation of the court of Rome, protesting^ 
that he was ready to give an account of the propositions in his 
book ^^ on the Ecclesiastical and Civil Power," and explaiil 
them in an orthodox sense; and farther, that he submitted' 
l)is work to the judgment of the Holy See, and of the Ca- 
tholic church. He even published a second declaration^ ;•' 
but all being insufficient to satisfy his adversaries, he was 
obliged to reprint his book in 1629, with the proofs of the 
propositions advanced in it, and the two declarations, to 
which cardinal Richelieu is said to have forced him to add 
a third. He died Nov. 28, 1631, in his seventy-second, 
year. He was buried at the Sorbonne, where a mass used 
to be said annually for the repose of his soul. Besides bis 

R 1 € H E R. 307 

<i(r»ti80an ^VEoclesiasiica) Power/' re|Mriuted.wUh additions 
at Cologh in 1701, 2. vols. 4tOj be waa the author of a 
" History of general Councils," 4 vols. 4lo; a " Histonjr 
of his Syndicate/'. Syo^ and some other works, ia which 
learning and great powers of reasoning are obvious* Bail- 
let published a life of him in 1 2aio. ^ 

. RICHER (PfiTfiR DE Bblleval), an ingenious French 
botanist, born in 1558, at. Chalons in Champagne, and 
studied medicine. The huadaoe. and skilful servicer he 
rendered to the people of Pezena^, during an. epidemic 
disorder, recommended him to the paijtronage of the cod* 
stable de Montmorency, by whose iuuere^t he was appoint- 
ed professor of , botany and anatomy in the university of 
Mpntpellier, and Henry IV. committed to bun the care of 
^stablishinga public garden in that university^ Tbis dew 
sign was. executed in the most skilful: and splendid man- 
ner. Belleval published a catalogue of the garden in 
I599f and. a French treatise, in 1^5^ recommending an 
inquiry into the native plants of Languedoc. This last was 
accompanied by 6ve plates, intiended as a. apeeimea of a 
future work, for which he subsequently prepared ia number 
of engravings, rude and stiff in execution, but exhibiting 
many rare species. He never lived to. publish these, and 
the plates remained, neglected in the hands, of his. family, 
till Gouan recovered them, and sent impnesaiona to Lin- 
naeus.. At length. Gillibert obtained the plaies^ and pub- 
llshe;d them in 1796« The two pamphlets above mentioned 
were republished in 1785, by tbe celebrated and unforta* 
nate Broussonet ; along with a treatise on the white mul- 
berry, by Olivier de Serres,. originally printed iii 1^31; 
Richer de Belleval Jived to see. his garden destroyed by the 
fury of civil war, and was be^nning to reslore it, when he 
died in 16^23. .His nephew accomplished the re-establish- 
ment of the garden^ on a more extensive scale. M. Dortbes 
of Montpellier published, in 1786^ « Rechercbes sur la 
yie et les Ouvragts de Pierre Richer de Belleval,^' in which 
every thing that could be collected on tbe subject. is re- 
corded* Some writers erroneously mention Belleval aa 
the* f^r^t botanist who gave copper- plate figures of plants. 
Tbis honour i.^ due to Fabius Columna, whose ^' Pbytoba«! 
s^K^QsV 1592. We must not omit to. mention^ 

' Dupifk— Niccron, yoI, XXVI L— Life io Bibi. AncctMadem, wl.XlI,— 

A2Q8 R I C R I E. 

tbat.Scopbli bag named a genus BelltvaUai a name» or aomi* 
..thiag like it, which Belleval bimfelf was fond of giving to 
the lily of the vall«y.' 

RICIUS (Paul), was a learned German Jew, who« hav- 
ing been converted^ taught philoiophy with great credit at 
Padua, and was afterwards iniFited into Germany, by the 
jeotperor Maximilian^ add appointed one of bis physicians. 
There are no particalars of bis Hie upon record, except the 
aboiw general facts. He published many worios against 
the Jews, aiid on different subjeou, in which be matntatns 
that the heavens ase animated, and advances other pata*- 
doxes. '« De Cceleeti Agriculrarik,*' Bas^ 1587, in folio; 
<^ Talmudica Cominentarioia,*' Augsburg, 1519, 4to; <<t>e 
.73 MosaiosB Sanotionis Edictis," Augsburg, 1515, 4Uk His 
•eaodottf, honesty, moderation, and learning, ase much 
•praised. He lived in the sixteenth century, and SrasmuB 
lias given htseiifegy in the last letter of his first book.* 

RIDER (Jobn), an Irish prelate, was bors at Caiting- 
ton in Cheshire, about 1562, and was entered of Jesaa cal>- 
lege,; Oxford,, in 1576, where be took his degreea in art», 
and coniiiiued se«|e years in the university, teaching gvam*- 
mar chiefly. His fintt prefermeM in the church appears to 
have^bspcii to the living of Waterstock m Oxfordshire, in 
J 580, winch he resigned in 1581. In 1583, he was ad* 
miued to that of South Wokingdon, which he resigned in 
1 590. He #as also rector of St. Mary Magdalen, Btf^ 
noondaey, and of Winwick in Lancashire. He was after<^ 
^vards made archdeacon of Meath in Ireland, ihence pre^ 
ferred to the deanery of St< Patrick's, Dublin, and in 1612 
tjotbe bishopric of Killaloe. He died in 1632, and was 
buried in his cathedral. To this dry catalogue of prefer«- 
ments, we can *only add generally that he was much re- 
spected for piety and learning ; but there are no partieu- 
lars of his life and progress from a state of comparative ob* 
scurity to the bishopric. As be was an eminent tntor^ he 
might owe some of his preferments to the gratitude of his 
paptls. He published *^ A Letter concerning the News out 
of Ireland, and of the Spaniards landing, and the present 
state there,'* Lond. 1601, 4to; and <^ Claim of antiquity in 
behalf of the Protestant Religion,'' ibid. 1608, 4to ; a tract 
wvitten in controversy with Fitz Simon the Jesuit, whose 

• 1' HalfofV BfU. Bot.— DioL Hitt.--Reet>t Cyclopadic. 
* Oca. Dict«— Morerli— Diet Hist 

R I D E K. 2M 

iMswer is' entitled ^^ A catholic confutation of Mr. John 
^Rider^s Claim pf Antiquity, and a calming comfort agatiiA 
bis caveat,^* Roan, 1608, 8vo. To«thts was added a <^ Reply 
to Mr. Rider's postscript, and a discovery of puritan par- 
jtiality in his bdEralf/' But this prelate is most remembered 
on account of his dictionary, ^^ A Dictionary, English and 
iLatin, and Latin and Englisb/*^ Oxon. 1589, 4to. This 
qiust have been at that tiqote a work oF great utility, although 
fuller apcuses him of borrowing from Thomasius. Wood 
aays it was the first that bad the English before the Latin^^ 
which is not correct, as this was the case in the ^^ Prompt 
tprium parvulom,^' printed by Pynson in 1499, and the 
«* Ortus Vocabulorum,'* by W. de Worde, in 1516 ; but it 
certainly was the first Latin Dictionary in which the Eng^ 
lish part was placed at the beginning of the book, before 
the Latin part.^ 

RIDGLEY (Thomas), an eminent dissenter, was born 
in London about 1667, and educated at a privateacademy 
in ^Wiltshire, Having entered into the ministry, he was in 
169/5 chosen assistant to Mr. Thomas Gouge in bis meet* 
ing near the Three Cranes, London, and about four years 
afterwards became his successor. In 1712, in conjunction 
with Mr. John Eames, he bcrgan to conduct an acaaemy^ 
supported by the independents of London, as divinity 
tutor ; bis qualifications for which office were very consi* 
derable, both as to learning and abilities, and a judicious 
manner of conveying knowledge. It was in the course of 
lecturing to his pupils, that he delivered, an exposition of 
the ^* Assembly's Larger Catechism,^' which he published 
in 1731, as a " Body of Divinity," in i2 vols« folio. This 
has been frequently reprinted, and i^ still held in high es* 
timation among the Calvinistic dissenters, with whom he 
iranks ; but he held some few speculative opinions, respect-^ 
ing the doctrines of the Trinity, aqd of a future state, which 
are peculiar to himself. The university of Aberdeen be- 
stowed on him the degree of D. 1>. as a testimony of their 
approbation of this work. His other publications were, 
various single sermons, and two tracts occasioned by the 
controversy among the dissenting ministers on the subject 
ci subscription to creeds. As a preacher be officiated at 
other places, besides his own meeting, and was much fol<e 

» Atb. Ox. vol. I. new edit.— Harris's W«re.— Fuller's Worthies. 

VOL. XXVI. p ' 

210 ft I D L E T. 

}owe4* He died March 27, 1734, in the asty-serenlb 
year of bis age.' 

RIDLEY (Nicholas)^ an eminent English prelate and 
jDnartyr to the cause of the reformed religion^ descended 

' from an ancient family in Northumberland, was bom early 
in the sixteenth century, in Tjnedale, bI a place called 
. Wilmontswick in the above county. As he exhibited early 
proofs of good natural abilities, he was placed in a gram* 
mar-scbool at Newcastle-npon-Tjne, in which he made 
such progress, that he was taken from theoce and entered 
of Pembroke-bail, Cambridge, about 1513, when Luther was 
preaching against indulgences in Germany. His disposi- 
tion was open and ingenuous, and bis application to his 
studies unremitting both at school and uoiversity. He was 
.taught Greek by Robert Crook, who bad begun a course of 
that language at Cambridge. His religious sentiments 
iwere those of the Romisb church in which he had been 
brought up, and in which be would probably be encou- 
raged by his uncle. Dr. Robert Ridley, then fellow of 
.Queen's college. In 1522 he took the degree of B. A.; 
^nd to bis knowledge of the learned languages, now added 
that of the philosophy and theology then in vogue. In 
1524 his abilities were so generally acknowledged, that the 
master and fellows of University college, Oxford, invited 
Jiim to accept of an exhibition there ; but this he declined, 
and the same year was chosen fellow of his own college in 
Cambridge. Next year he took the degree of M. A. and in 
1526 was appointed by the college their general agent in 
all causes belonging to the churches of Tilney, Soham, and 
Saxtborpe, belonging to Pembroke-hall. But as his stu- 
dies were now directed to divinity, bis uncle, at h^s own 
charge, sent him for farther improvement to the Sorbonne 
at Paris ; and from thence to Louvain ; continuing on the 
continent till 1529. In 1530, he was chosen junior trea- 
surer of his college, and about this time appears to have 
been more than ordinarily intent on the study of the scrip- 

, tures. For this purpose he used to walk in the orchard at 
Pembroke-hall, and there commit to memory almost all 
the epistles in Greek ; which walk is still called Ridley^'s- 
walk. He also distinguished himself by his skill in dispu* 

tatiob, but frequently upon, frivolous questions, as was the 

-custom of the time. 

^ WiUoD*t Hiitory of Disienting Chorcbetk 

R I D L E y* ail 

' In 1^3^ he urtis cho6en senior proctor of the university^ 
and while in that office, the important point of the pope*d« 
sup'renmcy came to be examined upon the authority of 
scripture. The decision of the university was^ that ** the 
hishop of Rome had no more authority and jurisdiction de- 
rived to him from God, in this kingdom of England, than 
any other foreign bishop ;'* which was signed by the vice- 
chancellor; and by Nicholas Ridley, and Richard Wilkes, 
proctors; In 1534, on the expiration of his proctorship, 
he took the degree of B.D. and was chosen chaplain of the 
university, and public reader, which archbishop Tenisoa 
calls pnedicator pubUcuSj and in the Pembroke MS. he Ms 
also called Magister Glonieriarj which office is supposed to 
be that of university orator. In the year 1537 his great 
reputation as an excellent preacher, and his intimate ac- 
quaintance with the scriptures and fathers, occasioned 
Crahmer, archbishop of Canterbury, to invite him to his 
house, where he appointed him one of iiis chaplains, and 
admitted him into bis confidence. As a farther mark of 
his esteem, he collated him, in April 1538, to the vicarage 
of Heme in Kent Here he was diligent to instruct his 
bharge in the pure doctrines of the gospel, as far as they 
were discovered to him, except in the point of transubstan- 
iiatioD, on which he had as yet received no light ; dnd to. 
enliven the devotion of his parishioners, he used to have 
the Te Deum sung in his parish church in English, which 
was afterwards urged in accusation against him. 

In 1539, when the act of the six articles was passed, Mr. 
Ridley, who had now the character of a zealous scriptu- 
rist, bore bis testimony against it in the pulpit, although 
he wad io'no danger from its penalties, as he was still a be- 
liever in transubstantiation, was not married, and with re- 
spect to auricular confession, rather leaned to the practice, 
but made a difference between what 'he thought an useful 
appointinent in the church, and pressing it on the con*' 
science as a point necessary to salvation. At Heme he 
continued to attract a great multitude of people to his ser- 
tnons, and tn 1540 went to Cambridge, and took his de^ 
gree of doctor of divinity, probably at the .persuasion of 
Cranmer, who wished to place him in a more .conspicuous 
situation. This he attempted partly by recommending 
him to the king as one of his majesty^^ chaplains, and 
jgartly by givifig him a prebend ia the char^ch of Can^er- 

212 R ID L E Y, 

I^Mry. About the satn^ time the fellows of Pembroke-^ball 
elected him master of that house. 

At Canterbury he preached with so much zeal against 
the abuses of popery, as to provoke the other prebenda* 
rieS| and preachers. of what was called the aid leamingj to 
exhibit articles against him at the archbishop's Tintatidn in 
154], for preaching contrary to the statute of the six arti« 
cles. The attempt, however, completely failed. Gardiner, 
bjshop of Winchester, next endeavoured tcf entrap him ; 
and articles were exhibited against him before the justices 
of the peace in Kent, and afterwards before the king and 
council, which charged him with preaching against auri- 
cular confession, and with directing the Te Deum to be 
sung in English ; but the accusation being referred to 
Cranmer, by the king, that prelate immediately crushed 
it, much to the mortification of Dr. Ridley^s enemies. 
: The greatest part of 1545 Dr. Ridley spent in retire-' 
ment at Heme. He had, as we have noticed, been hitherto 
a believer in transubstantiation, influenced by the decrees 
of popes add councils, the rhetorical expressions of the 
fathers, and the letter of scripture ; but it is supposed that 
a perusal of the controversy between Luther and the 
Zuinglians, with the writings of Ratramnus or Bertram, 
whicfa'had fallen into his. hands, induced him to examine 
more closely into the scriptures, and opinions of the fa- 
thers ; the result, of which was, that this doctrine had no 
foundation. Cranmer also, to whom he communicated his 
discoveries, joined with him in the same opinion, as did 
Latimer. In the close of 1545, Cranmer gave him the 
eighth stall in St. Peter's, Westminster. When EdWard 
ascended the throne in 1547, Dr. Ridley was considered as 
a celebrated preacher, and in his sermons before (he king, 
as well a9 on other occasions, exposed, with boldness and 
argument, the errors of popery. About this time, the fel^ 
lows of Pembroke-hall presented him to the living of So« 
ham, in the diocese of Norwich; but the presentation being 
disputed by the bishop, Ridley was admitted to the living 
by command of the king. On Sept. 4 following, he was 
promoted to the bishopric of Rochester, vacant by the 
translation of Dr. Holbeach to the bishopric of Lincoln* 
He was consecrated Sept. 25, in the chapel belonging to 
Dr. May, dean of St, Paul's, in the usual form, by chrism, 
or I^oly unction, and imposition pf hands ; and after au . 
•ath. renouncing the usurped jurisdiction of the Roman 

RIDLEY; 813 


pontiflF, was vested, accordiog to the ancient rites, vrhh 
the robes and insignia appropriated to his dignity. Yet Dr* 
Brookes, in the subsequent reigo, would not allow Ridley 
to have been a bishop, and only degraded him fropa his. 
priest's orders, which is not easy to be accounted for; be- 
jcause if the pretence was that his afa^ur^tion of the pope 
invalidated his consecration; the same objection might be 
made to Bonner, Tonstall, Gardiner^ &c; 

In 1548, bishop Ridley appears to have been employed 
an compiling the codamon prayer, in conjunction with arch- 
bishop Cranmer, and others; and id 1549, he was put 
into commission, together with Cranmer and several others, 
to search after all anabaptists, heretics, and contemners of 
the common prayer. Xl^i^ produced the execution of Joap 
Bbcher and another, of which we have already spoken in 
our account of Cranmer, vol. X. p. 473. In May of this 
year, he was one of a commission to visit Cambridge, and 
abolish the statutes and ordinances whi^h maintained 
popery and superstition ; but, finding that another more 
conceftled object was the suppression of Clare-haU, ^nd the 
incorporation of it with Trinity^hall^ as a new college of 
civilians, be opposed it, and by his firmness prevented this 
act of injustice. Another part of the business of the .comr 
teissioners was more agreeable to him : thi? was to preside 
at a public disputation relating to the sacrament of the 
Lord's supper, similar to one that had been held at Oxford 
a short time' before. The decision on this occasion was 
against transubstantiation ; and although Langdale, one. of 
the disputants on the /side of that doctrine, composed a 
pretended refutation of bishop Ridley*s^rmi9atipn, he 
did not venture to print it until 1558, when he' was secure 
that Ridley could make no reply. 

In October 1549, Bonner, bishop of London, was de- 
prived, and Ridley, who was one of the comoiissioners be- 
fore whom his cause was determined, was itbonght the 
. most proper person to fill that important s^^ on account 
of his great learning and zeal for the reformation; and he 
was accordingly installed in April 1550. His conduct. to- 
wards his predecessor Bonner, arid his family^ after tidcing 
possession of the episcopal palace, was honourable to his 
integrity and benevolence, of which the following facts are 
sufficient proofs. He took care to preserve from it^ury the 
goods, &c. belonging to Bonner, allowing him full liberty 
to remove them when be pleased. * 3ttch materials as Boil^ 

214 RIDLEY. 

her had purchased for the repair of his house and church; 
the new bishop employed to the uses for which they w^re 
designed ; but he repaid him the money which he had ad-> 
vanced for them. He took upon himself the discharge of 
the sums which were due to Bonner's servants for liveries 
and wages ; and that the mother and sister of that prelate, 
who lived near the palace at Fulham, and bad their board 
there, might not be losers in consequence of his promotion, 
he always sent for them to dinner and supper^ constantly 
placing Mrs. Bonner at the bead of the table, twea when 
persons of high rank were bis guests, often saying, *< By 
your lordship's favour, this place of right and custom is foir 
my mother Bonner," as if he had suc;jceeded to the rela^ 
tion, as well as office of her son. / 

Our prelate filled this high station with great dignity, 
and was a pattern of piety, temperance, and regularity, to 
all around him. He spent much of bis time in prayer and 
contemplation ; and took great pains in the instruction and 
improvement of his family. His mode of life was, as soon 
as he had risen and dressed himself, to continue in private 
prayer half an hour ; then, if no other business interrupted 
him, he retired to bis study, where be continued until ten 
o'clock, at which hour he went to prayers with his family. 
He also^laily read a lecture to them, beginning at the Acts 
of the Apostles, and so going reg^ularly through St-JPaul's 
epistles, giving to every one that could read, a New Tes- 
tament, and encouraging tl^em to learn by heart some 
chosen chapters. After prayers h^ went to dinner, where 
he was not very forward to begin discourse ; but when be 
did, he entered into it with great wisdom and discretion, 
and sometimes with facetiousness. This conversation he 
would indulge for an hour after dinner, or otherwise amuse 
himself during that time with playing at chess. The hour 
for unbending being expired, he returned to his study, 
where he continued till five, except suitors, or business 
abroad, required otherwise. He then went to prayers with 
his family as in the morning, after which he supped ; then 
diverting himself for another hour after supper, as be did 
after dinner, he went back to his study, and continued 
there till eleven at night, when be retired to private prayer, 
and then went to bed. 

Soon after his promotion to the see of London, be was 

the person thought the fittest to reconcile Dr. Hooper, the 

-^shop elect of Gloucesteri to^e vestments, against which 

R I & L E Y. 211 

the lalter had cotaceired very strong prejadicet. In June 
1550, bishopr Ridley visited his diocese^ and directed that 
the altars should be taken down in' the churches, and tables 
substituted in their room, for the celebration of the Lord's 
supper; in order to take away the false persuasion which 
the people had, of sacrifices to foe offered upon altars. In 
1551 the sweating sickness prevailed in London, and in the 
space of a few days carried off eight or nine hundred per- 

' fiohs ; but in the midst of the alarm which this necessarily 
occasioned, Ridley administered in the duties of his office, 
trusting himself entirely to the good providence of God fot 
safety, in the danger to which he was every moment ex- 
posed ; and he endeavoured^ with all the zeal of an exem« 
plary spiritual pastor, to improve the public calamity to 
the reformation of the manners of the people; To promote 
more generally a reformation in the doctrine of the churchy 
the comicil, this year, appointed Cranmer and Ridley to 
prepare a book of articles of faith. With this view ^ey 
drew up forty-two articles, and sent copies of them to the 
other bishops and learned divines, for their corrections and 
amendments ; after which the archbishop reviewed them a 
second time, and then -presented them to the council, where 
they received the royal sanction, and were published by 

' the king's authoi*ity. 

In 1552, Ridley visited his old college at Cambridge, 
and upon his return called at Hunsdon, to pay his respects 
to the princess Mary. Their interview forms a curious 
narrative. She thanked him for his civility, and entering 
into conversation with him for about a quarter of an hour, 
told him that she remembered him at court, and mentioned 
particularly a sermon of his before her father; and then, 
leaving her chamber of presence, dismissed him to dine 
with her officers. After dinner she sent for him again, 
when the bishop said that he did not only come to pay his 
duty to Jier grace, but also to offer to preach before her 
next Sunday, if she would be pleased to permit him.. On 
this she changed countenance, and after some minutes' si- 
lence, said, "As for .this matter, I pray you, my lord, 
make the answer to it yourself;" and, on the bishop's 
urging his offer, as a matter of conscience and duty, she 
repeated the same words, yet at last told him, that the 
doors of the parish churtsh should be open to him, where 
he might preach if he pleased, but that neither herself nor 
any of her servants should hear him. '* Madam," «aid the 

916 E I D L £ Y, 

bishopi ^* I trust you will not refuse God^s word»''-^^< I caan 
not tell what you call God's word. That is not God's word 
nowy which was God's word in my father's days," Thf 
bishop observed, that God's word is the same at all times, 
but has been better understood and practised in some ages 
than in others. Mary, enraged at this, jansweced, ^^ Yo^ 
durst not for your eUrs have. avouched tbat for God's word 
in my father's days, that you do now ;" and then, to shew 
how well she h^d prepared her^lf to argue with the prelatf^ 
she added, '< As for your nevi books, I tbaok God, I never 
read any of them -, I never did and never will." She then, 
after making use of much hansh language* parted from him, 
wfth these words, ** My lord, for your civility in coming, to 
see 'me, I tbank you ; but for your joffering to preach before 
me, I thank you not a whit." After this the bishop was conr 
ducted to the room where they had dined, and where sir Tho- 
mas Wharton now gave him a glass of wine. When he 
b^ad drank it, be seemed concerned, and said, *^ Surely I 
have done amiss," l/pon being asked wby^ he vehemently 
reproached himself for having drank iq that place, where 
God's word had been refused \ ** whereas," said he, ^/ if | 
bad remembered my duty, I ought to ;baye departed iqime^ 
diately, and to have shaken off the dusit frofxt my feet for a 
testimony against this house." On this interview, his bio^ 
grapber remarks, *^ One of our l^roed l>istorians suggests, 
that as the princess wftt under no.ex^^omippnication, th^ 
bishop discovered his re^ntment too far, Too far in world-v 
]y prudence be certainly did, for the princ^ess never forgave 
him; but Christ's directions to his apostles were not given 
to persons who had been cast out of their communion, but 
to persons of a different belief refusing to be iostructed, 
And the princess having avowed an ob^ti^ate persevering 
refusal of ever}' mejin of instruction, reading and hearings 
no wonder if the bishop blamiedhimsjelf for so far f^rgettitig 
his master's command, as to accept a pledge of friendship 
in the house of one who bad so, wilfully rejected the word 
of God. . This bigotry of her's gave him a sorrowful pror 
spect of what was to be expected, if ever the priEncess came 
to the throne." 

When the parliament assembled ju 1553, the king, who 
was languishing under the decline which soon put an end 
to his life, ordered the two houses to attend him at Whiter 
hall, where bishop Ridley preached before him, reicom* 
Daending with such energy the duties of . h^nefipepco and 

fi I D L E Y. 217 


S that 'his majesty sent forhim, to inquire hew he 
could best put in practice the duties which he had so well 
and so strongly enforced i and the result of this sermon and 
conference was a determination in the king to founds or 
incorporate anew, and endow with ample revenues, those 
noble institutions, Christ^s, Bartholomew's, Bridewell, and 
St. Thomas's hospitals. 

Upon the death of JETdward VI., Ridley was earnest in 
attempting to set lady Jane Grey on the throne ; but, when 
.the design ha<) miscarried, he went to Mary, to do her ho* 
mage, and submit himself to her clemency. Hisreceptioh 
was socfa as he might hav€ expected : he was tmmediately 
committed to the Tower, where, howeveri he was treated 
with much less rigour than Granmer and Latimer, who were 
likewise prisoners in .the same , fortress. Ridley, it has 
been thought, might have recovered the queen's favour, if 
he would have brought the weight of his learning and autho- 
rity to countenance her proceedings in religion. He was, 
however, too honest to act against bis conviction ; and be 
was, after eight months* imprisonment in the Tower, con* 
veyed from thence to Oxford, where he was, on the 1st df 
October, 1535, condemned to death for heresy. During the 
ft^rtnight between bis condemnation and execiition, the 
.priests tried all th^ir means of persuasion to gain him over 
to -their cause; but be was deaf to therr remonstrances, 
and was not to be shaken in the principles which he had 

The i 5th of October being the day appointed by the 
ioourt for his execution, he met the trial with calmness and 
fortitude. He called it his marriage-day, and supped on 
the preceding evening with the utmost cheerfulness, having 
invited some friends on the occasion. When they rose tp 
depart,^ one of them offered to sit up with him through the 
night, which he would not permit, saying, he meant to go 
to bed, and, by God's will, to sleep as quietly that night 
as he ever had done in his life. On the following morning, 
having dressed himself in his episcopal habit, he walked to 
the place of execution, between the mayor and one of the 
laldermen of Oxford; and seeing Latimer approach, from 
whom he had been separated since their condemnation, he 
ran tameet him, and with a cheerful countenance embraced 
him, and exclaimed, ^^ Be of good heart, brother, for God 
will either assuage the fury of the flames, or else give us 
strength to endure jthem." ^hen walking to the stake, he 


knelt down, and kissing it, prayed earnestly, as Latimer 
did also, and both suffered the cruellest death with the 
greatest courage. 

Anthony Wood says of bishop Ridley, that ** he was a* 
pei*son of small stature, but great in learning, and pro« 
foundly read in divinity/' He ascribes to him the follow- 
ing works: 1. <'A treatise concerning Images not to be 
■et up, nor worshipped in churches/* 2. ** Brief declara- 
tion of the Lord's Supper,'* 1555 and 1586, 8vo, written 
during his imprisonment at Oxford, and afterwards trans- 

' lated into Latin by William Whittinghara. 3. " A friendly 
farewell, written during his imprisonment at Oxford,'* 1559, 
6yo. 4. ** A piteous lamentation of the miserable state of 

. the church of England, in the time of the late revolt from 
the Gospel," 1567, Svo. 5. ** A comparison between the 
comfortable' doctrine of the Gospel and the traditions of 
popish religion.*' 6. *< Account of the disputation held at 
Oxford," 1688, 4to.^ 7. " A treatise of the Blessed Sacra- 
ment." — ^To these we are enabled to add, from another au- 
thority, 8. ^^ Injunctions of Nicholas Ridley, bishop of 
London, to his diocese," 1550, 4to. 9. "The way of 
peace among all Protestants, in a Letter to bishop Hooper," 
Lond. 1688, 4to. 10. " A Letter of reconciliation to bi- 
shop Hooper," ibid. 1689, 4to. Many of his letters are 
in Fox's " Acts and Monuments," and in Dr. Glo^ter 
Ridley's valuable account of bishop Ridley's life, from 
which chiefly we have taken the preceding particulars.* 

RIDLEY (Dr. Gloster), a learned divine, descended 
collaterally from the preceding bishop Ridley, was born 
at sea, in 1702, on-board the Gloucester East Indiaman, 
to which circumstance he was indebted for his Christian 
name. He received his education at Winchester-school, 
and thence was elected to a fellowship at New college, 
Oxford, where he proceeded B. C. L. April 29, 1729. In 
those two seminaries he cultivated an early acquaintance 
with the Muses, and laid the foundation of those elegant 
and solid acquirements for which he was afterwards so emi- 
nently distinguished as a poet, an historian, and a divine. 
During a vacancy in 1728, he joined with four friends, viz. 
Mr. Thomas Fletcher (afterwards bishop of Kildare), Mr. 
(afterwards Dr.) Eyre, Mr. Morrison, and Mr. Jennens, in 
writing a tragedy, called ^^ The Fruitless Redress," each 

' Life by Dr. G. Ridley. — Strypc'a Cranmer /><uitm.— A th. Ox. vol. L— 
Wordsworth** Eccl, Bio|^. vol. III.— Fox's Acto and Monuments, &c. 

RIDLEY. ais 

undertaking an act, on a plan previously cbncerted. When 
tbey deliyered in their several proportions/ at their'oieeting 
in the winter, few readers, it is said, would have known 
that the whole was not the production of a single hand. 
This tragedy, which was offered tb Mr. Wilks, but never 
acted, is still in MS. with another called ^' Jugurtha.** Dr. 
Kidley in his youth was much addicted to theatrical per* 
formarices, Midhurst, in Sussex, was the place where, 
they were exhibited ; and the company of gentlemen actors 
.to which he belonged, consisted chiefly of his coadjutors in 
the tragedy already mentioned. He is said to have per- 
formed the characters of Marc Antony, JaflBer, Horatio, 
and Moneses, with distinguished applause. Young Cibber, 
being likewise a Wykehamist, <:alled on Dr. Ridley soon 
after he liad been appointed chaplain to the East India 
Company at Poplar, and would have persuaded him to quit 
the church for' the stage, observing thM " it usually paid 
the larger salaries of the two,*' an advice which he had too 
much sense to follow. For great part of his life, he had no 
other preferment than the smiall college liviifg of Weston,, 
in Norfolk, and the dona,tiveof Poplar, in Middlesex, where 
he resided. To these his college added, some years after, 
the donative of Romford, in Essex. ** Between these two 
places the curricle of his life had,^* as he expressed it, 
. ^ rolled for some time almost perpetually upon post-chaise 
wheels, and left him not time for even the proper studies 
of oeconomy, or the necessary ones of his -profession." Yet 
in this obscure situation be remained in possession of, arul 
content with, domestic happiness; and was honoured with the 
intimate friendship of some who were not less distinguished 
for learning than for worth : among these, it may be sufficient 
to mention Dr. Lowth, Mr. Christopher Pitt, Mr. Spence, 
and Dr. Berfiman. To the last of these he was curate and 
executor, and preached his funeral sermon. In 1740 and 
1741, he preached " Eight Sermons at Lady Moyer's lec- 
ture," which were published in 1742, 8vo, and at different 
tioies, several occasional sermons. In 1756, he declined 
an offer of going to Ireland as first chaplain to the duke of 
Bedford ; in return for which he was to have had the choice 
of promotion, either at Christ-church, Canterbury, West- 
minster, or Windsor. His modesty inducing him to leave 
the choice of these to bis patron, the consequence was, 
that he obtained none of them. In 1761 he published, in 
4to^ ^' De Syriacarum novi foederis versionum indole 

eao JR I D L E Y. 

ntque u!lu» dis»ertatio/' occasioned by a Syriac Tersion, 
whichy with two others, were sent to him nearly thiirty 
years before, by one Mn Samuel Palmer frpm Amida, in 
Mesopotamia. His age and growing infirmities, the great 
expence of printings and the want of a patron, prevented 
him from availing himself of these MSS. ; yet at intervals he 
employed himself on a transcript, which being put. into th<^ 
lutnds of professor White, was published a few years ago, 
with a literal Latin translation, in ^ vols. 4to, at the ex* 

Eence of the delegates of the Clarendpn preds* In 176S 
e published the ^' Life of bishop Ridley,'* in quarto, by 
subscription, and cleared by it as much as brought him 
800/. in the public funds. In this, which is the most use- 
ful of all his works, he proved himself worthy of the name 
he bore, a thorough master of the popish controversy, and 
an able advocate for the reformation. In 1765 he publish- 
ed his " Review of Philips's Life of Cardinal Pole'* (see 
Philips); and in 1768, in reward for his labours in this con* 
troversy, and in another which "The Confessional'* pro- 
duced, he was presented by archbishop Seeker to a golden 
prebend in the cathedral church of Salisbury (an option), 
but it is probably a mistake that Seeker honoured him with 
the degree of D. D. that honour having been conferred up- 
on him by the university of Oxford in 1767, by diplomay the 
highest mark of distinction they can confer. At length, worn 
out with infirmities, he departed this life in Nov. 1774, leaving 
a widow and four daughters. An elegant epitaph, written by 
Dr. Lowtfa, bishop of London, is inscribed upon bis monument. 
Two poems by Dr. Ridley ,' one styled " Jovi Eleutherio, 
or an Offering to Liberty," the other called " Psyche," are 
in the third volume of Dodsley*s Collection. The sequel of 
the latter poem, entitled, " Melampus," with " Psyche," its 
natural introduction, was printed in 1782, by subscription, for 
the benefit of his widow. Many others are in the Sth volume 
of Nichols's " Collection.** The MSS. Codex Heraclensis, 
Codex Barsalibaei, &c. (of which a paiticular account may be 
seen in his Dissertation " De Syriacarum Novi Fcederis.ver- 
sionum indole atque usu, 1761,*') were bequeathed by Dr. 
Ridley to the library of New college, Oxford. Of these an- 
cient MSS. a fac- simile specimen was published in his Dis- 
sertation above mentioned. A copy of "The Confessional," 
with MS notes by Dr. Ridley,'* was in the library of the late 
Dr. Winchester.* 

* Gent. Mag. vol. XLIV.— Nichols's PoeiD» and Bowyer. 

RID LEY. 221 

/ RIDLEY (Jambs), son. to the preceding, was educated 
at Winchester, and New college, Oxford, and, after tak«» 
log orders, succeeded his father in the living of Rumford^ 
ifk Essex. In 1761, while attending his duty as chaplain 
to a' inarching regiment at. the siege of Bel leisle, he laid 
the foundation of some disorders, from which, to the un^ 
speakable grief of his family and friends, he never reoo-* 
vered, and which some years after, being then happily 
married and preferred in tbexhurch, terminated his life in 
February 1765. The following extract from a letter which 
his father wrote about this time to a friend, affords a proof, 
of his sorrow, and the only scanty notices which havefbeen 
preserved of his son's merits. 

" D£AR Sir, 

'> I am ashamed to have appeared so negligent in 
answering your kind remembrance of me, by a letter so 
long ago as the fifth of February : but it has pleased God 
to visit me so sorely since, that I have had no leisure to 
think. of any thing but my sorrows, and the consequent 
troubles in which they have involved me. Preseotly after 
receiving your letter, I went to spend a few days in London, 
in the Temple, from whence I returned very ill, and three 
days brought on the gout. My son went ill out of London 
the day before I did, andj during his illness, my own con- 
finement would not permit me to see him. About eleven 
dajrs carried off as hopeful a young clergyman as an affec* 
tionate father could wish his son to be. So generous a 
heart, such an intimate knowledge of the powers and work* 
ings of nature, so serious and earnest a desire to serve God 
and mankind, with a cheerful spirit and address in convey- 
ing his instructions, make his loss as great to the world as 
it is to me. Some specimens he has left behind him, in 
the humorous papers of The Schemer; and he lived just 
long enough to finish a monthly work, in which he engaged 
a year before his death, publishing his last number of the 
Tales of the Genii the first of February, in which month 
iie died.'* — — 

The " Schemer," here noticed, was a very humorous 
periodical paper, originally written fbr the London* Chro* 
nicle, but afterwards collected into a volume and published. 
He was also the author of the ** History of James Love-* 
grove," esq.; but the " Tales of the Genii" is the work on 
which his fame principally rests, and the many editions 
through which it has passed sufficiently attest its popu- 

tii RIDLEY. 

; Tbe Tales are introduced mth the' life of HoraHn, (bts 
supposed original author, which contains some animadvef^' 
sjious equally ingehious and just, on the difference betwedn 
tbe professions and practice of many Ciiristians. The story^ 
indeed, is so contrived as to include a very keen satire.' 
. RIDLEY (Thomas), an eminent civilian, descended of 
a family of that name in Northumberland, wais born in tbe 
city of Ely, and became master of Eton school, afterwards 
one of the masters in chancery, chancellor to the bishop of 
Winchester, and vicar-general to archbishop. Abbot. He 
i^Iso received the honour of knighthood. He died Jan. 22 
or 23, 162d, and was buried in the parish church of St 
Bennet, Paul's Wharf, London. He was a general scbo* 
lar, and published <* A view of the Civil and Ecclesiastical 
Law,'* which was much admired by king James, and was 
afterwards reprinted by the learned, but unfortunatle Gre- 
gory, chaplain to bishop Duppa. This work, says Dr. 
Coote, while it established the reputation of the author* 
contributed to revive the declining credit of that juris- 
diction.' . . 

, RIENZI (Nicolas Gabrini de), who, from a low and 
despicable situation, raised himself to sovereign authority 
in Rome, in the 1 4th century, assuming the title of tribune^ 
and proposing to restore tbe ancient free republic, was 
born at Rome, and was the son of no greater a personage 
than a mean vintner, or, as others say, a miller, named 
Lawrence Gabrini, and Magdalen, a laundress. However, 
Nicolas Rienzi, by which appellation he was commonly 
distinguished, did not form his sentiments from the mean- 
ness of his birth.. To a good natural understanding he 
joined an uncommon assiduity, and made a great profici^ 
ency in ancient literature. Every thing he read he com- 
pared with similar passages that occurred within his own 
observation ; whence he made reflections, by which he re- 
gulated his conduct. To. this he added a great knowledge 
in the laws and customs of nations. He had a vast memoi^ :. 
he retained much of Cicero, Valerius Maximus, Livy, the 
two Senecas, and Caesar's Commentaries especially, which 
he read continually, and often quoted and applied to the 
events of his own times. This fund of learning proved the 
foundation of his rise : the desire he had to distinguish 

* Nichols's Bowyer.' 

9 A,th. Or. vol. I.— Lloyd's SUtaWorthieiv—Harwosd'sAlaiimi Etontnses.**- 
Caote't CaUlogue of CWUUns. 

R I E N Z L 2M 

iHflikelf in the knowledge of monumental history^ drew him 
.10 another sort of science, then little understood. He 
passedi whole days among the inscriptions which are to be 
found at Rome, and acquired soon the reputation of a great 
antiquary. Having hence formed within himself the most 
^exalted notions of the justice, liberty, and ancient graadeur 
4>{ the old Romans, words he was perpetually repeating tp 
^he people, he at length persuaded not only himself, but 
.the giddy niob his followers, that he should one day become 
the restorer of the Roman republid. His advantageous 
stature, his countenance, and that air of importance which 
be well knew how to assume, deeply imprinted all he said 
i^n the minds of his audience : nor was it only. by the popu- 
lace that he was admired ; he also found means to insinuate, 
himself into the favour of those who partook of the admini- 
atratipn. Rienzi^s talents procured him to be nominated. 
one of the deputies, sent by the Romans to pope Clement 
VI. who resided at Avignon. The intention of this depu- 
tation was to make his holiness sensible, how prejudicial 
bis absence was, as well to himself as to the interest of 
Rome. At his first audience, our hero charmed the court 
of Avignon by his eloquence, and the sprightliness of his' 
<:onvetsation. Encouraged by success, be one day took the 
liberty to tell the pope, that the grandees of Rome were 
avowed robbers, public thieves, infamous adulterers, and 
illustrious profligates; who by their example authorized 
the most horrid crimes. To them he attributed the desola- 
tion of Rome, of yvbich he drew so lively a picture, that 
the holy father was moved, and es^ceedinglys incensed 
Ugainst the Roman nobility. Cardinal Colonna, in othet* 
respects a lover of real merit, could not help considering^ 
these reproaches as reOecting^ upon some of his family; and 
therefore found means of disgracing Rienzi, so that he feljl 
into extreme misery, vexation, and sickness, which, joined 
with indigen.ce, brought him to an hospital. Nevertheless, 
tne same hand that threw him down, raised him up agaip. 
The cardinal, who was all compassion, caused him to appear 
l^efore the pope, in assurance of his being a good man, 
and a great paftizan for justice and equity. The pope ap- 
prpvedof him more than ever; and, as proofs of his esteepa 
and confidence, made him apostolii; notary, and sent him 
back loaded with favours. Yet his subsequent behaviour, 
shewed, that resentmeot had a greater ascendancy over him 
tban gratitude. Being returned to Rome, he began to 

execute the f oiKstiaiis of bis office, and by affability, caadotii^ 
assiduity, and impartiality, in the administration ofjustioe, 
he arrived at a superior degree of popularity ; which he 
atili improfied by continued invectives against the vices of 
the great, whom he strove to render as odious as possible ; 
till at last, for some ilUtimed freedoms of speech, he was 
not only severely reprimanded, hot displaced. His dis^ 
mission did not make him desist from inveighing against the 
debauched, though be conducted himself with more pru«^ 
dence. From this time it was his constant c^ndeavoar> to 
inspire the people with a fondness for their ancient liberties; 
to which purpose, he caused to be hung up in the most 
public places emblematic pictures, expressive of the former 
splendour and present decline of Rome. To these be added 
frequent harangues and predictions upon the same subject* 
In this manner he proceeded till one party looked on him 
only as a madman, while others caressed him. as their pro'^ 
tector. Thus be infatuated the minds of the people, and 
many of the nobility began to come into his views, while 
the senate in no wise mistrusted a man, whom they judged 
tO/have neither interest nor ability. At length he ventured 
to disclose his designs to such as be believed mal-contents,^ 
£rst separately, but afterwards, when he thought he had- 
firmly attached a sufficient number to his interest, h^ as* 
sembled them together, and represented to them the de- 
plorable state of the city, over-run with debaucheries, and 
the incapacities of their governors to correct or amend 
them. As a necessary foundation for the enterprize, be 
gave them a statement of the immense revenues of the 
apostolic chamber; demonstrating that the pope could^ 
only at the rate of four-pence, raise a hundred thdusn&d 
florins by firing, as much by salt, and as much more by the 
customs and other duties. ** As for the rest," said he, ^^ I 
would not have you imagine, that it is without the pope^a 
consent I lay bands on the revenues. Alas ! how many 
others in xhis city plunder the effects of the church con«» 
trary to his will !" 

By this artful falsehood, he so animated his auditors, 
that they declared they would make no scruple of securing 
these treasures for whatever end might be most convenient, 
and that they w^re devoted to his will. Having obtained so 
much to secure his adherents from a revolt, he tendered 
them a paper, superscribed, *< an oaih to procure the good 
establishment ;" and made them subscribe and swea; to it^ 

ft t £ N Z f . 221 

b'e^re he dismissed them. By what m^flns be prevailed on 
tbe pope's vicar to give a tacit sanction to bis project is not 
certainty known; that he did procure that sanction^ and 
that it was looked on as a master-piece of policy, is gene- 
rally admitted. The 20th of May, being Whitsunday^ be 
fixed upon to sanctify in some sort his enterprize ; and pre* 
tended, that all he acted was by particular inspiration of 
the Holy Ghost. Aboiit nine, he came out of the church 
bare-beaded, accompanied by the pope's vicar, surrounded 
by an hundred armed men. A vast crowd followed him 
with shouts and acclamations. The gentlemen conspirators 
carried three standards before him, on which were wrought 
itevices, insinuating, that his design. was to re-establish 
liberty, justice, and peace. In this manner he proceeded 
directly to the capitol, where he mounted the rostrum ; and^ 
with more boldness and energy than ever, expatiated on 
the miseries to wbicfa the Romans were reduced ; at the 
same time telling them, without hesitation, *' that the happy 
bour of their deliverance was at length come^ and that he 
was to be their deliverer, regardless of the dangers he was 
exposed tO'for the service of the holy father and the peo- 
ple's safety." After which, he ordered the laws of what 
be called* the good establishment to be read : and assured' 
that the Romans would resolve to observe these laws, he 
engaged in a short time to re-establish them in their ancient 
grandeur. The laws of the good establishment promised 
plenty and security^ which were greatly wanted; and the 
humiliation of the nobility, who were deemed common* op- 
pressors. Such laws could not fail of being agreeable to a 
people who found in them these double advantages ; and 
therefore enraptured with the pleasing ideas of a liberty to 
which they were at present strangers, and the hope of gain^ 
they adopted most zealously the fanaticism of Rienzi.— 
Theyresumed the pretended authority of the Romans; 
they declared him sovereign of Rome^ and granted him 
the power of life and death, of rewards and punishments, 
of enacting and repealing the laws, of treating with foreign 
powers; in a word, they gave him the full and supreme 
authority over all the extensive territories of the Romans. 
Riedzty arrived at the summit of his wishes, kept at a great 
distance his artifice : he pretended to be very unwilling to 
accept of their offers, but upon two conditions ; the first, 
that they should nominate ^e pope's^ vicar (the bishop of 
Orvieto) his co-partner ; the second, that the pope's con-^ 

886 H I E N Z jL 

fenl fthoald be granted bico, wbicb (be tol4 %kem) be flM* 
. tered himself be sboYild obtain. On the on# bwd^ be bar^ 
toarded notbing in tbu^ making bi^ court to tbe boly fatber^ 
and, on the other, he well knew» that tbe bisbap of Or* 
vieto would carry a title only, and no authority. The peo<^ 

f}e granted bis request, but paid all tbe honours to him : 
e possessed the authority without restriction ; the good 
bishop appeared a mere shadow and veil to bis enterprizea* 
Bienzi was seated in his triumphal chariot, like an idol^ <e 
(riumpb with the greater splendor* He dismissed the peor 
pie replete with joy and hope. He seiaed upon the palace^ 
where be continued after be bad turned out the senates 
and, the ^me day, be began to dictate bis laws in tb« ea^ 
pitc^ This election, though not^ very pleasing to the poiMQ^ 
was ratified by him ; yet Rienssi meditated the obtaining of 
a title, exclusive of tbe papal prerogative- Well verged 
in tbe Eoman bistpryt he was no stranger to the eiitent of 
tbe tribunitial aqtbority ; andt as be owed bis elevation |o 
the people, he ehose to have tbe title of their magi^tiale^ 
He asked it, and it was conferred on him and his eo^pantnei) 
with tbe addition of deliverers of their country. Our adr 
venturer's behaviour in bis elevation was at first svchaa 
commanded esteem and respect, not only from tbe Romansi 
but from all the peighboiftring states. His contempm^ryj 
the celebrated Petrarch, in a letter to Charles^ king of the 
Romans, gives tbe following account of him : — ** Not }qii|| 
since a most remarkable man, of the plebeian race, a pei&t 
son whom neither titles nor virtues had distinguished ^^tA 
be presumed to set bimsitf up fpr a restorer of the Roman 
liberty, has obtained the bluest authority at Rome, 3q 
sudden, so great is bis auocess, that this man has already 
woo Tuscany and all Italy. Already Europe and the wbcdt 
world are in motion ; to speak the whole in one werd^ I 
protest to you, not as a reader* but as an eye** witness, ti^ 
he has restored tq us the justice, peaee* iiitegrity, apil 
every other token of the golden age,'' But His difficull 
for a person of mean birth, elevated at once> by the capriw 
• of fortune, to tbe most exalted station, to move rightly in • 
sphere in which he must breathe an ^it be bas b^n unacir 
custoimed to. Rienzi ascended by degrees the summit of 
his fortune. Riches softened^ power daz9led» the pomp 
of his cavalcades animated, and formed in bis mi^d ideae 
adequaite to those of princes born to empire. Henee luxury 
invaded bis table, and tyranny took possession c^ hie beaxl;» 
The pope conceived bis designs contrary to the interests of 

R I £ N Z r. 827 

IJbe holy se% and the nobles^ whose power it had been hit 
constani endeavoun to depress^ conspired against him ; and 
Rienzi was forced to quit an authority he had possessed 
little more than six months. It was to a precipitate flight 
that he was indebted, at this juncture, for his life; and to 
different disguises for his subsequent preservation. Having 
made an ineffectual effort at Rome, and not knowing where 
to find a new resource to carry on his designs, he took a 
most bold step, conformable to that rashness which had so 
often assisted him in his former exploits. He, determined 
to go to Prague, to Charles, king of the Romans, whom 
the year before he had summoned to his tribunal, and who 
iie foresaw would deliver him up to a pope highly incensed 
against him. He was accordingly soon after sent to Avig^. 
noo, and there thrown into a prison, where he continued 
three years. The divisions and disturbances in Italy^ occa«* 
ktoned by the number of petty tyrants that had established 
themselves in the ecclesiastical territories, and even at Rome» 
occasioned his enlargement. Innocent VL who succeeded 
Clement in the papacy, sensible that the Romans still enter*- 
tained an affection for our hero, and believing that liis 
chastisement would teach him to act with more moderation 
than' he had formerly done, as well as that gratitude would 
€rf^lige .him, for the remainder of his life, to preserve an 
inviolable attachment to the holy see (by whose favour he 
should be re-established), thought him a proper instrument 
to assist his design of reducing those other tyrants ; and 
tlierefore, not only gave him his liberty, but also appointed 
bim governor and senator of Rome. He met with many 
bbstacles to the assumption of this newly-granted authority^ 
idl which, by cunning and resolution, he at length over* 
tame. But giving way to his passions, which were immo* 
llerately warm, and inclined him to cruelty, he excited so 
general a resentment against him, that he was murdered^ 
Uct. 8, 1354. ** Such,'* say bis biographers, *< was the 
end of Nicolas Rienzi, one of the most renowned men of 
the age ; who, after forming a conspiracy full of extrava- 
gance,* and executing it in the sight of almost the whole 
world, yifiih such success that he became sovereign of 
Rome ; after causing plenty, justice, and liberty to flou- 
rish among the Romans ; after protecting potentates, and 
terrifying sovereign princes ; after being arbiter of crowned 
headi ; after ife-establishing the ancient majesty and power 
of the Roman republic^ and filling all Europe with bis fame 

a 2 

229 R I E N Z L 

during the sereo months of bis first reign ; after baviiTg 
compelled his masters themselves to confirm bim in the 
authority be bad usurped against their interests; fell at 
length at the end of bis second, which lasted not four 
months, a sacrifice to the nobility whose ruin he had vowed, 
and to those vast projects which bis death prevented bim 
from putting into execution.''' 

RIGALTIUS, orRIGAULT, (Nicolas), a very inge- 
nious and learned man, was the son of a physician, and bom 
at Paris in 1577. He was brought up among the Jesuits, 
and afterwards admitted advocate ; but, not being able to, 
conquer the disgust he bad conceived to the profession of 
the law, he devoted himself entirely to the pursuit of polite 
literature. The public received the first fruits of bis la- 
bours in bis '* Funus Parasiticum,'' printed in 1596;. the 
ingenuity and learning of which so charmed Tbuanus, thathe 
immediately took bim into bis friendship, and made bim the 
<:ompanion of bis studies. This excellent person conceived 
a particular esteem for him ; as. appeared, when be died in 
1617, from naming him in bis will, to superintend the edu« 
cation of bis children. He was chosen, with Isaac Casau- 
bon, to put the king's library into order; and in 1610^ 
.when that learned man went over to spend some time in 
England with James I. succeeded bim in the ofiice of \i^ 
brarian to the king. His majesty conferred on him other 
. marks of distinction ; made bim procurator-general of the 
supreme court of Nancyj counsellor of the parliament of 
Metz, and then intendant of that province. He died in 
1654, after having given aumerous proofs of uncommon 
erudition in editions of ** Minutius Fcelix,"' ^' Pbasdrus,"^ 
^^ Martial)" 'Mlei accipitrarii scrip.tores,*' ^' Rei . agrarian 
scriptores," the works of " Cyprian" and " TertuUian," 
&c. His notes upon these last two are learned and criti- 
cal ; but thematter of some of them shews him to have been 
not a rigid catholip. He takes occasion to observe, from a 
passage in Tertullian's ^* Exhortation to Chastity,'^ that 
laymen have a right and power to consecrajte. the eucharist^ 
when there is no opportunity of recurring to the regular 
ministers ; and this, with other opinidns of a similar kind, 
not only gave offence to those of his own commuuioo, but 
even to some of ours. ^' Rigaltjus," says Mr. Dodwell, 
*^ though an ingenious and learned critic, is by no. means 
exact upon the subjects be treats of : for, though of the 

1 Memoiri of Rien^i, by Brumoy and Cerceau. 

Tl J G A L T. I U S. 2tf» 

Rdmaa .commiiniony be is often found on the side of the 
Cftivinistd; and, when be meets with anything in the au- 
thors he publishes that appears contrary to the customs, 
not only, of his own, but pf the universal church, here* 
marks it witb great care ; perhaps to render his notes more 
agreeable to the reader, by presenting him with something 
new and unexpected.^' It is probable, that many persons 
may not think the worse of Rigaltius, as an editor, for the 
censure here, passed on him by Mr. Dodwell. Rigaltius , 
was aUo; conperned in the edition of Thuanus, published at 
Geneva in 1620.^ 

RIGHTWISE, or RITWYSE (John, in Latin Justus), 
an eminent grammarian, was born at Sawl, in Norfolk, and 
educated at Eton, and was admitted * of King's college,' 
Cambridge, in 1506. He was first usher to the celebrated , 
William Lilly, master of St. Paul's school, 9.nd afterwards 
second master, but succeeded Lilly, as head master, in 
1522, which situation he retained until his death,' in 1^(32. 
He composed a tragedy of " Dido" out of Virgil, which 
was performed at St Paul's school by him and his pupils, .' 
before cardinal W.olsey, but deserves more notice for the 
improvements he introduced in Lilly's Latin grammar, in 
the edition published at Antwerp in 1533. He had mar- 
ried Dion3rsia^ the daughter of Lilly ; and after his death 
$fae was again married to James Jacob, one of the masters ; 
oiF St. Paulas, by whom she had a son, Polydore Jacob, who 
Was probably the god-son of Polydore Virgil, who speaks 
of Right wise with great respect*' 

RILEY (John), an EngKsh artist of very ccmsiderable 
merit, was born at London, in 1646, and instructed in the 
art of paiuting by Fuller and Zoust. Lord Orford asserts, 
that he was one of the best native painters that had flou- 
rished in England ; and that there are draperies and hands 
painted by him that would do honour either to Leiy or 
Kneller ; the portrait of the lord-keeper North, at Wrox- 
ton, being in every respect a capital performance. After 
the death X)f sir- Peter Lely, he advanced in the esteem of 
the pubHc, and had the honour to .paint the portraits of 
king Charles IL king James and his queen, and was ap- 
pointed state painter. He made nature his principal study, 
without adopting the manner of any master, and as far as 


^ Bateau VU».— Niseroo, vol. XXr.— Moreri. 

* Knight's Colet, corrected in Tanner, and Cole's MS Athenae in Brit. Mus. 
— Warton'f Hist, of Poetry.— Harwood's Alumni Etonenses. 

230 R I L E y. • 

be thoogbt it prudent be improTed or embelliibed it m hit- 
pictures; and, like many other meo of parts, be aeeawi to' 
be 0iore respected bj posterity, tban by tbe age in which * 
be flourished. He was, intrutb, humble, modest, and of: 
an amiable character. He had tbe greatest- diffidence of 
himself, and was easily disgusted witb his own works, tha 
source probably, says lord Orford, of the objections made* 
to him. Witb a quarter of Kneller's vanity, he might have 
persuaded the world he was as great a master. The gout- 
put an end to his progress, for he died in 1691, at the age' 
of forty-five, and was buried in Bishop^gtite^ church, m 
w^ich parish he was born. One Thomas Riley was an actor, 
abd has a copy of verses in Randolpb^s Poems. This, lord 
Orford thinks, might be tbe painter's Attber. In the same ' 
place are some Latin verses by Riley, wboiti the same bio«> 
grapber takes to be our painter himself. Richardson mar«r 
ried a near relation of Riley, and inherited about SOOL in ' 
piet'ures, drawings, and effects. 

< There was a more recent artist of thiji name, but nowise 
related to tbe preceding, Charles Reuben Rilbt, wbo 
died in 1798, about forty-six years of age. He was placed^ 
under Mortimer, and in 1778 obtained tbe gold medal at' 
the Royal Academy, for tbe best painting in oil, the sub% ' 
ject, the Sacrifice of Iphigenia. He was employed in the< 
decorations of some noblemen's and gentlemen's houses^' 
but chiefly in making drawings and designs for the bock^ 
sellers. * 

RINALDI (ODERic),a learned Italian ecclesiastical his- 
torian of the seventeenth century, was a native of Treviso, 
and was brought up in the congregation of the oratory at> 
Rome, of which Baronius had been a member. After tbe 
death of that cardinal, Rinaldi wrote a continuation of his ' 
<* Ecclesiastical Annals," from 1198, where Baronius left 
ofl^, to 1564, and witb no inferiority to the ptt^ceding vo«* 
Jumes. It consists often large volumes in folio, published^ 
at Rome at different periods^ from 1646 to 1677. Rinaldi' 
also was the author of a sufficiently copious abridgment, in 
Italian, of the whole annals, compiled both by Baroniiis 
and himself.* 

RINGELBERQIUS (Joachim Fortiijs), in Gennaii. 
8terck, an eminent Flemish philosopher and matbematictani 

1 WaIpole*8 Anecdotes, — Edwards's ContinUatiotih 
* Landi Hilt. Litt. d* Italie, 


wM bom at; Antwerp^ and first fttudtod in the emperor 
MsxinUtaui the First's palace, and afterwards at the vni- 
i«rslty of Lduvain^ where he acquired. the learned Ian- 
goages, phildsopby^ and the matheoiatioal sciences. He 
beoaoie a public professor in that university^ and taught 
furious sciettoes; and in I5f8 went ioto Germany, and 
caof ht the matbeoiatioal ddenced and the Greek tongue ift 
variooi semitiaries of that country^ and afterwards at Parii^ 
Oiieans) and Bourdeaui:^ and other places. He died about 
1596. Among his most esteemed worlts were^ ^' De Ra<A 
tioue Sindii/' Antwerp, 15^9^ in which are many pat'ticu^^ 
lars of bia own studies ; various treatises on grammar ; 
^ Dialectioa, et Tabulte Dtalectica;/' Ley den, 1547 $ 
^ De ^onscilbendis Epistolia Lib. ;'* '< lihetorlesd^ et quia 
ad earn spectant ;^' *^ Sentential ;'' *^ Sph^rsi, sive Instl^ 
ttttibnom Astrooomicarum, Lib. IIL," BasrI, 1508, avo^ 
^^ Cosmograpbia ;" '< Optica ;" *^ Cha^s Matbematicum )'^ 
'^ Aritbmetica ;'' all which were collected and published at 
Leyden, in 153 i.^ 

RINGGLI (OOTTHAftD)^ an excellent Swiss artist^ nwi 
bom at Zoric, January 2Tth| 1575, but of his master, hi$ 
travels, or the progress of his younger years, his biographer 
has not informed os. He must have enjoyed some eele^ 
brity, as he was chosen by the magistracy of Berne to dcM 
corate with painttnga of large dimensions the senstte^house 
aad aiinster of that metreperfiS) and had the freedom of 
their oity conferred on him. Theie pictures^ which re^ 
pteseoted facts rdatire to the foundations of Berne> o« 
allegories alluding to the peeoliarities of its situation and 
ciiaioms^ Were eqnally distinguished by picturesque con«> 
eeptioHy boldMss of style# and correct execution. In the 
a^aate-bouse especially, "iile tf^trd pic^tnre^ whose subject 
was the building of the town, shewed great intelligeace of 
foreshortening, and of what is by the Italians termed ^6k 
aatio in so/* Fo^ the paUk library of Zuric he painted 
^ arms of the state and of lis dependenoiesj supported by 
Religion and Liber^ ; Death lies lit the feet of Religion^ 
biat to the tfsraal allegorle implements in^ ber bands he 
added a bridle, to distinguisli her from Fantiticism atid Sd'- 

Hie eaieUpietures were either few, or the greater part 
must hafi9 perished ; one of the most remarkable^ in the 

1 Mor«vi in Fortiui.— Foppea an ditto/— >^el«1ii(»r adam. 

*32 ft I N G G L 1. 

house of Werdmidier, is Job emaciated and diseased^ listen-^ 

iDg patiently to the invectives of bis wife ; a picture wbich^ 

even on close inspection, differs little in baudling and tone 

from the best works of Spagnoletto. But perbaps the most 

valuable remains of Ringgli are bis designs, generally 

drawn witb the pen, and washed with , bister or India 

ink ; these are sometimes of considerable size, and chiefly 

biblical or allegorical subjects. That of our Saviour^s burial, 

Susanpah with the Elders, the royal Fatber shot at by ha 

Sons from the ^^ Gesta Romanorum," Faith sheltered from 

the storms of Persecution,, and many more of mystic con*^ 

tent, are remarkable for beauties of composition, light, 

shade, and outline, but perhaps obscure in their meaning: 

they were in Fuessli*s possession once, but now are proba^' 

bly dispersed in different collections.- He etched severnt 

things in an. easy picturesque manner, generally marked 

by a monogram of. the letters G.. and R. He died lit 


RINUCeiNI (Ottavio), an Italian poet of Florence^ 
who went into France in the suite of Mary of Medicis, 
queen to Henry IV. is. the reputed inventor of the musical 
drama or opera, that is, of the manner of writii>g, or re^^ 
presenting comedies or ti'agedies in music, to which the 
first recitative was applied. Others give this invention to 
a Roman gentleman of the name of Emilio del Cavaliere, 
who was more properly the inventor of th^ sacred drama 
-ororatorio, in a similar species of music or recitative, so 
nearly at. the same time that it is difficult to determine 
which/ was first: both had their beginning in I6OO4 Ri- 
nuccini wa& author ,of three lyric pieces, " Daphne^" 
*^ Euridice,'' and ^^ Ariadne,'' which all Italy applaud^. 
Euridice^ written for the nuptia|| of Mary of Medicis, was 
first performed with great splendor and. magnificence at 
Florence, at the court and expence of the grand .duke. The 
poetry is truly lyrical, smooth, polished, and mellifiuou«. 
He died in 1621, at Florence; and a collection, or rather 
selection, of his works were published in 1622, in the 
same city, iu 4to, by his son, Pietro FrancescoRinuccini, 
and another entitled <^ Drammi Musicale/' in 18Q2, 8v(^ 
at Leghorn. The family is noble, and was subsisting m 
1770. More of Ottavio may be seeu in the appendix to 
Walker's " Life of Tassoni,'* just published, 1816. • 

1 Pilkington by Faseli. 

^ Hawkins and Buraey'sHist. of Mosici and tbe latter in R^es's Cyclopttdia* 

R I O L A N. 2S3 ^ 

KIOLAN (JoHN)y an able French pbysician, a native 
of Amien&y and distinguished by his attainments both ia 
literature and science, is said not only to have written 
and spoken the learned languages with facility^ but to have 
been thoroughly intimate with the contents of almost all 
the writings of the ancients. We have, however, very 
few particulars of his life, unless that be gave lessons in 
natural philosophy at the college of Boncour, at Paris, 
where he took his degree in 1574, and held the office of 
dean of t^e faculty in 1586 and 1587. He died Oct. 18, 
1606. He was a strenuous advocate for the doctrine of 
Hippocrates and the ancients, whom be defended with, 
great ardour against the chemists. His works, which are 
indicative of genius, were collected and published, to- 
gether with some posthumous tracts, at Paris, in 1610, 
under the title of ** Opera Omnia,'^ and some were sepa- 
rately published, particularly one against the ignorance of 
the practitioners of surgery in his time, entitled ^^ Ad Im- 
pndentiam quorundam Chirurgorum, qui Medicis sbquari 
et Cbirurgiam publice profiteri volunt; pro veteri dignitate 
Medicinae Apologia philosophica,"' Paris, 1567. This waist 
followed by several pieces on bath sides. ' 

RIOLAN (John), 'son of the preceding, was born at 
Paris in the year 1577. While his father afforded every 
encouragement to his rising talents, his mind was naturally 
directed to the study of medicine, in which his progress 
was uncommonly rapid. He took his degree in 1 604, and 
a very few years after acquired great reputation ^s an authoiw^ 
In 1613, he was appointed royal professor of anatomy and 
botany by Louis XIII. ; and in this latter capacity he peti* 
tioned the king for the establishment of a. botanic garden in 
the university of Paris. He subsequently held the appoint* 
ment of physician to queen Mary de Medicis, and accoo^- 
panied that princess in her travels ; he arrived at Cologne 
after her death, in July 1642, and returned to Paris, 
where he resumed his ^profession. After having twice 
undergone the operation of lithotomy, he lived to the 
age of eighty years, and died at Paris February 19, 1657. 

Riolan, although one of the most expert and learned 
anatomists of his time, was hindered in his progress as a 
discoverer, by his extreme devotion to the ancients; and 
yet. was arrogant in bis claims to originality, and by his 

1 Eloy, Diet. Hist, de Medieine.— -Rees't Cyelopadia. 

284 R I O L A N. 

pertinacity, and contempt of others, he railed himself many 
opponents and enemies. He published several Dew obser-*' 
vations, however, respecting many parts of anatomical 
science, especially the structure of the colon, the biliary 
duets, the uterus an^ vagina, the tongue^ os hyoides, &c« 
but he did not iilustrate them by engravings, as it was a. 
maxim with him, that no representations could supersede 
the study of nature. His principal works, which were by- 
no means confined to anatomy, are noticed in the following 
list. 1. ^< Brevis excursus in Battdlogiam Quercetatii, quo 
Alcbemiae principta funditus dirutintiir, et Artis Veritas 
demonstratur,'* Par. 1604. 2: ** Comparatio veteris Me- 
dicinee cum nova, Hippocratica! in Hermetica, Dogmaticis 
cum Spargyrica," 1 605. 3. ** Disputatio de Monstro Lo- 
tetise 1605 nato.'* 4. <* Incursionum Quercetani depolsio,'' 
id. 5. *^ Censora demonstrationis Harveti .pro veritate 
Alchymise,'' 1606. 6. ^< Schola Anatomica novis et ram 
observation ibus iltustrata. Adjuncta est accurata fcetiM 
bumani historia," 1607; enlarged by the author with the 
title of " Anatome corporis humani," 1610. 7. " In Li- 
brum CI. Galeni de Ossibus, ad Tyrones explanatiohes: 
apologeticse pro Galeno, adversus novitios et novatores 
Anatomicos," 1613. 8. " Gigantomachie,** 1615, written 
in refutation of Habicot's account of the discovery of the 
bones of the giant Teutobochus. Riolan published two 
Other tracts, or more, upon this* controversy, which ended 
with the appearance of bis, 9. ** Gigantoiogie ; discours sur 
Ja grandeur des Grants, &c." in 1618. 10. << Osteologia 
ex veterum et recentiorum prasceptis descripta," Id 14, 
II. *^ Discours sur les Hermaphrodits, oh il est d^montr^, 
centre Topinion commune, qu'il n'y a point de vrais Her-* 
maphrodits,*' 1614. 12. <* Anatomica, sen Antbropbgra« 
phia,'* 1618. 13. << Enchiridium anatomicdm etpatholo^ 
gicum," 1648, andt many times reprinted ; the best edition 
is of Paris, 1658. 14. ^* Opuscula anatomica nova," Lond^ 
164^, containing remarks on the anatomical works Of the 
most celebrated physicians, and an attack upoii Harvey^ 
and his doctrine of the circulation, of Which Riolan was a 
great antagonist* 15. '< Curieuses R^cberebes sur lea 
<coles de M6d6cine de Paris et de Montpelier>'* 165 Iv 
He also published three different works, entitled •* Opus^ 
cttla anatomica,** in 1650, and the three following years; 
opposing the doctrines of Bartholine and Pecquet, respect- 
ing the absorbents and lacteds^ and Hs^ey*s On the cir* 

^ • 

RIPLEY. i35 

ctrlatioA ; und two mof e on the same subjects, with the 
titles of '< Responsio priIB(^ et alter^,^* I65i2 and 1655. * 

RiPLEY (GEOaaSy or Greoory), a cbemkt and poet 
ill' the tikne 6f Hehty VII. was a canon of Bridlingtoni and 
accomplished in maitj' branches oJF erudition; and still 
maintains* his pepiltalioR aB a learned chemist of the lower 
ages. He was a great traTeller, and studied both in France 
and Italy. At his return from abroad, pope Innocent VIIL 
absolved him from the observance of the rules of his order, 
that he might prosecute his studies with more convenience 
atid freedom. But his convent not. concurring with this 
verj liberal indulgence, he turned Carmelite at St. Bo«- 
tolph'S in Lincolnshire, and died in that fraternity in 1490. 
His chemical poems are nothing more than the doctrines 
of alchemy cloathed in plain language, and a very rugged 
versification. His capital performance is the ^' Compound 
of Alchemic,'' written in 1471, in the octave metre, and de-* 
dfcated to Edward IV. He has left a few other composi- 
tions on his favourite science, printed by Ashmole, who* 
was an enthusiast in this abused species of philosophy; 
and some lives of saints in MS.' 

RISCO (MAKUfiL), a learned Spanish ecclesiastic of the 
Augustine order, was born at Haro about 1730, and ac- 
quired such reputation for knowledge in ecclesiastical 
history, that he was appointed by the king, Charles III. 
to continue that history of which Florez published 29 vols. 
4to. To these he accordingly added six volumes more, 
written, according to our authority, with equal ability, and 
equal liberality of sentiment. Some notice of this work, 
entitled ^< Espana Sagrada,*' is taken in our account of 
JSorez. Risco died about the end of the last century, but 
the exact time is not specified.' 

RISDON (Tristram), an. English topographer, was the 
son of Thomas Risdon, bencher of the Jnner Temple, 
afterwards treasurer of that society, and lastly, recorder of 
Totness, who published some law *• Readings," and died 
in 1641. His son was educated at Great Torrrngton, De- 
vonshire, previous to his studying at Exeter college, Ox-^ 
f6rd, which he left without a degree, in consequence; as 
Ptince supposes, of his coming to some family property 
which required hi* presence, atid rendered him indepen^ 
t. . • • 

1 Eloy, Diet. Hist. deMedioioe.— -Rees^sCycIopiBdia. — Biog:, Brit. See Index^ 
) Tanner.r-Elay, Diet. H\$t. de MediciQO.-^PlMllips's Tbeatruitt^ by tirK, 
Brydges.— Warton's Hist of Poetry, » DicL Hist. 

336 R I S D O N. 

debt. On thU* wbich was an estate at Winscot, be ap- 
pears to h^ve lived in retirement^ and died in. 16 40. He 
drew up an account of Devonshire, which remained in; MS. 
of which there were several copies, until 1714, when it 
was printed, under the title of '* The Chorographical De-^ 
scription or Survey of the •County of Devon, &c.'* Wil- 
liam Chappie, of Exeter, intended a new edition of this^ 
work, and actually issued proposals; but dying in 1781, 
his design was not completed, although in 1785 a portion 
of it, printed at Exeter, appeared in 4to, with many notes 
and additions. There is a *^ continuation^' of Risdon's 
Survey, which is paged on from the first part, and very 
rarely to be met with, but there are copies iu the Bodleiaii 
and in the library of St. John's, given by Dr. Rawlinson.* • 
RITSON (Joseph), a poetical critic and editor, was 
born Oct 2, 1752, at Stockton^upon-Tees, in the count} 
of Durham, aud was bred to the profession of the law, 
which he practised chiefly in the conveyancing branch. 
In 1.785 he purchased the office of high bailiff of the liber- 
ties of the Savoy, and retained it until his death. Thes^ 
seem the only particulars of Mr. Ritsou's progress in his. 
profession, which, have been recorded by his friends. He 
became, however, far better known for bis researches into 
the antiquities of English literature, ^particularly poetry ; 
and these he was enabled to carry^ on for many years, by. 
dint of memory and extraordinary industry. In recovering 
dates, assigning anonymous fragments to their authors, 
and those other minute particulars which are important to 
poetical antiquaries, Mr. Ricson had perhaps few superi* 
ors; but all he performed was disgraced by a harsh, rugged, 
and barren style, and an affectation of a new orthography, 
and yet more by the contempt, approaching to malignity^ 
with which he treated Mr. Warton, Mr.. Malone, and his 
other contemporaries who had acquired any nftme in the . 
world. Although not absolutely incapable of civility, his 
conversation partook much of the harshness of his writings; 
and giving the lie was not uncommon with him, even 
when the subject in dispuce had nothing in it to exoite 
passion. His wretched temper seems also to have been 
exasperated by the state of public affairs, his hatred of the 
reigning family, and his attachment to republicanism. 
Many instances might be given of his unhappy prejudices, 

< Aib. Ox. Tol. I. new edit.— Prince's Worthies of DeVon. 

K I T S O N. 237 

but it appeared at last that the whole might be traced to a 
diseased mind, which was completely overthrown by in- 
sanity. When this became too visible to be neglected, he 
was removed to a receptacle for insane persons at Hoxton, 
where he died a few days after, Sept. 3, 1803, leaving 
many works which will prove useful and interesting to 
poetical antiquaries long after the peculiarities of his tem- 
per are forgotten. His first publication was an anony- 
mous quarto pamphlet of *' Observations on the three vo« 
lumes of Wartou's. History of English Poetry ;" one of the 
most illiberal productions that bad then appeared. He 
wrote, abo anonympusly, three sets of remarks on the 
editors of Shakspeare : 1. On Mr. Steevens's edition, 177S, 
entitled " Remarks, critical and illustrative, on the Text 
^nd Notes of the last edition of Shakspeare,** 8vo ; 2. *^ The 
Quip modest,*' &c. on Mr. Reed's republication of that 
edition, particularly illiberal ; 3. " Cursory Criticisms," &c.. 
on Mr. Malone*s edition. He published also a select 
collection of English Songs, in 3 vols. 8vo. Ancient Songs, 
from the time of Henry IH. to the Revolution, 8vo. A 
volume of pieces of ancient popvilar poetry, 8vo. << The 
English Anthology,*' a selection of poetry, in 3 small oc-^^ 
tavo volumes. ** Robin Hood ; a collection of all the an- 
cient Poems, Songs, and Ballads, now extant, relative to 
that celebrated Outlaw. To which are added. Historical 
Anecdotes of his Life,** 1795, 2 vols. 8vo. A collection 
of Scotch Songs, with the genuine Music, 2 vols. 12mo. 
^^ Biographia Poetica: a Catalogue of English Poets of 
the twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth 
i^nturies; with a short Account of their Works.*' 1801, 
12mo. He put his name to ** Ancient English Metrical 
Romances; selected and published by Joseph Ritson," 
1802, 3 vols. 12mo. Tliis last publication is perhaps the 
least interesting of the list. 

. His last work was, a ^^ Treatise on abstinence from ani- 
^nal food," in which he collected so many impious and ex- 
travagant sentiments, that he could not for some time find 
a publisher. His catastrophe, however, followed soon after 
.publication, and the. book was forgotten.' 
^ RITSON (Isaac), a young man of very considerable 
literary talents, was a native of Emont- bridge, near Pen* 
(ith, and was born in 1761. At the age of sixteen, he 

1 Gent Maf . volt. LXXIIl. and LXXIV.-^Nicholf *i Bowyer. 

2S8 R I T S O N. 

began to teach school with credit to hiinself> and advantftg% 
to his pupils. After superintending a school for about four 
years, he relinquished the employment^ and repaired ta 
Edinburgh, where he studied medicine; and he maintained 
himself by writing medical theses for such of bis fellow 
students as were too indolent, or too illiterate, to write 
for themselves. From Edinburgh he went to London^ 
where he attended on the hospitals, and on lectures, and 
where he also supported himself by his literary exertion^s* 
In London be took a few private pupils, and was engaged 
for some time in writing s the medical articles in the 
Monthly Review. Like Chaijfterton, however, whom in 
many particulars Ritson greaily resembled, he had to 
* lament the neglect of the world, and after a short and irre^ 
gular life in London, he died of a few weeks illness, aft 
Islington, in 1789, and in the twenty- seventh year of his 

Mr. Ritson published an excellent translation of HomerV 
•* Hymn to Venus," 4to, which was well received by the 
public, and wrote one equally masterly of Hesiod's " Tbeo^ 
gony,*' which, it is much to be regretted, was neveir published, 
and is now entirely lost. He wrote also *^ Essays on Moral 
and Philosophical Subjects," which were never published ; 
the preface to Clarke's " Survey of the Lakes," very ably 
executed ; and several other pieces. He was a warm ad-^ 
roirer of Shakspeare, and he frequently talked of producing 
a dramatic work on the Grecian model, similar in its kind 
to Mason's Elfrida and Caractacus. ' 

a native of Forcheim, in the bishopric of Bamberg, is said 
by spme writers to have been born a Jew ; but others assert 
tnat he was first a Roman Catholic, then a Jew, and lastly, 
a Lutheran.. This, however, is certain, that he published 
several books containing Judaical learning, was professor 
of Oriental languages in the academy of Konigsburg, and 
died about 1652. His works are, a Commentary on the 
book '^ Jezirah, or, the Creation," attributed to Abraham, 
Amsterdam, 1642, 4to; a treatise *^ De veritate Religioniy 
Christians," Franeker, 1699; *^ Libra veritatis," 1698, in 
which he asserts that the Chaldee paraphrase furnishes ar- 
guments against the Jews and Anti-Trinitarians; ^^ Let«< 
ters ;" a German translation of the Prayers used by thar 

* Hutchinson's Hht. of Cumberland. 

R I T T A N G E L I U S. 889 

Jews in their synagpgoea^ on the iirat day of each year ; %nA 
ether works, Rittangeiius maintained this paradox, that 
the New Testament *^ contains nothing but what was taken 
from the Jewish antiquities," ' 

RITTENHOUSE (David), an American philosopher 
and mathematician, was born in Pennsylvania in 1739* 
By the dint of genius and applicatioui he was enabled to 
mingle the pursuits of science with the active emplayments 
of a farmer and watbh-maker. The latter of tliese occupa* 
tioDS he filled with unrivalled eminence among bis coun^ 
trymen. In 1769 he was with others invited by the Ame-» 
rican Philosophical Society to observe the transit of Venus^ 
when he particularly distinguished himself by his observa- 
tions and calculations. He afterwards constructed an ob« 
servatory, where he made such valuable discoveries, as 
tended to the general diffusion of science. After the 
American war, a^ he was a strenuous advocate for inde<* 
pendence, he successively filled the oflSces of treasurer of 
the state of Pennsylvania, and director of the national 
sunt ; in the first of which he manifested incorruptible in<* 
tegrity, and in the last, the rare talent of combining theo«» 
ries in such a way as to produce correct practical effects^ 
He succeeded. Dr. Franklin in the office of president of the 
American Philosophical Society ; but towards the close of 
kia days he withdrew firom public life, and spent bis time 
in retirement. After a very severe iltness, but of no long 
Gontinuanoe, he died July iO, 1796, about the age of 64* 
He had the degree of LL. D* conferred upon him. To 
the '^ Transactions^' of the American Philosophical Society 
be contributed several exceUeni papers, chiefiy on Astro- 
nomical subjects, ' 

RITTERSHUSIUS (ConraDus), a learned civilJM and 
phibloger of Germany, was the son of Baltbasar Ritter- 
sbnsius of Brunswic, and born there Sept. 25, 1560f He 
waa taught Greek and Latin in his own country, at the 
school of which his mother's brother, Matthias Berg, was 
rector; and, in 15B0, went to Helmstad, where he applied 
bimeelf to the civil law ; but without neglecting the belles 
lettres, which formed his most lasting pursuit. After re- 
covering from the plague, by which he was endangered in 
this town, he removed to Altorf in 1584, to profit by the 
lectures of Gifanius, for whom he ^conceived a particular 

1 Geo. Diet.—- Moreri. 

^ Rstlon't DictiQDary.— Diet Hitt. Sapplement,F— Rees't Cyclopi^is. 

5540 R I T T E R S H U S I U S. 

esteeiti. He began to^ travel in 1587, went through part 
of Germany, and came to Bohemia. Being afterwards at 
Basil in 1592, be took the degree of doctor of law, and 
returned to Altorf, to fill the professor's chair, which the 
l^urators of the university had given him some time before. 
He had many advantageous proposals from other universi- 
ties of Germany and Holland, but his attachment to Altorf 
woujd not suffer him to accept them. He died at Altorf 
May 25, 1613, after having married two wives, by whom 
lie had nine children. Two of his sous, George and Ni- 
colas, distinguished themselves in the republic of letters ; 
and George wrote the life of bis father. 
' He was a man of extensive learning, and perfectly skilled* 
in the Greek and Latin tongues. He is said to have had 
Homer and Hesiod so well by heart, as once, in a conversa- 
tion with a learned young gentleman, to have expressed 
all he had occasion to say in the verses of Homer. He 
was also a judicious critic, and wrote notes upon many 
ancient Greek and Latin authors, Petronius, Phaedrus, 
Pppian, &c. which have been inserted in the best editionsi 
of those authors. Thus Burman, in his edition of ^^ PhsB* 
drus,^' 1698, 8vo, has carefully inserted the entire notes 
of Rittershusius, whom he calU in his preface ** Germanias. 
suss quondam ornamentum, & non minoris Gallioe decus.*' 
He published a great number of works, sixty-six of whicli 
are enumerated by Niceron, many on civil law, but most 
on the belles lettres and criticism. His edition of ** Op- 
pian,'* Greek and Latin, appeared in 1657, 8vo. His son 
Nicholas, born at Altdorf in 1597, was also a man of 
learning and a jurist, and particularly applied to historical^ 
and genealogical inquiries. He studied at Helm^tadt, and 
afterwards travelled into various countries of Europe. On his 
return he took a doctor's degree in 1 634, and was appointed 
professor of feudal law at AltdorfF. He died in 1670^ 
Nicholas edited several of his father's works, and in 1638; 
published an oration on '^ Hanno's Periplus.*' He was the 
atfthor of a large work, entitled ^< GenealogiaB Imperato^ 
rum, Regum, Ducum, Comitum, &c. ab anno 1400 ad 
annum 1664," 7 vols, in 4, folio, a work of rare occurrence. 
Several of his letters are printed in the *^ £pistols& cele«» 
brium Virorum,*' 1705.* 

> Niceroo, ▼o1. XXXII.— Moreri.—Melchior Adam.— Life by big sod in WiU 
len'i ** Memorie jarisQontuit. Hfoningi."—- Saxii OnonitiU 

R I-V A, U L T. ■ 241 

' \ 


^ RIVAULT (David), a learned French writear,, wasiborA 

St Laval^ in the province of Perche, ,about',1571.. He wais» 
j^ rought up in the family of the count de Laval, arid for 
some time followed the military profession, serving in Italy 
and in Holland. In 1603,. Henry IV. appointed him one 
oFthe gentlemen of his bed-chamber. In 1605 he entered 
into the service of tb^ emperor against the Turks : but on 
his return he devoted him^self to hferary and spientific stu- 
dies ; and in 16 1 1 be wa$i appointed preceptor tp the youn^ 
king,, Le<vis XIIL with a pension .of 3000 iivre?, and the 
title of counsellor of state. An in3Ult. he received froj3Q bis 
royal pupil obliged him to quit his office for some time. 
The king had a favourite dog, who was perpetually jump- 
ing on Rivault during his giving lessons^ and Rivault one 
day gave him a kick. The king was so incensed ^s to strike 
Rivault, who retired ; but it appears thiey were soon i:econ- 
oiled,, and by the king^s orders Rivault acconi^panied ma- 
dame EUzabeth of France as far as Bayonne, on her way 
to be married to the king of Spain. On his return from 
that voyage he died at Tours, Jan. i6i6, about the age of 
forty-five. He is spoken of with high esteem by several 
of the most celebrated writers of his time^ partioulacly by 
.Casaubon, ^caliger^ Vossius, Erpenius, and Meaage., Hi^ 
works consist of, I. "|Les Etats," or VT^® States, or a 
.discourse concerning the privileges of the prince, the no- 
bles, and the Third Estate,' &c.'' 2. " Les Elemens d'Ar- 
tillerie," Paris, 1608, ?vo, a curious and very scarce wprk. 
i, "Archimedis Opera quae extant, Gr. et Lat. novis de-» 
mdnstratiouibui^ illustrata,*' &c. Paris, 1615, folio; and 
ether.pieces op education, &c,' 

, RIVE (John JoseIph), a French writer, chiefly on subr 
jects of bibliography and literary history, wjas born May ' 
19 f 1730, at Apt in Provence, and was bred to ttie church. 
He was first professor of philosophy in the seminary of St, 
. .Charles, at Avignon, a situation for which he was rtot very 
^well qualified. Be then beqame curate of Molleges, in 
the diocese of Aries, but was not much better satisfied with 
this than his preceding occupation, as he. had more.tastfs 
for bibliographical researches than fpr pastoral duues* 
.While here he had the credit of an amour with a marriecl 

> ■ • ' . * * * • ' 

woma^, that did not advance him much in the public ppi- 

1 Niceron, vol. X^^yil.-— V^^saiusdeJScientii^ l^aUi.— -Saxii Ooomait^ 

Vol. XXVI.' R 

W2 RI VX' 

nkm; abd wben the 'biiBbaiid repfoaobed binr, tfai AM 
threw: him headlong OQt of the window, fifom which, how^ 
ever, he. received no great injury, hi 1767 he x^ame t0 
Parb, andfaid'tam for books being already known, thedabe 
de VaHiitre appointed him his librarian, and in allusion- to 
ills arrc^j^ant manner of decidifng on literary points, used to 
ealf him his- bull-dog; On the revolution breafking out, he 
becUme one of the most implacable of the anarchists, autt 
d'enoonced vengeance on the clergy, the nobility^ and 
cilpeciaNy those writers who were his rivals in bibliograr 
pbii^al pursnits, particularly William Debnre, and the abb€ 
lifiefcrer, to whom be was uncommooly abusive. He afieN 
wards led a Hf^ of turbulence and hostilHy, whieh at' laal 
closed at Marseilles in 1792. Among his numerot^ publir 
cations, the most useful were, K ** f^ircissemens sur Pint 
Tention des Cartes a jouer,'* Paris*, .1780, 8vo. 2. *< Pjpoj- 
spectiUs sur Pessai de veriftcv Tage de Miobtures,^* sDcbilb 
appedr.on «ianu8cripts from the fourteenth to the seveq^ 
teeoth century ; ibid. 1 782, fol* 9. ^ Notices hisioriqoes e^ 
.critiques, sur d^uz manuscrits de la bib)iotheque du duc.^^ 
la Vailiere,*^ ibid. 1779> 4tq, 4* ^•^Notipes. .sur le.trail^ 
xnanuscrit. de Gateotto Martta,. intitule .Oe .£xcet1fi>^ 
bus,'* ibid. 17$5, 8vq. 5. " Htstoijre critique de la Pyr^ 
Widede Cahis Slestiusr" &c. tbid. 1787, hi :6. La Cba^s^ 
aux. Bibliogra'pbes et aux ' Antiquaires m^l avii^s,^^ ibi^. 
1 78?, 2 vols, a receptachei^ of alitiost. every, kiurd of abn;^ 
and awkwiU'd wit against Le . Lovfg, . I>, Mercier, ^. 
7.f^Dictionnaire de critique iM;terairei''&C. with other worN 
of a similar kind, which, are very-scarce ^«to ijn France^ |^ 
he printed but a small mimber, of each editionv.^ . 

. RIVET. (Alf DREW), a celebrated French protes^ufit dir 
Vine, was born at St: Maxeut, in Poitou, Aug. l, 1372, ai^ 
after some schoor education near hooie, was sent.ta Ro^ 
cbeUe in 1585, where he studied the learned kdgo^gea aaj) 
tohitosophy. In 1590 he'#as removed to the coUege i|t 
JBearn, where be took his master^s degree, aqd began^ tb/^ 
study of divinity. Having finished that pqurse, he was in 
1595 appointed tbinister of the church of Tboars, and cbapi- 
lain to the duke of Tboars, who admitted him into bis G0Q^ 
fidence, and frequently employed him in matters of ikxir 
portaoce* While in this situation he married the daughter 
<f f a divine at Tboars* He was frequently the represCT^tdr 

. 'XHst Bigt«*->IKbdiii'f BibGbaiai^ii 

tivf; of thq 9i)^|;#it^i|t chiireb^^ and 

9Do4% aa4 i^. 8Qineo£dieii^$l]^d't)i«cJii4rof pnesideat^ 
ftairti^i^rl^ in.tbat of Vitry» iii 1617* < In 1600 he was Bp^ 
ppi^tfKli pro^ssor of diyinity ajt Leydet)^ bat i^bout ihesain(6 
^m^ bad tbe a(ii9f9rtojW> (o loie bk wife. In 16Jil be vi-^ 
I|ilei4 Eogjandi andgoipg tO'Qff^rd' was ineorporated doc- 
tor in dNmty^ lybjjcb degree bad beea conferred on bim at 
iM^deu. juH 'b^<m. He -gave, oti ibk occasion, se^era^ 
|iooi» to tbe BodleiXQ library. Wbiie isl^$ngland be mar'* 
fted, ai^ bis second wife» Mai^a, tbe sister of Peter da 
ldk>iiUn> i^Qd widow pf Aotbony der.Guyoli upou whose 
4eath in tbe cii^il wars in (FiaACe«< sbeftbok.refuge, in EngU 
land. Wbet s^rv^d . tio iotr odaeei bim at Qx&rd was hist 

Kivioiis aequainuincerWitb Jolm Ru^mc^ ^or Boiise^ wbo had 
god same tiioe wit;b bii9 i^t.Th^ars^ and was nowiin tbe 
aiiwtioja'of liibraifian.oflhQBodleieai <Afv»: his retiuu te 
|heydei) be semmed bia professorship, 4ad passed the rest 
^^d^y» in teaebiog atid writing. He died ia 1647^^ aged 
fevsenty-'fite. His ^orks, cMsistiog of commetitaries on 
ihO' scripthreS) sennpns, and controversial pieces, were 
irery numerous, but it is unnecessary to ipecify tb6m se^ 
|fhrat#^^ as tbey^were ^oUei^ in 3 vols. foL and printed 
^ Bolteidaai in I65h : His bi^]tber William, who was 
'^)E«(wfae in the ehur4b, pnWifdied on !^ Justification, V «nd 
tit|ii< Bc^lasiastlci^l Ubertyy ' We haTe< id £nglish,<< A re- 
lntiOQ of thelast boars of I>r. Andrew Eivetf:'Manio, trans« 
htfed «nd publbbed by Nebeaaiah Ooxe, by which it ap« 
"peHBiH that' Dr. :Ri¥et war not mere a man of great learning 
^atf'of gv^slt{rie(y»^ 

'RIVET DB LA oaANGE (AmrHaNY), of the same family 
fis the preeedtngy but descended from a oatbolic branch, 
^irtti born October M, 1683, at Goofolens, a small town in' 
^eietiers. '' He studied phttosopby sioder the Jacobins at 
Vieictiisrs, but an escape frbm very imminent danger de^ 
^leiHnined bitn to put on tbe Benedictine habit, which Ik 
-^ftecofdingly did at Marmoutter> in 1 704y and took bis irows 
Hdiere ih 1305.* In 1714 he was teansferred to tbe monas^^ 
"terjr of St' Cyprian, and summoned to Paris the yearfoU 
hfvnhg^ to ' assist some other monks in compiling a history 
Hfillasteioaa meoof the BenediettoeMder; but' this pro^ 
jeet' failings Riv^t turned his thoughts entirely to the lU 
terary histpiy of Fraace^ whi^b hebad before farmed ^a 

1 Frekeri Tlwatf iiDi.-*-M tfmb«*-^tlU Or, ▼•!. !« 
* 41 2. 

Ut ^^ RIVET- 

design of writing, and which employed the rest bf his We^ 
He was assisted in this work by three of his brietbren, Joseph' 
Duclou, Maurice Ponc'et, and John Colombo who were all 
his particular friends, good critics, and accurate and indus- 
trious writers. In 172? Rivet published at Amsterdam 
•* Le NecTologe He Port Royal des Champs," a work of 
which he was very fond, and added to it a long historical 
preface. This publication, joined to his warm opposition 
to the bull Uuigenitus, from which he had^appealed, obliged 
him to retire into the abbey of St. Vincent at Mans, the 
same year, where he laboured assiduously during more 
than thirty years to complete his " Literary History of 
France." He published the first volume in 1733, 4to^ and 
was finishing the ninth, which contains the first years of the 
12th century, when be died, February 7, 1749, in his 
sixty*-sixth year, worn out with intense ap^plica:tion, aus^ 
teriiies, and the strict and rigorous observation of bis rule^ 
from which he never departed. His history was afterwards 
extended to 12 volumes, to which Clemencet added a 13tb; 
It is a very useful work, but the French literati have never 
thought of completing it* * 

RIVIERE, or Riy ERIUS (Lazarus), an eminent French 
physician, was born at Montpellier in \5S9, He studied 
in the university of his native place, but having failed in 
his exaniinations for his degree, be was impelled to redouble 
his exertions,' and in 1611 was admitted to the degree 'of 
doctor with great credit. In 1622 he was appointed to the 
professorship of medicine in-the university, an office which 
he continued to fill with great honour until his death inl 
1655. Riverius published **The Institutes of Medicine," 
in five books, in Latin, which 'went through many editions; 
but the work which has gained him most reputation, is A 
course of medicine, entitled "Praxis Medica,'* of which 
editions were long multiplied in France, Holland, and 
England. It treats of most of the diseases to which the 
body is subject, in seventeen books, in a clear style ; but 
in many places he appears to have borrowed copiously frotki 
Sennertus. He published also a work entitled HObserva* 
tiones Medicse et Curationes insignes,'' which has been 
frequently reprinted, and is not now without its value. 
These works have been collected and published togetberj^ 
jttnder the title of ** Opera Medica Univetsa,*^ Geneva^ 

* MoierL— Diet, Hiit - 

R I V I ERE. 2^^, 

;1737, andt Ley den, 173 8, fol.. Eloy observesr, that a friar, 
^ernardin Christin, who had been a pupil of Riverius^ com- 
piled some secrets of chemistry, which he published witb 
the Riverius ; and although it has been clearly 
proved that he was not the author of these papers, yet they 
nave been frequently printed in the collections of his works/ . 
and separately, under the title of " Arcana Riverii." ' 
, RIVINUS (Augustus Quirinus), an eminent botanist 
and physician, was the son of a learned physician and cri- 
tic, Andrew Bachmann, vyhose name in Latin became Rivi« 
iius. He was born at Leipsic in 1652. After a successful 
course of study he became professor of physiology and 
botany. in his native university. He was also a member of 
various learned societies, and died in 1723, aged seventy^ 

The botanical system of Rivinus is fpunded on the most 
elegant and attractive, if not the most solid and important^ 
parts of plants. His classes are marked by the number, the 
regularity, or irregularity, of the petals. He could not 
proceed far in this path without percjeiving that he made 
most unnatural, and, as Haller justly terms them, para-* 
^o2:ical, combinations. He thjerefore asserted, and doubts 
tess beliqved> the inutility and impracticability pf a really, 
natural classification. This principle bi*ougbt him to ot>e; 
^ight conclusion, which even the philosophical Ray did not , 
attain, or was a-fraid to admit, that the old primary distri^ 
bution of vegetables into trees, shrubs, and herbs, is un-^ 
jicientific and erroneous. ^ 

^ Rivinus published, at^ his own expence, in 1690, his 
splendid illustratipn of. the. first class of his system, com-* 
prising such plants as have a monopetalpus irregular Bower. 
This part consists of one hundred and twenty-five plates ; 
^ut the catalogue of species is imperfect. A learned ^' lu- 
4roductio generalis in rem herbariam^' ia prefixed; and this 
introductory part was, at different times, republished in a 
smaller form. The second part of this sumptuous work 
came forth in 1691, and consists of one hundred and twenty-, 
one plates, of plants with folir irregular petals ; injo which 
class, by means of some contrivance, and many grains of 
allowance, are admitted all the papiTianaceous tribe, the 
cruciforoi genus Iberis, the Euphorbia, and a few things 
besides. In 1699 the third part, containing flowers with ^ 

* E^oy> Diet. Hist, de Medicibe. — Rees'b Cycioi)aedia. 

fire irregobr petal:}, ^ais given to tSe W5rld« ^ven inoi;i 

liberty; is taken ia the aas^mbUge df getierii here tfian Bfi 

Ibe former class. It coiisists bf oive hundi^ed and thiri^- 

nine plates. A fourth part, the bestapetalse irreg^Iafes, 

^nsistuig of 4he Orchides^, ^^asfini&hed, but iiot puVlisbe^, 

}>efore the author's death ; nor iiid^ed have any more fHsMi 

tsvery few copies of this' ^ver'gottabrbad into the wprldt |0 

that it donsticotes 4tie 6fth^ greatest biblibtbecal raritiiap* 

With respect to utility or 'beatttjr, those wbo'atre possesVeA 

ef the transcendarit engrtavitigs of this favotiri^e tribe lYi 

Hauler's Hiltory of Swiss Plapts, may dispense /yuh tbi 

'iigurea of Rjlyi^ob. The. author had pi^c^pared seVi^ral slip* 

plementaiir phieB to bis' work^ which never came 'fovta, 

^apd of which, perli^sips the only Specimens are to be Seen ijk 

. sir Joseph Banks's fine copy of the whole work, except t;wi^ 

dupbeat0 plates pifeseiit^ Ky the learned baronet to tbv 

.pi^ldieiwt4>f;tb€ l^Mu^aa ^dieCy. There is iev^ry tr^astihr 

.to beliey^^ thai the eibpy in qtieiitrdQ belonged to iUe adtl^QV 

himself^ or t6 hi# son,, ais may be g;^th€ar€^ from it^ niapi)-^ 

Mripi addiiibhs and cQrnBctions. A complete copy,' of eVexi 

ibe three first p^tsof Riirinus's'bp^k is, itide^d, '(|lffijcy]t 

•40 Ve met94th;;far 9even^l of the ptites haiviWg from if&e 

tp diM feeetved addit^dns <>f ^ed«vessds, or oretili^Q 

phmli; the;^i4tejp itvipresi»i6ns of subh plates are'cojprsf- 

^fineiltly ili>petfect« The best ebpi^s^re required, By p&^ 

tidions ^otleictors, -to have civery plate with>nd wiiliout:tiie 

additiomi. - . ' ,, ,..L* 

As a medical wr^r^ Jlivinus has the n|i<erlt of fal^^pi 

Q^serva^ibnr and descHptioil)^ in his treAtUe^' de Pgstel^p* 

aiensi,'* published in 1 6 80^ He wrbte also oh Idy spepsia, 

em intermittent fevers, and various oth^ dubji^cts. He did 

not scruple tctiattai^ whatever praeUceW opihibh^he^founH 

established on the baaiis of prejudice aiid ignoyahce;, Tn 

Ihis respect his *^ Gensuta^l^edidamebidrum bfficibaliub^^ 

ranks very bigb^ His commendable tiim, in tliis i^6rk, iii^as 

to clear the materia medica of iHs various di^raceful li6cu%- 

brance# ; so many of vyhich originated in ierrbr, impdsitfpn^ 

or sttperstitiom Rk attempts have been fdHcMved vip By 

Various m^n of ability and authority ; and it is to the unli^d 

labour arid good sense of such that the world is indebtled 

for the purified and impfeved state of 6ur mbderii pli&r- 

macopeias. ^ ^ ........ , . . 

Though not a great practical anatomist^ of dissector, Ri- 
yinus is said to have discovered a new salivary duct. He 


4«ft «tSQii» Jd«H ituausirw Rm«Ql^» ivlio «iieoeitd«clihiin «i 

S" raf^or, and under wbqse presideDoy was iptibliifaisd ii 
itaertattoity in ITSa^ oo '^ MedkiBaUSariiM/V ITtiis^gdti- 
tleman died in 1725, aged tbirtyi-tbree, tiaving^urviireti 
liis&tfaer bill two jwars. Uit ipi^ematiire nteath seeoon to 
liave .prdir^nted the puUicalion of iheiloiirtib .patt^of fbh 
fiitbar^s great faoianical src^fe^ ai ileast for some ttimt. 
«BaIler says, ^Ludwig aftetwards edited tbe iplates lOf )t^e 
.^chideie, withottt any letter^press.; hut Ibis ipoblicatiim 
%as never come mnder our in&(»3ction. ' 
-:^ RlZZIO^'or RICCI (DikVin), a musician of tb^ $iic* 
'^i^ntb 'Centuj^y, urbose ooisecmdiict or-mtsfprtuoesrhatefOb- 
mned bim a place in the bistoi;y af Scolk^d^ was bor<l:^at^ 
^l^orin, but.brougbt up in iFraitce. jHis rfadidr ewas a tniH 
Isician and^dancing*n>a8ter» aodthie sdn'pmbjlblylpoisoss«(i 
^ those talents which serred to amuse. a? courtly tciircle. 'fie 
. 'appears to have come to Scotland abuat 4 j€4^ wbaii) ati- 
' cordmg to moat.accdunts, he .was ifcitbar :young norifaand** 
some. The count de Uftretsi&D hrongfat him hither (in his 
iuiie, as ambassador frood Satby to tibC'Oourt of the ticifoi»- 
tunate queai Maii^. Sir Jain^s.Melv4t9 in* bt^ *< MeoMoirs/' 
^ tells us th2tt ^^ tbe queen had three 'Tabtsi of ^fa^r chambtr 
'Who'spng in l&ree parts, and wanted <a base, t^aicigitbis 
^Yburdi . part ; therefore, telling ^ hei^ ma^ty ! xif; thssi matt, 
"Itizzb^ iiff ode fit to ihake thi^ffiQ«Mrth^n c6na0rt5^«>w|te 
^ra^n in soatvetim^stib aln^ with-the resfi.^^ .He qfuidbljr, 
^lioweVer, or^t^nto the. .^o^eeii'Hi frvo^r ; «liidiiier rFrandh 
aecretary tiappeniug at that time to. repirn to hisowncdun* 
Hry;'RtZ2iO was p^efei'rdd bf W nmjesity to that office. 
"lR6 h^gan to make a figure-«t:Caart^aiidia^appear«&a 
^ man of weight and* cotfseqdeDC^. ^ Nor - was he . cai^eftil to 
f aibate that^envy * which al^ay^ «aui»3»ds «tt«h aue^ traotdioary 
'and rapid change oPforttiiDe*' 'On- thd ^outsary, {he seems 
[ to h$ved0hee>r^rythinj^fto increase its y^t^isrwas not his 
exG^bitaht |lowe^dbh^'whiebelt«spetvat&^^ they 

cdnsidered him aa^n dangerousetiiMny 4o thi^/protestant re* 
figiouy and bc^^ed that he held for dlla frorpese a con* 
iiini cbi^eqi|tnidence withth^^Gouft'Of Rome^ His pre« 
'Valence, however, was very short^hved ; for, ia^ L5 6 6, car « 
: tsiin , nobtes,'- with lord Darnly at their head, caospiced 
^g^inst him, and dispatched limn in ihequaen^ presence 

* J' 

1 ^rotn the account drawn up by tbe presidlent of the Linnaean society for 
Itfes'f Cf clopisdi^,. i 

Tt4y . Rizzio; 

.with.firty-shc wounds. /The oofisequeoces* of -tUb tntifJifMr 
.to tlie que^n aiyd to the nation are amply detailed in Scotch, 
history, and have been the subject of a very fertiiet con- 

' As a musician, Rizzio^s instrument was the lute, which 
^tFas at that time the general favourite all over Europe; and 
an opinion has long prevailed that he was the great im- 
prover of Scotch music, and that he composed most of the 
Scotch tunes which have been heard with so much pleasure 
for two centuries past, and are in their style to be di$tin««. 
guisbed from all other national airs. This matter, however, 
has been investigated both by sir John Hawkins, from re^' 
-cords, and by Dr. Barney, from personal inquiry atTurin9 
and the result is, that the opinion has- no foundation. . Some 
part of Dr. Burney's sentiments on the subject we have 
already given in our account of king James I. of Scotland* 
It does not, in fact, appear that Rizzio was a. composer at 
all ; and bis stayin this country not exceeding twoyearsi 
with, the variety of business in which he- was, fatally for 
himself and his royal mistress, engaged, 'could have left; 
him little leisure for study, or for undertaking tbeJmprove^' 
ment of the national music. ^ .,.•,! 

^ ROBERTS (Barre' Charles), an ingenious yopng. writer; 
and. medallist, the third child and second son of £dwar4 
Roberts, esq. deputy -^clerk of the^ pells of the excbequeCy. 
.was burn March 13, 1789, in St. Stephen's^ court, West*. 
minster. His frame and constitution were delicate, whiete 
probably created an aversion to the usual exercises oi 
youth, and his early pursuits evinced vivacity without ,1^^ 
vity. They were^ qf a nature to exercise, but not to weary 
the faculties ; and, springing from a desire for knowledge^ 
^^flbrded to him a perpetual variety of objects. The first vui% 
diments of education, asv far as it related to habits, heacnt 
quired himself, or perhaps he imbibed them from the.^*>f 
tuation in which he was placed. In his. father^s house .at^ 
Ealing, the well-ordered ceconomy of time which preyails^ 
in. a tegular family, taught him to appreciate . ao^d toi 
profit by the means of tranquillity thus placed within hiac 
reach. The salubrity of the air, and. the extent. of the; 
grounds, which allowed him as much exercise as be wished 
for, contributed to the health of bis body.; andhebadih% 
advantage of a well-chosen collection of books^ whixjiK 

A Barney and Hawkins's Hist, of Music, 

H O B E R T S: 24^ 

^sffiirdedbim the opportunity^ of indulging ' his taste for 

' In the earliest periods of bis life he seemed to be fully 
impressed with the importance and value of time, no mo- 
ment of which he suffered to be unemployed; Whatever 
was curious in literature attracted his attention, but sub- 
jects of antiquity were those which he most delighted to 
investigate. In . these his patience and perseverance were 
"Very remarkable ; and though he read with eagerness' and 
rapidity, he never neglected to note down particular cir- 
cumstances, or to mark for subsequent reference such things 
as he could not at once completely embrace. To a natural 
Quickness of observation was added a retentive memory^ 
and the exercise of these was matured. into an habit of at* 
tention and arrangement. — Fortunately for Barre these, en« 
dO)wments did not escape' the eye of him who was most 
interested by affection and consanguinity in his welfare. 
Hta father early discovered and cultivated them. Barre, 
when at home, was his constant companion, and, soon after 
the years of infancy were passed, became his most intimate 
friend. Indeed it is not possible to imagine a greater de- 
gree of confidence between two persons, even of similac 
ages, than that which existed between this youth and. his 
jtarent ; and so well was it supported and understood, that 
Barnl never for a moment lost sight of his relative situation, 
HOT' transgressed the limits of respect which Blial love, even 
kad there been na other motive, would have taught him to 
observe. The clearness of his perceptions, and the cor« 
r^tness of'his understanding, secured him from any over- 
rated idea of his own talents, and rather added than de-^ 
Iract^d from the docility of his disposition : a docility not 
in him the result of feebleness, or indolence, nor tending 
to the obliteration of his natural character, but derived 
from a comparison of his own inexperience with the 
matured ju Jgment of advanced life, and a.just estimate and 
oonviction of his father^s love; Barre, in this free and con^ 
ftdential intercourse, jmbibed all the advantages which a 
system of perfect intimacy with one so much his superior in 
age and worldly experience could produce, divested as it 
was, by the discriminating hand of a parent, of all the evils 
which attend on the formation of an artificial character. It. 
ivouid have been of the highest gratificatipn to his father ta 
have retained constantly \inder his. own eye a son so much 
the object of his care and affection, and who seemed to> 

Md it O 8 C It T Jl 

«ciiirt;.all tUe instrtiictioii vefaiqh coold be bdstomd M^Uftii; 
but as ibis would have demanded leisurcj^ and qualifioatioip 
wbicb fall to^he lot dffbdt few person^, Barre was senft in 
May 1797^ to Dr. iHortie^ aobool at Chi»wick,4md in, Jonb 
119% was (Placed under llhe care of thb ReV« Willtaai 
Goodenb^gb^ at'Ealiugy between whose family andihat of 
bis pupil a long intimiacy and friendship bad subsisted. 
Here be temained six years, and acquired a competent 
knowledge of tbeclMicsy and some share of Blatbernatici^ 
bistory, and amiquities, tbB study of which, last bad been 
previously familiar to him while enjoying his fatber^^ lib'rary 
at home. / . 

It was during tbe'salmb time that he form'ed'bis fine cot- 
lection of coins, wUicb'is now in tb6 British museum, bar^ 
ing been purchased by the trustees with consent of pan* 
liament. This collection was begun to be formed wbeli 
Barri^ was Tery yboog. He accidentally saw a'fdw Roniaii 
coins in his faither's possession, ^icb be preseiitly igiit 
Ireosferred to his own. They were boarded by him widi 
infantine oace, and esteemed by bifn as invaluable property; 
The occasiooai piiesents of 'friends, and such specimen's as 
a child's pocket-money could procure, soon incresised tti^ 
More, which be would display and comment upon with tba 
air and importance' of a' connoisseur. As be advanced Hi 
,age, however, be perceived that to form a completie aid 
universal collection of coins was an object only in the power 
of individuals possessed of Isrrger means than be could' ^veii^ 
expect to ei^oy. He therefore reUnqpiisbbd it in this cKa* 
racter, and confined his attention only to those connected 
* with his own country. His father encouraged the pur^uiit, 
as he followed it in the light of a science^ which illustrated 
and confirmed him in bis historical studies ; and his ria(me 
as a collector fobn became known among the dealers, 'who 
did not fail to bring him whatever coal d be discovered inost 
tare and curious in their linel of search. -^ ' 

. On the 1 1th of October, 1 805, he was entei^ed as a opmV 
moner of Christ Church at Oxford/ in which bouse' be be^ 
came a student at the Cbrisunas following, by the j[)resefita«* 
tion of Dr. Hay, obtained at the request of lord Viscofint 
Sidmoutb. As be never bad been separated from bis &- 
mily till this period, for . a week together, the dislahde 
between Ealing and Oxfard appeared to him a very 6onsi«* 
dcrable oney and a plan of correspondence wail iminediaitely 
established* His aai^UefttlettclrsiCoataiu a picture^ of ^^ 


mitjd uui^r lliib "ti^aeiic^ of dew ftnj^reisfehs,. and lietir 
JiabiUt ^bila they display tiis condbotas utiiformljr corredit 
tdd praifMB<^^ortbir> Md he tdok his first degree in Nov^ 
^.S08, wUli ^^t iBtpprQbkUion; Before tbts time be hak 
:.l)eeD ^ frequentcorrespdhdentin the Gentlem'an^s Maga- 
jsti^e on the Subject OJF coins, sind that not superficially, bdft 
jvith a degilde ofknd^edge which would hare been cre^ 
ditable to a<<r^teKttU.c^iect6r. He Was also invited to con- 
tribute to one of thtfse literary journals in wbich personal 
attack is more an bbjiect than sound criticism; biit we ai^ 
tidt sorry; tcv^^ftndtbbt be made little progi'ess iaan employ- 
ipient so ktbluiULbfe' to an in^nuous miiid. / : 

The ca^ecir, however, bf this sibiiable ybiihg roan w^s 
destined to be sbbrt^ During his residence in the last twb 
j^ears at bxlto^d, be texp^riiinced itttacks which ihdlcatelft 
that all was Mt rigiit abotit'hiin ; btit their short duratiotj, 
and the ei^tt^tbe riepUghah^e that be felt towards drawing 
attehtion to himself on sucb aceoiints, which made hiiti 
i>erbaps^cbhtieal their extehi:, ^preife^ted th'e aiarrti whicli 
'Otherwl^ bift friehds and family «r6uld ha^e entertained. 
In the autumn 5f I^07'be wds seize'd witfh a hsembrrhage at 
the tiose, add not long afterwards with' frequeiit fits of gid- 
diness. Itie e&citementv^bich he Underwent it! iBOS.whilb 
'r^ualifying bittiself to ' take his degree, rendered him still 
inore ot>noa:ious to these baneful influences. ' Under ibb 
constant agitation of bis mind, the deterioration in bis health 
%ecaibe vidble by caprice of ippetite, and increased ner- 
vous irritability. In the summer b^ that yearhe \vas'seize^ 
Vith a cough, which, though neither violent hor freqUent, 
'n^ver left him afterwairds. llis illness, however, made no 
rapid advances ; and when be returned home after his efr- 
^mination, be continued toMik in the society of his frieh^ 
as usual* In a i^isit to Londoh rn the cold and unhealthy 
jfpring of 1809, bis disposition to'mal&dy wa^ increased by 
accidental oaases, too minute to arrest his' attention ; and 
unfortutiately also'at this period he was sumnf^Oned to OjC- 
ford' by intelligence of the fire' at' Christ Church, by which 
^U rooms \vere damaged, and' his books endangered; The 
aeaftoh, and the * business he went' upon, were pecUli&r^y 
linfavouifable to an invalid; be' was necessairily iti^oived'iti 
a good deal of bodily agitation, in6rderto ascertain and 
aeciire his property, and exposetl to the air at a time when 
repose and seclusion were of the utn^ost importance to him, 
As the summer advanced, his disorder did not abate, though 

S52 ir O 6 E R T $ 

t}>e symptoms of it nrere too. equivocal Co efhabld bi^ ifiedi'*. 
cal attendaQts to give it a decrded name. 

He was prevailed upon, with some entreaty, to make a-^, 
journej' early in July to Southampton, in. the company of 
a near relation, with wh9m ^he had ever lived on t/erms of 
affectionate intimaqy, and who rejoiced in offering him 
such attentions as he would, accept. Qo his return tp 
Ealing at the end of September, the symptoms of his dis^ 
order had not increased in violence ; but the effect of its 
'secret ravages upon him^ were but too visible* During thq 
whole progress of his ailment, his mind remained unaltered 
in its inclinations and desires. The thirst forfknowledge 
continued, but the exhausted state of his corporeal system 
opposed physical obstacles to its gratification ; he bore up 
^ith cheerfulness and courage against evidences of that 
which certainly he himself could not be ignorant of, and 
lamented only the, languor of nervous debility wbich ren« 
dered him unable to pursue his favourite and wonted oc^ 
cupations. He. died Jan. 1, .1810, and was buried on th«r 
8th in Ealing church, where, on a tablet of w:hite marble^ 
is an elegant Latin inscription from the pen of his early 
. tutor and triend, the rev Mr. Goodenough. In 1 8 1 4, a vo- 
lume, in 4to, of his '* letters and Miscellaneous Papers,*' 
was published with an elegant dnd affectionate memoir of 
bis life, written by his cousin Grosvenor, Charles Bedford^ 
esq. ' . , 

ROBERTS (fRANCis), a puritan divine, the sou of 
Henry Roberts of A slake, in Yorkshire, was borii there or 
in that county in 1609, and entered a student of Trinity 
college, Oxford, in 1625. In 1632 he completed his der 
grees in arts, and .was ordained.' Where he first officiated 
does not appear ; but on the breaking out of the rebellioB 
be went to London, too)c the covenant, and was appointed 
ininister of St. Augustine's, Watling-street, in room of 
Ephraio) Udal, ejected for his loyalty. In ) 649: he wa3 
presented to the rectory of Wrington in Somersetshire by 
bis patron Arthur lord Capel, son of the beheaded lord 
Capel. While on tliis living he was appointed one of the 
commissioners for the " ^ectment of those" who were 
called ^' ignorant and insufficient ministers and school- 
masters." At the restoration, however, he coiiformed, 
tired out, as many others were^ by .th^ dbtractipps of tbe 

> Memoir as above. 

R O B £ R T Si . ZSi 

contending parties, and disappointed in every hope which 
the eticouragers of rebellion had held forth. It does noC 
appear whether he had any additional preferment, except 
that of chaplain to his patron lord Oapel wheffh^ became 
earl of Esse^c; and when that nobleman was lord-lieutenarit 
of Ireland in 1672, it is supposed he prdcured him tb6 de- 
gree of D. D. from the university of Dublin. He died at 
Wrington about the end of 1675, and most probably wag 
interred in that church. He published some single ser- 
mons : " The Believer's evidence for Eternal Life," &c. 
1649, 1655, 8yo, and the "Communicant instructed," 
1651,8^0, often reprinted ; but his prhicipal work is en- 
titled "Clavis Bibiiorum, the Key of the Bible," in- 
cliitling the order; names, times, penmen^ dccasion, scope, 
and principal matter of the Old and New Testament. This 
was first printed at London and Edinburgh, 1649, in 2 vols, 
dvo, and afterwards in 4to; and the fourth editi(>n, 1675^ 
in folio. Wood mentions another work, " Mysterium & 
Medulla Bibiiorum, or the Mystery and Marrow of the 
Bible," 1657i 2 vols. fol. as he says, but this is doubtful^ 
tod «« The Triie way to the Tree of Life," 1673, Svo.* 

ROBERTSON (Joseph), a learned English divine and 
Miscellaneous writer, was deseendetl fVom a reputable 
family, which from time immemorial possessed a consider- 
able estate at Rutter, in the parish of Appleby, in West- 
moreland. His father was an eminent maltster; and his 
mother, the only daughter of Mr. Edward Stevenson, of 
Knipe, in the same county, cousin to Edmund Gibson,' 
bishop of London. He was bbrn at this latter place, Au- 
gust 28, 1726; bdt his father soon afteru'ards removing to 
Rutter, he wis sent, at a proper age, to the free-school at 
Appleby, «vhere he received the rudiments of classicail 
learning under Mr. Richard Yates, a man of eminent abili- 
ties, and distinguished character in his profession. From 
theiice, in 1746, he went to Queen's college, Oxford, 
'where he took his degrees in arts, with considerable repu- 
tation for his ingenuity and learning. On his receiving 
t)rders he was, for some time, curate to the celebrated Dr. 
Sykes, at Raylciglrin Essex, and in 1758 he was instituted 
t6 the vicarage of Herriard in Hampshire ; iA 1770, to the 
rectory of Sutton in Essex; and in 1779, to >the. vicarage 
of Hbrncastle* in Lincolnshire, 16 which he \^a8 presented 
'by his^relatloft; Dir. Edmund Law, bishop of Carlisle. . 

I Alb. Qx. vol. U. 

9S4 R p 9 E B 1^ B Q^ N. 

Itk 1761 b^ pijibU4>fsd attelioonf enj:itled ^* The wb{rer«» 
lion of an^cieiit j^iqgdonis cop^idered/* ^eacbed M f^ 
J:Obn'i^ W^^tfniusterj Feb., 13, the dfy appointed b^r- 4. 
general faajt. Ii|. 1772) be reyi^d. and cofrecti^ ^ lb<^ 
pre&s,Pr. Gregory. Sharpens ppsthmnoiis sermons; and tb^ 
8a,Qcie year <|OjcnpljeM a nj^w edition Ojf Algernon Sido^y-f 
Discourses on. Governoient) with bbitqricm ^Qt^ in oiu^ 
volume q^arto^ at ibe persuai^iQiii of Thoipas HoUis, mq^ 
wbo bigbly apprQTed bis perfornanoe. > ^^ 

In 1775: a i;^inarkable ii^cidenj^ h^ppen^x ^^^>P^ ^^i^^^^cd 
tbe public attention. A Miss Butteriield vjras afiCuseA vf 
ppisoniqg Mi;. Wok Scawen, of Woodcote tpdge .in Stirf^ 
Mr. Robertson tbougbf )j^eT yerycrueUy trea^d^ aiid i09J|( 
fo ajctive pa^ in ber defence. Qn tbis ^jstsasion, l^ pttb^ 
ijiaix^d . a letter to Mr. Sanxay, a surgeo^ij^ on- wbcoa t^^^ 
i^Qnyt^fiisB BUjtterfijeid bad been cofniiiitte4. ^o prison i 19 
wbjpb he.Y^ty severely animadvert 90 ^b.e co/idoct ap4 
fvideiM^e of that ge^tlem^,; JCti^r she bf4 ^en honourt 
^ly ^cqtattfd at tbe awsea at Croydpiis be poUisbei^f 
feeond pan^pbieit, containing '< Observations on thecal 
of MUs BpttpHrfieK^*^ $hewtpg tbie b^r<;^sbiF^ she bfid^ sua4 
laiuedif and. tbe iiecewty of prosecuting : her right i^ a 
tjQ^urt of.jpsti^ei tbat is, kp^ claim to a considerably 
le^Oy^ W^(ih A|r. Sc^wm bad bequ^atb^^i ber by ^ wili^ 
e]C^i|te4 y^tJk: grc^ foirtnaUty,. twp or three years beforf 
bid deatl^. Tbe caus^ w^s apcordiiigly tried in PoctorsJ 
flommoos. Rut) ms iiniversaUy agreed, that tluf 
imfortanate youqg womaa ha^. been, unjustly accused, and 
thaA IVIr. Spaw^n' had beea iuduced, by false saj^estiontj 
Hd sign aiv>tbi9r testamentary pap^?s: m which ber napoe 
lias not meptioned, yet DO repress poi|ld b.e pbuipedi aa 
tbe judge observed, ^ that it.was tb^ bpisin^ss pf tbe court 
to determipe tbe cause, apcprdipg to. whijit the testator A04 
4fi$xe ; pot according to what be ought to have dope/' < 
Mr. R. is said to have been tbe a^uthpr of a useful ti^actf 
published ip 17^1^ <' On CaUpary PoUopi^.'' Ip 1783, bf 
l^blidiad an.degant little vokme fdr.tbf improyepipnt <^ 
youpg people in eeadiug, entitled ^^An. Introduction to 
ibe study of Polite Literature." This ^'performance way 
sientioned as tbe j^«l volume of an int^p^ed seriea op the 
«Mae aubjeirt ; but.the <s^<;pn«( ne^er appearei|> omn^ asit. 
is supposed, to part of it having been reprinted in a tracts . 
fpr the use ef Sunday-scboobii wikbput his coosfpt, bj 

R €^ B S II 7 8 ei 9i 8^t 

jtr^Mcaemv l^alty *• In, tbe Aam^ yewr be ravAedJaod pvth* 
h^9d a medical wofk of his frietKi sifr Oli&on Wiatcingt 
ka^ ^ De McHTbis quibundam GommenM^rii/' in o.iie voL 
INo; io irtiicli a scMB^ad vetume was afterwarda added in 

•' !» I.785> itfe pabliibed an ^ Essay on Pui^^lvia^an,'* in 
il^Qiev In*d»s treatise lie ha»illt|stcated a d«y i^ unpro^ 
Ifiiaii^g tiftbjeely with a variety of elegant and entertaini»g 
eMiffiples; a^ fouvth edition of ttiis easay was pointed itt 
Wm. ' Ifi 1768 appeared <<The Parian Chronicle^ or th# 
ISbiomcl^ of: the :^lniridelmn Marbles, with a Dissertation 
«PQo^#niiig its iSuthentkity.*^ The tendency of this work 
iitvto Aew, that « the authentioity of this^ famous inscription 
4s^e<tf€kneiy''qi»estionable; but although we may pva4se the 
tngentiity, ' acutefness, and learning, of the auihor, we majr 
ke' ptomitted to donbt wbelhei! be has fully established hi* 

In 1795 be published a translaition ol Teleaaachusi witk 
MteSi atid the life of ' Fenelon^ in 4^wo volumes l2mo; 
-^i«;b< bears tkeiviarks of his- usuat elegaaee> taste, and« 
ItHmAiig. By a note to 'the dissei^t&tton on the Parian 
£hro0iele it appcifars, that be was cmoeirned in writing the 
Critical Heviev<r << for tv^enty-one years^ frotn August 17<M# 
jbio Septembeif 17^5, inclusinev During th^ period he wa< 
Iba authoi? of aboYe S^20 articles, on' th0o)ogkal, cbssicali 
^eet'iea), and misceikLheous pubtieatiens;" * 

^; In^ 1797; Mr./R<>beptson publisted << Obsennttions on the 
Aiet for ^lagfoentiOg the Salai ief^ of Curates^ in* four* Letters 
$fiiH8FrieQd,^*9ro, Written: in 'ccm^equence of what th4 
auibor^houghta^disproponionate and oppresu^ve enfovcen 
aaeot of the curates' act In 179$^ he published ^^ An 
Bssay on the Education of Young Ladies, addressed to a 
|iersoh of disttnciion/V8?o J and the next year, ^<An Essay 
en the^ Nature of the English Verse^ with Direetioos fef 
feadiog Poetry,**< }2mo. 

*f. Mr. Robertson' married in 1758, Miss Baikes^ the daugh^ 
Mr of Mr. Timothy Raikes^ apothecary^ in Loo<ion, hf 
wlioin be had several chitdren, who died in their infancy^ ^^ 
t : Mr Robertsen^j^ health had been considerably impaired^ 
ewing to some f^ of apoplexy which attacked him about 
l>7B^. ji^firiiig 180i be seemed to bave^ in some measure^ 

Jnag. Toi. LXIu ' 


recovered ; bot on Jan. 1 8, 1802, he was seized with % • 
violent effusion of blood, which occaisioned his deaths on 
tBe very next day, in the seventy -seventh year of his age* 
He Was tall, stout, and handsome, of a ruddy complexion^ 
prepossessing look, gentle and unassuming manners, and 
exceedingly polite in conversation': he w^ an accomplished 
moral character in every sense of the word. Without 
violently condemning any of the Christian persuasion, he 
was enthusiastically devoted to the church of England ; 
and without indulging in any illiberal animadversions on 
foreign governments, he was duly sensiljle of the unrivalled 
advantages and the invaluable blessings of the British Con* 
stitution. As to his domestic virtues, one. of his biogra- 
phers thinks he cannot exhibit a more finished picture of 
them than by stating what Mrs. Robertson told him, ^^ Dur* 
jng the fortyrfour years we have lived together, . never, for 
a single night, did he desert the domestic society,, to seeH 
elsewhere for amusement T' * 

. . The literary character of Mr. Robertson would rank high 
among those of his contemporaries in the same line, if .he 
bad concentrated his ideas in one large aod compact woi'k. 
Taken, however, as it is, it will unqpestion^bly exhibit'|» 
learxied critic and philologer, and one of the most accurate 
writers of his age. Although he was endowed with a vigo^ 
f9us understanding, and enriched with an uncommonly 
extensive knowledge, his predominant power was memory; 
and his favourite study, civil and literary history. In the 
last-mentioned ))ranch heJiad, perhaps, no superior ; andT 
perhaps too, not many among the very professed biblio# 
graphers could.rival him in the science ofbooks^ author% 
and literary anecdotes. ^ . . > 

ROBERTSON (Thomas), an eminent grammarian, was^ ' 
according to Bale, ^* JEboracensis urbis alumntis^^^whici^ 
may mean ths|t he was educated at York ; but Wood says^ 
be was bom at or near Wakefield in that county. He wa^ 
originally of Queen^s college, Oxford, but afterwards a 
semi-commoner of Magdalen, and succeeded the famoui} 
John Stanbridge as njaster of the school adjoining to tha( 
college. He took his degree of M. A. in 1^25, and was 
elected a fellow of Magdalen. In 1532 he was collated ta 
the prebend of Welton-W;esthall in the cathedral of Lin- 
coln ; in the year following to that of Sleford, and in 1534^ 

1 From Memoirt written by hiin«tif m Nicb(4||| SOwyer; and a Sketch'by 
Mr. Damiani. 

& 6 B E R T S T^. «5T 

\6 that of GrettOD, in the same churohz It seems probable, 
but Wdod does not mention it as certain, that he took bis 
d^ree of B. D. in 15S9, at which time he says, Robertson 
^as esteemed the ^^Jlos et detus Oxonia^^ and was trea* 
surer of the church of Salisbury. He held also the arch- 
deaconry of Leicester and vicarage of Wakefield^ to which 
Browne Willis adds the rectory of St. Laud's, at Sherting* 
ton, Bucks. ' 

In 1 549 he was associated with other divines, ordered by 
Edward Vlth's council to form the new liturgy or coiamoa 
prayer ; and thus far, as Dodd remarks, he complied with 
the reformers^; but it does not appear that he advanced 
iHuch further. In queen Mary's reign, 1557,- he 'was 
made dean of Durham, and refused a bishopric. This 
dignity be niight hate retained when Elizabeth came to 
the throne, or have obtained an equivalent; but he refused 
to take th^ oath of supremacy. Nothing more is known 
with certainty of his history, unless that be died about 
1560. Among the records collected at the end of Burnet- s 
History of the Reformation, are, of Robertson's, ^' Resohi* 
tions of some questions concerning the Sacraments/' and 
'^ Resolutions of Questions relating to Bishops add Priests.'* 
His grammatical tracts, , entitled '< Annotationes in Lib. 
Gulielini Lilii de Lat Nom. generibus," &c. were printed 
together at Basil, 1532, 4toi. - His reputation as a correct 
grammarian and successful teacher was very great. Strype 
Says^ that after refusing the oath of supremacy, he began 
to propagate his opinions against the reformation, and was 
overlooked ; but Willis thinks he was taken into custody.^ 

ROBERTSON (Wiluam), a very Jearned divine, was 
born in Dublin, Oct 16, 1705. His father was a native 
of Scotland, who carried on the linen-manafacture there; 
and bis mother, Diana Allen, was of a very reputable fa- 
mily in the bishopric of Durham, and married to' his father 
in England. From his childhood he was of a very tender 
and delicate constitiition, with great weakness in his eyes 
till he was twelve years of age, at which period he waa 
sent to school. He had his grammar-education under the 
Celebrated Dr. Francis Hutcbeson, who then taught in 
Dublin, but was afterwards professor of philosophy in the 
university of Glasgow. He went from Dr. Hutehesoa to 
that university in 1722,; vCrhere be remained till 1725, ^ind 

I Ath. Ox. f ot. I. asw ediUoD.«*Oodid't Ch. aUU 

Vol. XXVI. S 

95$ B O B E S T S O N. 

took the degr6e of M. A« He had for his tutor Mr. Jp^ 
Lowdoa, professor of philosophy ; and attended the h^o^ 
ture» of Mr. Ross, professor of humanity ; of Mr. Duplop, 
professor of Greek; of Mr. Morthlandi professor of ,t;h^ 
Oriental languages ; of Mr. SimpsoPi professor of mathe- 
matics ; and of Dr. John Simpspn, professor of divinity. 
In the last-^mentioned. year, ^ dispute was revived, whiqh 
had been often agitated before, between Mr. Joha Ster* 
Ufig the principal, and the students, about a right t,o chuse 
a. rector, whose o0ice and power is somewhat like that of 
the vice-chancellor of Oxford or Cambridge. Mr. Robert^ 
$011. took part with his fellow- students^ and wa^ appointed 
by th^m, together with William Campbell, esq. son of 
Campbell of Mamore» whose family has since succeeded 
to the estates and titles of Argyle, to wait upon, the print 
cipal with a petition signed by more than threescore mat 
triculated staclents, praying that he would, on the 1st day 
of March, according to tb^ statutes, summon an univ^r* 
«ity*meeting for the electiou of a rector ; whicb. petition 
he rejectee^ with contempt. On this Mr. Caa^pbe)), in bis 
own name and in the name of all the petitioners, .protected 
against the principars refusal, and siU the petitioners went 
' to the house of Hugh Montgomery, esq., the unlawful rec«* 
lor^ where Mr. Robertson read aloud the protest gainst 
him and his authority. Mr. Robertson^ by these proceed* 
ingsy became the immedijate and indeed the only object o( 
prosecution. He was cited before the faculty, i.e. thor 
principal and the professors of the university, of whom th^ 
principal was sure of a majprity, and, after a trial wbiqH 
ksted several days, had the sentence of expulsion pfo*. 
nounced against him ; of whiqh . sentence be df^manded a 
copy, and was so fully persuaded of thQ justice of hif^: 
cause, and the propriety of his proceedings, that h^ 
openly and strenuously acknowledged and adhered to what 
he. bad done. Upon this, Mr. Lowdon, his tutor, and Mh 
Di^Iopf professor of Greek, wrote letters to Mr. Robert** 
son^s father, acquainting him of what had happened, and 
assuring him that his son had been expeUed, not for any 
crime or immorality, but for appearing very zealous io a 
dispute about a matter of right between the principal and 
the students. These letters Mr. Jlobertson sent inc^losed 
in one from himself, relating his proceedings and ^ugerings 
in the cause of what he thogght justice and right. Upon 
this his father desired him to take every step he might 


think pii*oper, to assert and maintain his own and his felfoir^ 
students claims; and accordingly Mr. Robertsoti went op to 
London, and presented a memorial to John duke of Argyle^ 
containing the claims of the students of the university of 
Glasgow, their' proceedings in the vindication of them, 
aiid his own particular sufferings in the causel The duke 
received him very graciously^ bui said, that <^ he was little 
Acquainted with things of this sort ;^' and advised him ^^ to 
apply to bis broths Archibald earl of Hay, who was better 
versed in such matters than he.*' He then waited on lord 
Hay, who, upon reading the representation of the case, 
said <* he would consider of it*** And, upon consideration 
'Of it, he was so affected, that he applied to the king for a 
<:ommission to visit the university of Glasgow, with full 
pow^r to examine into and rectify all abuses therein. la 
the summer of 1726, the earl of Hay with the other visitors 
repaired to Glasgow, and, upon a full ezamipation into 
the several injuries and abuses complained of, they re>^ 
■ stored to the students the right of electing their rectory 
recovered the right of the university to send two gentle* 
men, upon plentifiil exhibitions, to Baliol college in Ox** 
^'ord ; took off the expulsion of Mn Robertson, and ordered 
that particularly to be recorded in the proceedings of the 
eommission ; annulled the election of the rector who had 
b6eh named by the principal ; and assembled the students^ 
who immediately chose* the master of Ross, son of lord 
Ross, to be their rector, &c. These things so affected Mr* 
Sterling, that he died soon after ; but the university re* 
vived, and has since continued in a most flourishing, don* 

Lord Hay had introduced Mn Robertson to bishop 
•Roadly, who mentioned him to archbishop Wake, and he 
wtis entertained with much civilvty by those great prelates. 
As he was then too young to be edpnitted into orders, be 
employed his time in London in visiting the public librae 
rie^ attending lectures, -and improving Tiimself as oppor- 
ttmities bfferedi He bad the fadhoor to be introduced to 
lord-chancellor King, by a veiy kind letter from Dn Hort^ 
bishop of Kilmore, and was often with his lordship; la 
1727 Dn John Hoadly,' brother to the bishop df Salisbury, 
was nominated to the united bishoprics of Ferns and Leigh- 
lin in Ireland. Mr. Robertson was introduced to him by hi« 
brother ; and, from a love of the nataU solum^ was desirous 
to go thitber with lum* Mr. Robertsoti then informed tke 

a a 


archbishop of Caiiterbtiry of his design i and his 
gave him a letter of recommendation to Dr. GoG^win, 
archbishop of Cashel, who received him in a mdst frief^dly 
manner, but died soon afters The first person whomxDt. 
Hoadly ordained, after he was consecrated bishop of Ferns, 
-was Mr. Robertson, whose letters of deacon's orders bear 
"date January 14, 1727; and in February the bishop nomi- 
Bated him to the cure of Tullow in the county of Carlow : 
and here he continued till he was of age sufficient to be 
ordained a priest, which was done November 10, 1729; 
ahd the next day he was presented by lord Carteret, tbeii 
lord-lieutenant of Ireland, to the rectory of Ravilty in the 
county of Carlow, and to the rectory of Kilravelo in the 
county of Widow ; and soon after was collated to the 
vicarages of the said parishes by the bishop of Ferns. 
These were the only preferments be had tiiri738, wheft 
]>r. Synge, bishop of Ferns, collated him' to th^ vicarages 
of Rathmore and Straboe, and the perpetual cure of RahiV 
all in the cojmty of Carlo\V. These together produced ah 
income of about 200/. a-year. ' But, as almost the whole 
latids o( these parishes were employed in pasture/ the 
tithes would have amounted to more than twice that sum 3f 
the herbage had been paid for black cattle^ whidi was ceri> 
tainly due by law. Several of the clergy of Ireland had^ * 
before him, sued for this herbage in the Court of Exche* 
quer, and obtained decrees in their favour. Mr. Robert- 
son,, encouraged by the exhortations and examples of his 
brethren,^ commenced some suits in the Exchequer.for this 
herbage, and succeeded in ievery one of theto. ' But whea 
he had, by this means, doubled the value of his benefices^ 
the House of Commons in Ireland passed several severe re* 
solutions against the clergy who h4d sued, or would sue^ for 
this ^^ new demand," as they called it, which encouraged the 
. graziers to oppose it so^obstinatety as to put a period to dxBt 
demand. This prbcdeiing of the Commons provoked Dean 
8wiit to write " The Legion-Club." Mr. Robertson soon 
after published a pamphlet, entitled *^ A Scheme for uttedy 
abolishing the present heavy and vcixatioiis Tax of Tithe;'* 
the purport of which was, to pay the clergy and impro- 
priators a tax upon the land in lieu of all tithes. Tbia 
went through several editions: but nothing farther was 
•done in it. 

In 1739, lord Cathcart (though Mr. Robertson's person 
-was quit^ unknowo to him) sent him, by* captain Preseot^ 


-a ▼ery kind message, with a proper qualification under his 
band and. seal, to \fe his chaplain. 

. Mr. Robertson had, in 1728, married Elizabeth, daugh-> 
t^ of msyor William Baxter, who, in his younger years, 
bad been an officer in Ireland ip the armies of king Charles 
li. and James IL; but was caslpiered by the earlofTyr- 
conne), Jameses lord> lieutenant of Ireland, as a person not 
to-be depended upon in carrying on his and his master's 
designs. Captain Baxter, upon this repaired to Xondon, 
and complained of it to the duke of Ormgnd^ His father 
. was at that time steward tp the duke's estate. His grac«, 
.who was then joined w^th other English noblemen ip a cor* 
•cespondence with the prince of Orange, recommended 
him to. that prince, .who immediately gave him a company 
in his owu forces. In this station he returned to England 
with the prince at the revolution, and acted his part vigor- 
ously in bringing about that great event. While the cap- 
tain was in Holland, he wrote that remarkable letter tp Dr. 
JBurnet, afterwards bishop of Salisbury, which is iu^erUed 

' iqthe ^shop's life at the end of .the ^^ History of his qi^fii 
Ti^roes." ; By this lady, who was extremely beautiful in 
h<9f person, but much inore so in her mind, Mr. Rob^ertson 
bad one and twenty children. ,Tbei;e is a little poem writ- 
ten by him eight yiears. after their marriage, and inscribed 
to:ber, upon her needle-work^, inserted in the Qent. ^^g. 
1736. . In 1743, Mr. Robertson obtained the bishop' cleave 
to nominate a ct^rate at Ravilly, and to ireside for some 

c time in Dublip, fqr the educatiop af bis phi^dren. Here 
he was in^mediately invited to ^he cure of St. Luke's 

, parish^ aud in this, he .contjiiued five years, and then 
returned; to Raviliy in 1748, the town air not agreeing 
wi;th him. While he w^s in the cure of St. Luke's^ he, 
together witl) Mr^ Kane Perciyal, then curate, of St, Mi- 
eban's, formed a scheme to raise a fund for the support 

: of widows and children of clergymen of ^the diocese of 
Publin, which/hath since produced, very happy eifects. 

v. la 1758 he lost his wife. In 1759 Dr. Richard Robinson 
vras translated from the see of Killal^ to that of Ferns; 
and, in his visitation that year, he took Mr. Robertson 

, aside, and told him, that the primate. Dr. .Scone (who had 

. been bishop of Ferns, and had kept up a correspondence 
w^tk Mr. Robertson), had recommended him to his care 
and protection, and that be might therefore expect every 

^ thing in his power. Accordingly, the first benefice that 


became vacant in his lordship^s presentation was offered to' 
him, and he thankfully accepted it. But, before he could 
be collated to it, he had the ^ Free and Candid Disquisi- 
tions^ put into bis hands, which be had never seen before. 
This inspired him with such doubts as made him defer his 
Itttendance oil the good bishop. His lordship wrote to 
him again to come immediately for institution. Upon this, 
Mr. Robertson wrote him the letter which is at the end of 
a little book that he published some years after, entitled/ 
'* An Attempt to explain the words of Reason, Substance, 
Person, Creeds, Orthodoxy, Catholic Church, Subscrip- 
tion, and Index Expurgatorius ;'* in which letter Mr. Ro« 
bertson returned his lordship the most grateful thanks for 
his kindness, but informed h$m that he could not comply 
with the terms required by law to qualify him for such pre-* 
ferment. However, Mr. Robertson continued at Ravilly 
)>erforming his duty ; only, thenceforward, he omitted the 
Athanasian creed, &c. This gave offence ; and, therefore, 
he thought it the houestest course to resign all his bene*' 
fices together, which he did in 1764; and, in 1766, he 
published his book by way of apology to his friends for 
what he had done; and soon after left Ireland, and re-^ 
turned to London. In 1767, Mr. Robertson presented ohe 
of his books to his old Alma Mater the university of Glas<<* 
gow, and received in return a most obliging letter, with 
tiie degree of D. D. In 1768 the mastership of the free^ 
grammar school at Wolverhampton in Staffordshire b^com* 
ing vacant, the company of Merchant-Tailors, the patrons, 
iinanimously conferred it on hini. In 1772 he was chosen 
one of the committee to carry on the business of the 
society of clergymen, &c. in framing and presenting the 
famous petition to the House of Commons of Great Britain, 
praying to be relieved from the obligation of subscribing 
assent and consent to the thirty-nine articles, and all and 
every thing contained in the book of common-prayer* 
After this he lived several years at Wolverhampton, per- 
forming the duties of his office, in the greatest harmony 
with all sorts of people there ; and died, of the gout in 
bis stomach, at Wolverhampton, May 20, 1783^, in the 79th 
year of his age ; and was buried in the churchyard of the 
new church there. ' 

; ROBERTSON (William), D.D. one of the most illus- 
trious names in modern literature, and one of the most 

. I 

9 Ufe fiom material! famished by hiouelf in Gent, M^g, for 1789. 


eoiinjent of modern historians, was born in 1721, at Borth- 
wick, in the county of Mid- Lothian, where his father was* 
then minister;- and received the first rudiments of his edu- 
isation at the school of Dalkeith. In 1733, when his father 
removed to EdiDburgb, on being appointed minister of the 
oid Gray*friars^ church, he placed his son at the university, 
where his industry and application appear to have been of 
that extraordinary and spontaneous kind, which bespeaks 
» thirst for knowledge, and is a pledge of future eminence. 
From a very early period of life be employed every means 
to overcome the peculiarities of a provincial idiom, and 
accustom his pen to the graces of the best English style. 
For this purpose he frequently exercised himself in the 
practice of translation, and was about to have prepared for 
the press a version of Marcus Antoninus, when he was an- 
ticipated by an anonymous publication at Glasgow. Nor 
did he bestow less pains on acquiring a fluent and correct 
eloquence, associating for that purpose with some fellow* 
students and others, who assembled periodically for extem- 
pore discusrion and debate. Thus in ail his early pursuits 
be deviated knowingly, or was insensibly directed into those 
paths which led to the high fame be afterwards enjoyed. 

Hi9 studies at the university being finished, he was li- 
Qcused to preach in 1741, and in 1743 was presented to 
the living of Gladsmuir, in East Lothian, by John, second 
earl of Hopeton. This preferment, although the whole 
emoluments did not exceed 100/. a year, was singularly 
opportune, as his father and mother died about this tirne^ 
leaving a family of six daughters and a younger son unpro- 
vided for, whom our author removed to Gladsmuir, and 
maintained with decency and frugality, until they were 
settled in the world.^«rDuring the rebellion in 1745, when 
the capital of Scotland was in danger of falling into the 
bands of the rebels, the state of public affairs appeared so 
critical that he thought himself justified in laying aside for 
ft time the pacific habits of his profession, and in quitting* 
his parochial residence at Gladsniuii^, to join the volunteers 
of Edinburgh ; and, when at last it was determined that- 
the city should be surrendered, he was one of the small 
hand who repaired to Haddington, and offered their ser* 
vices to the commander-in-chief of his majesty^s forces. 
He returned^ however, as soon* as peace was restored, to 
Gladsmuir, and in 1751 married bis cousm, miss Mary 
Nesbit, daughter of the Rev. Mr. Nesbit, o e of the mi- 
nisters of Edinburglu 

t6% E O B E R T S O N. 

He now applied bitnself to bis pastoral duties, wfaicb 1m 
discharged with a punctuality that procured biiu thevene- 
rfU^iQQ ^nd attacbment of bis parishioners, and as bis elo«- 
quence in the. pulpit began to attract the notice of the 
neigbbouring clergy, this circumat^nce^ no doubt, pre- 
pared the way for that influence in. the cbdrch which be 
afterwards attained. In 1155 he published *< A Sermon 
preached before the Society for promoting Christian know- 
ledge,^' which has been deservedly admired, and encou-t 
raged by a sale of five editions, besides a trahslation into 
Qeraap. He had some time before this made bis appeavu 
ance }n the General Assembly of the church of Scotland, 
and had taken an active part in their proceedings. In 1757, 
he distinguished himself in the defenqe of Mr. John Home, 
minister of Atbelstoneford, who bad written the tragedy-of 
^* Douglas.^' This was considered as so bold a departure 
from the austerity expected in a presbyterian divine, that 
the author, and. some of his brethren, who had witnessed 
the play in the theatre, were prosecuted in the ecclesiasti- 
cal court » On this occasion. Dr« Robertson contributed 
much, by hi^ eloquence, to the mildness of the sentence 
in which tbe prosecutioix terminated ; and his conduct was 
DO inconsiderable proof of his general candour, as he had 
never himself entered within the walls of a play-house, 
avoiding such an indulgence m. iniconsistent with the sdrn- 
pulous circumspectioi) which he maintained in bis private 

In ^ the mean time, bis leisure hours bad been so well 
employed that, in 1758, he went to London to concert 
measures for the publication of his iirst celebrated work, 
<< Tbe History of Scotland durlAg the reigns of queen Mary 
and king James VI. till his accession to the crown of Shg-* 
lan4 ; ^ith a review of the Scottish history previous to that 
period ; and an Appendix, containing original pa'persf** 2 
vols. 4to«^ The plan of this work is said tp have bedn form- 
ed soon after bis siettlefiaent at Gladsmuir. It was accord- 
ingly-published on the 1st of February, 1759, and so eager 
and. extensive was tbe sale, that before the end of that 
month, be was desired by bis bookseller to prepare for a 
second edition. ^' It ws^s regarded," says bis biographer^' 
<f as an attempt towards a species of composition that had- 
been cultivated with very little success in this island ; and 
accordiji)gly it entitles the author, not merely to the praise 
which would now b^ 4vp tpan historian of equal eminence^ 

R O BE R T S O N, J6» 

hm to a high rank among those original and leading minds 
that forin and guide the taste of a nation.*' Contemporary 
publications abounded in its praises, but itirauld be super- 
fluous to collect opinions in favour of a work familiarized 
to the. public by so many editions. Among the most judi<- 
isious of the literati of that period who were the Brst to per- 
ceive and predict the reputation our author was about to 
{establish, were, hon. Horace Walpole *, bishop Warbur- 
ton, lord. Roy ston, the late sir Gilbert Elliot, Dr: Biroh, 
Pr Douglas, late bishop of Salisbury, Dr. John Blair, late 
prebendary of Westminster, and Mr. Hume. It may suf- 
fice to add, that fourteen editions of this work were pub« 
lisbed in the. au thorns life-time. 

, While the " Histgry of Scotland'* was in the press, Dr. . 
Robertson removed, with his family, from Gladsmuir to 
£dinburgh, in consequence of a presentation which he had 
received to one of the churches of that city. His prefer- 
ments now multiplied rapidly. In 1759, he was appointed 
chaplain of Stirling castle; in 1761, one of his majesty V 
. chaplains, in ordinary for : Scotland; and in 1762 be was 
chosen principal of the university of Edinburgh. Two 
y^ars afterward, the office, of king^s historiographer for 
Scotland (with a salary of 200/; a year) was revived in bis 
favour. About this time, likewise, it appears that he was 
solicited to become a member of the church of England, 
by friends who considered that establishment as more likely 
to reward his merit. than the highest emoluments his..own 
church could afford. He resisted this temptation, however, 
ifrith a decision which prevented its being farther urged, 
although it appears at the same time, from his correspond*. 
€HK:e,. that he would not have been sorry to accept any 
aituation which might have relieved him from the duties of 
l)is pastoral office, and afford him the power of applying 
himself wholly to. his studies.. His refusal therefore, as 
bis biographer justly observes, ^< became the consistency 
and dignity of his character,^' and it is greatly to his honour^ 
that whatever offices or wealth be acquired throughout life, 
vere the fair reward of his own exertions. 

* Oil this name, we may rei^nark, the various passages ia this ii)^oir» 

in the laognage of Dr, Robertsoa^i with the sentiments he expresses on 

biographer, that ** The value pf .praise, the same subject in hit posthamoai • 

whatever be the abilities of bim who publication." Walpole» inde^ wai 

bestows it, depends on the opinion we perhaps the most insincere man of hit 

•atertain of bis candour and sincerity ; age, as will be farther noiicfid in outr 

qualities which' it will be. difficult- to account .of hioi* 
lilfow Mr. Walpoie, after comparing 

S6ff ieOBE;RTSON, 

He waS| hovrever, about this time, desirous of profitittg 
Vj the induigence the public bad shewn hiniy and consulted 
bis firtends i^lstiye to the choice of another historical sub* 
ject A history of England was strongly recoaiinended» 
and encouragement promised from the most exalted source 
of honour. His majesty was pleased to express a wish to 
aee a history of England from bis pen, and the efiri of Bute 
promised him every assistance that could be derived froo^ 
the records in possession of government, and held out the 
inost flattering views of encours^cment in other respects. 
At first Dr. Robertson was averse to thb scheme, as inter- 
fering witb the plan of Hume, with whom, notwithstanding 
the contrariety of their sentiments, both in religion and 
« politics, he lived in the greatest friendship ; but afterwards^ . 
when the royal patronage was so liberally tendered, appears 
to have iaclined to th^ undertaking. This perhaps cannot 
be better expressed than in his own words. ^^ The case, I 
now think, is entirely changed. His (Hume^s) history will 
have been published several years before any work of mine 
ou the same subject can appear : .its first run will not be 
marred by any jostling with me, and it will have taken thatf 
atAtion in the literary system which belongs to it Thift 
objection, therefore, which I thought, and still think, sO 
weighty at that time, makes no impression on me at pre- 
sent, and I can now justify my undertaking the Englisb 
history, to myself, to the world, and to him. Besides, our 
manner of vieiving the same subject is so different or pe-* 
Quliar, that (as was the case in our last books) both may 
ipaiptain their own rank, have their own partisans, and 
possess their own merit, without hurting each other.*' 
^ What '< station in the literary system*' Hume^s* history 
Alight baire occupied, if Dr. Robertson bad executed his 
intention, it is impossible to conjecture^ It is certain, 
however, that after a lapse of nearly half a century no work 
has appeared which can be at all compared to Hume's, i» 
icespect to popularity, or rather that commanding infl^uence 
which a work of established reputation attains, notwith- 
standing any defects which criticism or superior opportunii* 
ties of knowledge may point out. The contest between 
two such writers would have been a noble object of curio- 
sity ; and to have been so near it, as the world once was^ 
may yet be felt as a severe disappointment. 

After more deliberation, however. Dr. Robertson deter- 
jnined to relinqubh this schema, and to undertake thf 

H O B E R T S O N. 267 

*' History of Charles V." which, indeed^ he had be|uti 
before the other* plan was so strongly recommended. His 
character as a historian now stood so high that this new 
prodtiction was expected with the utmost impatience, nor 
was that ex))ectation disappointed. The preliminary di^«- 
sertation, under the unassuming title of an *^ Introduction 
to the History of Charles V." is particularly valuable as an 
introduction to the history of modern Europe, and suggests 
in every page matter of speculation to the politician and 
the philosopher. The whole appeared under the title df 
*** The History of the reign of the Emperor Charles V. with 
a View of the Progress of Society in Europe, from the 
subversion of the Roman Empire to the beginning of the 
sixteenth century," 1769, 3 vols. 4td. 

After an interval of eight years, Dr. Robertson produced 
his *^ History of America,'* 1777, 2 vols. 4to, in undertake 
ing which his original intention was only to complete his 
account of the great events connected with the reign of 
Charles V.; but percfeiving, as he advanced, that a history 
df America, confined solely to the operations and concerns of 
the Spaniards, would not be likely to excite a visry general 
intlsrest, he resolved to include in his plan the transactionii 
of all the European nations in the New World. The origiA 
and progress of ihe British empire there, however, he des- 
tined for the subject of one entire volume, but afterwards 
abandoned, or rather suspended the execution of this part 
of his design, as he was of opinion that during a civil war 
between Great Britain and her colonies, inquiries and spe- 
culations concerning ancient forms of policy and laws, 
which no longer existed, could not be interestihg. It 
would be superfluous to say how much this work enlarged 
his fame, unless, indeed, which is no hyperbole, we con- 
sider the fame arising from his former works as incapable of 
enlargement. He treated a subject here, which demanded 
all his abilities, and afforded a full scope for his genius, and 
he proved how eminently he could excel in splendid, ro- 
mantic, and poetical delineations, with the originals of 
which be could not be supposed to have much interest. 
This work, however, laid him more open to censure than 
any of his former. The world had become miore critical^ 
and from having enjoyed the excellence of his histories of 
Scotland and of Charles V. more fastidious ; and periiaps 
the dread of his acknowledged name had in some degree 
Ibeea s^bated by time. Besides, it was impossible by anj 


force of argument to vindicate the disposition be shews to 
palliate or to veil the enormities of tbeSpaniards in their 
American conquests. This was the more un^^ccountable in 
an author whose writings in gen^r^l are niost friendly to the 
.interests of humanity, aud who in his previous researches 
and inquiries after information; lay under no extraordinary 
obligations to the Spanish court. . This blemish in his^^is- 
tory was soon followed by a compliment which shews too 
evidently the light in which it was viewed in Spain. He 
was elected a member of the Royal Academy of History 
at Madrid, *^in testimony of their approbation of thejn<» 
dustry and care with which he has applied to the study of 
Spanish history, and as a recompense for bis merit in hav-r 
ing contributed so much to illustrate and spread the know- 
ledge of it in foreign countries." The academy at the 
same time appointed one of its members to translate the 
History of America into Spanish, but the governnientput a 
stop to the undertaking.— T-it may here be introduced, that 
as these volumes did not complete Dr. Robertson's original 
design, he announced in his preface his intention to resume 
the subject at a future period. A fragment of this intended 
work, entitled <^ Two additional chapters of the History 
of America,'' 4to, was published after bis death. 

In consequence, of the interruption of sDr. Robertson's 
plans, which was produced by the American revolution, he 
was led to think of some other subject which might, in the 
mean time, give employment to his studious leisure. Many 
of his friends suggested the history of Great Britain from 
the Revolution to the accession of the house of Hanover; 
and he appears to have entertained some thoughts of ac- 
ceding to their wishes. Mr. Gibbon, with whom be was 
in the habit of intimate correspondence, recommended to 
him to write a history of the Psotestants in France. What 
answer he returned to this is not known ; nor have we 
learned what the circumstances were which induced him to 
lay aside his plan with respect to the history of £ngland. 
For some time, however, he seems to have relinquished 
all thoughts of writing any more for .the publick. His^ cir- 
cumstances were now independent, he was approaching. to 
the age of sixty, with a constitution considerably impaired 
by a sedentary life. He Retired from the business of ^ba 
General Assembly about the year 1780; and, for seven or 
eight years, divided the hours which he could spar^ frpm 
bis professional duties between the luxury of reading and 
the conversation of his friends. 


- To this^ literary leisure the public is indebted forava- 

laable performance, of which the materials seem almost 

.insensibly to have swelled to a volume, long after bis most 

intimate friends imagined that he had renouticed all thoughts 

:of the press. The ^^ Historical Disquisition coacerning 

the knowledge which the Ancients had of India; aiid the 

Progress of Trade with that country prior to the discovery 

of the Cape of Good Hope/* 1791, 4to, took its rise^ as 

be himself informs us, from the perusal of major ReniiePs 

excellent memoir for illustrating his map of Hindostan. 

This suggested to his mikid the idea of examining, more 

fully than be had done in bis History of America, into the 

knowledge which the ancients had of India i and of con^- 

aidering what is certain, what is obscure, and what is fa* 

bulous in their accounts of that remote country. It is di- 

.vided into four sections. He published this work in his 

jixty-eighth year ; and it appears to. have been written in 

about twelve months. Although less amusing to common 

readers than his former works, and become less interesting 

«pon the whole, in consequence of the discoveries since 

brought to light in Asia, it is not inferior in diligence 

of research, soundness of judgment, or perspicuity of 


With this publication his historical labours closed — la* 
bours which, for extent and variety, have not been equalled 
l>y any writer in our times. All the essential merits of 
« historian were his; fidelity, the skill of narrative, the' 
combination of philosophy with detail, so seldom attempt- 
ed', and generally so unsuccessfully eitecuted, and the 
power of giving an uncommon interest to his parsonages 
and events in the mind of the reader. His style has been 
so justly characterized by his biographer, that we may, 
without hesitation, recomosend it as a decision from which 
it will not be easy to appeal ^^ The general strain of his 
composition," says professor Stewart, ^^ is flowing, equal, 
and majestic; harmonious beyond that of most £ngiish 
writers,' yet seldom deviating, in quest of harmony, into 
inversion, redundancy, or affectation. If, in some pas- 
sages, it may be thought that the effect might have been 
heightened by somewhat more of variety in the structure 
and cadence of his periods, it must be recollected, that 
this criticism involves an encomium on the beauty of his 
jtyle;.for it is only when the ear is habitually gratified| 
Ihat the rhythm of composition beconaes an object of the 


reader^s attention/* The same judicious- ethic hti re* 
narked) that, *^ perhaps, on the who|e> it will be founS 
that of all bis performances Charles Y* is that which unites 
the various requisites bf good writtBg in the greatest dei* 
gree. The style is more natural and flowing than that of the 
History of Scotland : while, at the same time, idiomatiieri 
pbrases are introduced with so sparing and timid a hand^ 
that it is easy to perceive the author's attention to' correct^ 
iiess was not sensibly diminished. In the History of A'me^ 
rica, although it contains many passages equal, if not su«- 
perior, to anything else in bis writings^ the composttion 
does not seem to me to be so uniformly polished as tbat of 
bis foriner works ; nor does it always possess, in th^ same 
degree, the recommendations of . conciseness and simpli«> 
city.'\ • 

In bis own country. Dr. Robertson's reputation was con* 
•tderably enhanced by his conduct as a leading member of 
the General Assembly of the church of Scotland, the pro^ 
c^edings of which he regulated, in: difficult times and trying 
emergencies, with great political skill, address, and elo** 
quence, for nearly thirty years. In his pastoral office be 
was also very assiduous, preaching- once every Sunday uti«> 
til a short time before his death. Of his sermons, one 
only Jias been^print^d ; but their general merit may be un- 
derstood from the character given by his colleague^ the fatfefe 
Dr. Erskine : ^' They were so plain,'' says this candid and 
venerable man, ^^ that the most illiterate might easily nnA 
derstand them, and yet so correct and elegant that they 
could not incur their censure whose taste was moee te^ 
fined. For several years before bis death, he seldom wrote 
his sermons fully, or exactly committed his older sermona 
to nemory ; though, had I not learned this from} himself, I 
should not have suspected it; such was the variety and 
fitness of his illustrations, the accuracy of his method^ 
^nd the propriety of his style. ^'-^To his other merits may 
likewise be added, the diligence, address^ and ability^ 
with which he studied and promoted the interests of the 
university, as Principal, which will be long remembered to 
his honour In all his public characters he had the happy 
talent of gaining influence without the appearance of ef^ 
fort, and of conciliating differences without departing from 
consistency, or endangering friendship. All his pursuits 
were those of a great, a steady, and a 'persevering mind. ^ 
His private and social virtues, which are also highly spokea 


ef, no doubt contribute to the commanding celebrity of hit 
public character. 

In 1791, hift health began apparently to decline, and 
on this he retired to, and for some tiote was enabled to en-> 
joy, the placid comforts of a country residence,, wherd)^ 
however, his disorder terminated in his death on the 11 th 
of June> 1793, in the seventy-first year of his age. He 
left a widow, three sons (the eldest an eminent lawyer 
at the Scotch bar, an'd the two younger embraced a mu 
litary life), and two daughters, one married to Mr. Bry-^ 
done, the traveller, and the other is the widow of John 
Russell, esq. clerk to the signet. 

. It yet remains to be mentioned, as a part of Dr. R«ibert'^ 
son's iiterary history, that in 1776, he reviewed, and made 
considerable alterations, in his ^' History of Scotland.** 
He took the same pains, in 1778, with his '^ History of 
America;" and these f^ additions and corrections" were 
sold separately. His ^^ Histbry of Scotland,** aiid that of 
*'^ Charles V.** were translated into French. 'The' honour 
conferred upon him by the Royal Academy of History at 
Madrid. has already been noticed. In 1781, be was elected 
one of the foreign members of the Academy of Sciences aC 
Padua:; and in 1783 one of the foreign members of the Im^ 
perial Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburgh. The lat# 
empress Catherine, a warm admirer of his works^ sent hint) a 
present of a very handsome gold enamelled snUfF*box^ richly 
net with diamonds. These honours^ however, can scarcely he 
put in competition with, because they were only the natural 
consequence of, a higher degree of fame over all Europe, 
than almost any modern writer has enjoyed, and of fame 
which no rivalship has been enabled to impair. ^ 

ROB£RVAL (Giles-Personnb), an eminent French 
4nathematician, was born in 1602, at Roberval, a parish kt' 
the diocese of Beauvais. He wa3 first professor of mathe* 
BuUics at the college of Maitre->Gervai3, and afterwards at 
the coUege^Toyal. ' A similarity of tas^te connected him 
with Gasaendi and Morin; the latter of whom he succeeded 
in the mathematical chair at the royal college, without 
quitting, however, that of Ramus. Roberval made expe-* 
riments on the Torricellian vacuum : he invented two tiew 
kinds of balance, one of which was proper for weighing 

1 Account of the Life, Stc, of Dr. Winiam Roberiion, by ProfeMor I>agal4 
fi^wart, 1801, 8to. 

tl2 fe d B E R V A L 

air; and .made many other curious experiments. Hewa^ 
one of the first members of the ancient academy of science^ 
of 1666 ; but died in 1675, al seventy-three years of age/ 
His principal works are, I. " A treatise on Mechanics.'^ 
2. A work entitled ^* Aristarcfaus Samos.'* Several me-^^ 
moirs inserted in the volumes of the academy of.sciences^ 
of 1 666 ; viz. 1 ; Experiments concerning the pressure of the' 
air. 2. Observations on the composition of motion, and 
on the tangents of curve lines. 3. The recognition of 
equations. 4. The geometrical resolution of .plane ancf 
eubip equations. 5. Treatise on indivisibles. 6. On thie 
Trochoid, or Cycloid. 7. A letter to father Mersenne," 
8. Two letters from Torricelii.. 9. A new kind of balance.'; 
RobcrvdHian Lines were his, for the transformation of 
figures^ They bound spTaces that^ are infinitely extiendecl 
in length, which are nevertheless equal to other spaces 
that .are terminated on all sides. The abbot Gallois, in the 
Memoirs of the Royal Academy^ anno 1693, observes, that 
the method of transforming figures, explained at the latter 
end of Roberval's treatise of indivisibles, was the same 
with that afterwards published by James Gregory, in his 
Geometria Universalis, and also by Barrow in his Lec-^ 
tiones GeometricsB; and that, by a letter of. Torricelii, ii 
appears, that Roberval.was the inventor, of this manner of' 
transforming figures, by means of certain lines, which Tor-' 
riqellr therefore called Robervallian Lines. He adds, that 
it is highly probable, that J. Gregory first learned the me- 
thod in the journey he made to Padua in 1668, the method' 
itself , having been known in Italy from 1646,^ though the 
book was not. published till 1692. This account David- 
Gregory has endeavoured to refute, in vindication of hhr 
uhele James. His answer is inserted in the Philos. Trans, 
of 1694, and the abbot rejoined in the French Memoirs of 
the Academy of 1703J - ^ 

ROBESPIERRE; (Maximilian Isidore], the most fero- 
cious of those tyrants which the French revolution pro-' 
duoed, was born at Arras \t\ 1759, where his father was » 
lawyer, a man of character and knowledge in his profes- 
sion, but so improvident as to die insolvent, and leave fair 
two sons, of whom Ma^cimiltan was the eldest, in poverty. 
They soon, however, found a generous patron in De Conw 

I HvUon's Diet — Eloj^es deg AcaUtmicieaii vol. |. — ^TbDmsoo's Hist, of tiie' 
Koyal Society. 


fte, bishop of Arras, wfao in a manner adopted them, but 
fao^Qtued Maximilian with bis particular care, and after 
providing him with school education, sent him to Paris, and 
procured him an exhibition in .the college of Louis Le 
Grand. The manner in which Robespierre conducted 
himself here, answered the expectation of his protector. 
He was assiduous and successful in his studies, and ob- 
tained many of th^ yearly prizes. There was i^othing, 
however, about him, which indicated his future destiny. 
Being an apt scholar, it might be thought that he would 
make a figure in the, world ; but we are told that even this 
was not the case, and that his instructors discovered nei*/ 
ther in his conversation nor his actions any trace of that 
propensity, which could lead them to conjecture that hia 
glory would exceed the bounds of the college. Wheu he 
had, however, attained the age of sixteen or seventeen, he 
wad advised to study the law; and this he pursued^ under 
the auspices 'of a Mons. Ferrieres, .but displayed ^no ex-* 
traordinary enthusiasm for the profession. He had neither 
perseverance, address, nor eloquence, and, according to one 
of his biographers, bis conspiousness of inferiority to those* 
who were making* a great figure at the bar, gave him an 
air of gloominess and dissatisfaction. It was at first deters 
mined, that he should practise before the parliament of 
PariS) but this scheme was never carried into execution, 
for he returned to his native province, and was admitted art 
advocate in the supreme council of Artois. About this 
time he ii said ,to have published, in 1783, a treatise oti 
electricity, in order to remove the vulgar prejudices against 
conductors. In this piece be introduced a laboured eloge 
on the character of Louies XVI. ; but the subject of his liext 
literary performance was yet more remarkable; it wa^ 
against death as a punishment, and in this he reproackei# 
^H modern governments for pefEbitting such a punishmeni 
to remain on their codes, and even doubts- the^rigfat cMm- 
ed by society to cut off the life of all individual ! 

Such were the sentiments and situation of thi$ man, 
when the revolution took place, and raised him, and bun<- 
dred^ equally obscure, and perhaps more contemptible,, 
into ^me degree- of consequence. Robespierre, however 
inferior hitherto in fame, was conscious that he had many 
of the materials about' hitn that ^ere wanted at this time. 
Sicilerhe acluatly had good qualities, which' -is scarcely 
Credible, Or by tb^ oiost consummate hypocrisy, be per* 

Vol. XXVI. T 


.imaged tbe. people that be was a steady and upright ais(ti«. 
•He was elected a representative tp. thie states gep^eral, but 
MUioUgb be attached himself by turns to the faction that > 
seemed uppermost, be repained long io a state of o;b** 
acnrity. He was^ considered , as a passionate jiot-beaded 
young man, whose chief merit consisted iu bis being warm 
in the cause of iiberlgr* H.e bad^ we are told, .another . 
inerity that of bringing tbe term ari^toerai iiiito common , 
use^ which afterwards becaai^ U19 watchword of his pro* 
SCriptio^a. He tri^dytoo^ at joqrjfial called ^ VUnion^ on 
fToticiial de la Libert^^'V which vM eonducted with extreme 
yioleoce. But it was auited to (be people who read Ji^ 
ftfid Robespierre, obtained the surnaiBe of the /?u<Prrf^/«- 
ibU^ from an affectatioi» o| indepepdencey and eontinuaUj 
declaioung against ceurciy ciorru^ion, 
. The Jacobia rclalH bowefer^ raised Robe^ierre tQ 
power and celebrity ; they eyei^ proclaimed ^* that the na* 
tif»oal asaeo^bly bad^rt^.ned Hxjkt^^ and Robespierre alooe 
co.Qld8ave it.'V {t was during the national convention that , 
be attained the summit of his ambition^ if indeed he knew 
what that was.. In the first legislature, he joined the pan. 
triots,.as they. were called; in the second be declared for 
the republicanism and in. both the party to which be attached ^ 
himself proved victorious* In the thirds tbe national cou-*^ 
vention, he carried all befor^e him'; the commuw of }^9mp 
tb^ Jacobin club^ and even the convention it$elf> were 
filled with bis. crea|:Mr^9» ai^ became obedient to hist com- 
mands^ A scene. of bipod. foUowedy which e^e^ededthe 
pro$criptioQs of 9yUa and Marina Men and .women of all 
ranks perished! iodiserimiaately^ Suspected pqrsoos> tbai^ ' 
isj those either drei^ied of bated, by this monster and bis 
ac^pmplices, were arrested ; domiciliary visits a^vakened 
4he sleeping victims. of pers^utioa to misery and destruof» 
tiif^', while jFevolutionary tribunal^ as |hey were calledn . 
condemned tbe^m by scores» unpitied and even qubeard. 
The laws W€jre no Jcuiger maintained ; the: idea of a coosti*, > 
iution bi^ame intolerably ; all poM^r was concentrated in 
a junto, called the ConiWttee of Public Safisty,. which re** 
gjilatedeveryabing^ absolved or tried, spoiled or enriched^ 
m^rderfid. or. saved; aud.iJbi^t:oi|uiittte^ was^eutirely regiin 
lated by tbe will of Robespierre, wbp governed it .by.meana 
of hi9 cir^aiunes^ St ^ Just and Couthpn. la tbe short space ol 
two years^ niearty 3.000 peiaoos periab^ by the gMiU<MUn<t 
i^ Z^\M QQly« Sven tba ravoitt(iQnai;y forma ^w^ .thought 

R O B £ S P 1 £ R R e. 2f| 

too dilatory; the execution of fotir or five in a day did'hot 

satiate Robespierre'^ vengeance ; the muiNier of thirty of 

forty was demanded, and obtained; the streets became 

deluged with blood ; canals were necessary to convey it to 

the Seine; and experimehts were actually made at one of 

the prisons with an instrument for cutting off half a score 

beads at a single motion. Among the victims of this tyir 

rant, it ought not to be forgot, that the greater part of 

those men perished, who bad been the means of revolui* 

tiianizing the people, and so deluding them with the p^e*- 

tetiees of liberty, that they could calmly exchange the 

mild government of a Louis XVI. for that of a Robespt6rte» 

In this retributive justice was glided by a superior hand> - 

At lenn^th Robespierre began to be dreaded even' by hit 

own accomplices, while the nation at large, roused from 

its infatuation, looked eagerly forward 'to the destruction of 

this monster. In this, however, the nation at large had no 

•hare. It was the work of his accomplice^ ; it was still one 

faction destroying another, and although a second Robesi- 

pierie did not immediateiy rise, the way remained open to 

one whose tyrannical afmbitioh was not satisfied with' France 

as his victim. The iSrst storm against Robespierre burst iti 

the convention ; and after exercising its violence as all pre<i> 

ceding storms of that kind bad, Robespierre was arretted 

en July 9, 1794, and next day was^Iedco execution, amidst 

^ the execrations of the people. His fall, it has be^n well 

observed, was the triumph of fear rather than of justice i 

aqd the satisfaction with which it must be contemplated, 

was incomplete, because a few monsters- even worse than 

himself' were among the foremost in sending^ hita to the 

icafFotd. H^s punishment, however, was as signal as his 

crimes. His tinder jaw Was »hatteired with a pistol shot, 

either by himself in an ineffectual attempt at suicide, or by 

a gendarme in the struggle ; it was bottnd up with a slight 

dressing as he lay in the lobby of the Convention, he wished 

io wipe away the blood which filled hb mouth, they gave 

bim a bloody cloth, and as he pushed it from him, they 

•aid to him — ** It is blood->^it is what thou likest !*' There 

he lay oh one of the benches, and, in his agony of mind 

and body, clenched one of his thighs through his torn 

clothes with such force that his nails entered his own fleshy 

and were rimmed round with blood. He was carried to 

the saoie dungeon which Hebert, and Chaumette, and 

Danton, had successively occupied ; the gaoler knocked 

T 2 

t76 R o B E s p I E ft R je; 

him about without ceremony^ and when he. made sigxinicm 
one of them (for be could not speak) to bring him pen and 
ink, the man made answer — *^Wbat dost thou want with 
it ? is it to write to thy Maker ? thou wilt see him pre^ 
sently !'* £[e was placed in a ctrt between Henriotaad 
Coutbon ; the shops, and the windows, and the house-tops 
were crowded with rejoicing spectators to see him passy 
and as the cart proceeded^ shouts of exultation went; be- 
fore it, and surrounded it, and followed its way. His head 
was wrapt io a bl9ody. cloth which bound up his shattered 
jaw, so that his pale and livid cpuntenaoce was but hilf 
s^en. I'be horseman who escorted him shewed him to tb^ 
spectators with the point of , their sabres. The mob stopt 
him before the house in which be lived; some women 
flanced before the cart, and one of them .cried out to bim^ 
*^ Descend to hell with the. curses of all wive;s and f>i all mo^ 
thers !'* The executioner, when preparing for the pexform- 
apceof bis pfBce, roughly tore off the bandage from, his 
\yound ;. Robespierre theu uttered a dreadful cry, bi^.u/ider 
jaw fell from theupper^. and the h^ad while he waa yet 
living exhibited as ghastly a spectacle as when a few mi- 
nutes afterwards Samp^on^ the executioneir, holding it. by 
the hair, exhibited it. to the multitude/ >. ' 

In this wretched man's person, there was little to ^e- 
commepd hiip. Hi^. figure, iU-deliueated, without, i^gu- 
larity, withput proportion, without grace 19 the outline, ^ 
was something above the ix^iddle. size. He bad in bis bands, 
shoulders, neck, and eyes, a convulsive. motipn, His,pfa|y- 
siog^iomy, his look was without expression. He carried 
on hi§ livid couoteiianqe, and on his brow, which, he often 
wrinkled, the traces of a choleric disposjtipn* His manners 
were brutal, bis gait was at once abrupt and heavy. The 
harsh inflections of his voice struck, the ear disagreeably ^ 
be screeched rather than »poke : a residence in the capjlai 
had not been able to overcome entirely the. harsboes&^f 
his articulation. Ifi the.pronunc^iation of many word^^ms 
provincial accent, was discbverable ; and this deprived bis 
speech of all melody. 

Some have expres^d their surprise that a man to whpm 
nature had thus been so niggardly, and whose mind owed 
so little to cultivation, ji^bould have acquired ^uch an as- 
cendancy ; but a more minute acquaintance with the lead* 
iug men in France during bis time will remove much of- 
this surprise* It has b^en said that Nero was xxoi t|it 

R O B E S P' I E « R E. 277 

worst man of his court; and it is certain that Robespierre 
was preceded, accompanied, and followed, by men who 

' could have acted his part with equal inclination and faci- 

riitjf, bad they been placed in his circumstances.^ 

ROBINS (Benjamin), an English mathematician of 

' gi-eat genius and eminence, wa6 born at Bath in Somer- 

" set^hire in 1707. His parents, who were quakers, were 
of low condition, and consequently neither able, from their 
fcircumstances, nor willing froih their religious profession, 
to have him much instructed in that kind of learning which 
ttrey are taught to despise as human. Yet lie made an 
early and surprising progress in various branches of science 
and literature, in the mathematics particularly ; and his 
friends, being desirous that he might contiifue his pur- 
suits, and that his merit might not be buried in obscurity, 
wished that he could be properly recommended to teach 
this science in London. Accordingly, a specimen of his 

' abilitiies was shewn to Dr. Pfemberton, of the 
*< Viewt)f Sir Isaac Newtdn's Philosophy;'* who conceiv- 

' ihg a good opiuipn of the writer,' for a farther trial of his 
proficiency, sent hini some problems, ivhich Robins solved 

' very much to his satisfaction. He then came to London, 
where he confirmed the opinion ^which had been formed 
of his abilities and knowledge. 

-. fiuf thoflgh Robins was possessed of much m6re skill 
than is usually required in a common teacher, yet, being 

' veiy yotingy it was thought proper that he should employ 
ioiiie time in perusing the best writers upon the sublimer 
parts of the mathematics before he undertook publicly the 
in^stroction of others. In this interval, besides improving^ 
himself in the modern languages, he had opportunities of 
i'eading in particular the works c^f Apollonius, Archimedes, 

:» Fcrmat, Huygelis, DeWitt, Slusius, James Gregory, Dr. 

• Barrow, sir Isaac Newton, Dr. Taylor, and Mr. Cotes. 
These authors he readily understood without any assistance, 

' 4f which he gave frequent proofs to his friends : one was, 
' ii demonstration of the last proposition of sir Isaac Newton's 
treatise on quadratures, which was thought not undeserv- 
' ing a place in the " Philosophical Transaction s," No. 397, 
for 1727. Not long after, an opportunity offered of exhi- 
biting to the public a specimen also of his knowledge in 

1 Hutory of the coDSpiraejr of Robeipierre, by Montjoye.— Biographical 
Anecdot^f of the Founders of the Freoch Republic— Blogriphie Moderne.-^ 

* Quarterly Review, >Io. XIV. 

fll8 ROB IN S. 

iuttutal philosophy. The royal academy of sciences atr 
JParis bad proposed, among their prisie-queations vin 172^ 
and 1726/ to demoosirate the law^ of motion in bodies im-« 
pinging on ooe another. John Bernoulli here condescended 
to be a candidate; and^ though his dissertation lost the 
reward^ he appealed to the learned world by printing it m 
1727 ; and^ ia it, endeavoured to establish Leibnitz's opi^ 
Dion of the. force of bodies in moiion. from the effects of 
their striking against springing materials ; as signor Polent 
bad before attempted tQ evince the same thing (una expe4 
riments of bodies falling on soft and yielding substances^ 
But as the insufficieucy of Poleni^s arguments bad beetl 
demonstrated in the ^^ Philosophical Transactions^*' No» S71^ 
for 1722) so Robins published in the. <* Present State ol 
the Republic of Letters,*' for May 172a, a confutation of 
Bernoulli'^ performance, which was allowed to be unan<» 
swerable. $ 

. Robins now began to take scholars, and about this time 
quitted the garb and profession of a quaker ; but though he 
professed to teach the miktbematics only, he would fre-^ 
quently assist particular friends in other matters ; for, he 
was a mau of universal knowledge t andi the confinement 
of his way of life not suiting his disposition, which wias 
aptive, he gradually declined it, and aik>pted other pursuits 
that required more eiiercise. Hence ' he tried many labo* 
rious experiments in gunnery ; bdieving, that the resist:**^ 
ance of the air had a much greater influence on. swift pro« 
jectiles than was generally supposed. Hence he washed to 
consider those mochauic arts that depended on mathema* 
tical principles, in which he might employ his inv^otion ; 
as, the constructing of mills^ the building of bridges, drains 
ing of fens, rendering of rivers navigable, and makiti|^^ 
harbours. Among other arts of this kind^ fortification very 
much engaged bis attention ; in which he met with bppor« 
tunities of perfecting himself, by a view of the principal 
strong places of Flanders^ in some journeys he made abroad 
with persons of distinction. 

On his return home from one of these excursions, he 
found the learned here amused with Dr. Berkeley's treatisei 
printed in 17S4» entitled '* Tbe Analyst ;^' in which an ex^ 
amination was ifiade in the grounds of tbe fluxionary me^ 
thod, and occasion taken thus to explode that method. 
Robins therefore was advised to clear op this affair, by giv- 
ing a full and distinct accoiiht of sir IsalU^ Newton's dac* 

,% O B J N Si f» 

tiioes in wch a nmnoera^ to obviate jtU the otj^ctionsy 
witbotili^t naming tbeoiy wbicb had been advanced by the 
aotbor Qf *^ The Analyst;'' an^ accordingly ,he publitbed^ 
in n^^f ** A .DiscQurae concerning the ^Qature'fkqd cer- 
tainty of sir Isaac Newton'js niiethod of FluKiop9^ and of 
prianeand ttUimate raiio$." Spm^ even of those whoba4 
wmten against ^^Tbe Anal^at," taking exception -at SLo^ 
bios's manner of defending »ir I^as^c NevrtonV doctrine, be 
afterM»rda iwrote two or three additional fdispoitrseSf In 
1738) be defended air IsaaqNeviiton against an objcsctioo^ 
contained >in a. note at the end of a Latin piece, called 
$f.Miktbo,.slveC}psaii0tbearia puerilis/' written by Ba^ter^ 
author of the .*' Inquiry into the Ns^tQre of the huQianSoiil;;** 
and, the year after, printed *' Reiki^ks*' Of) £uler's ^* Treai^ 
lise 6f Motion,'*^ on •Smith's '/ Systeo of Optics,!' and on 
Junn7a ''^ Discoiurse of disunot and indistinct Vision," ,ao^ 
aexed to Dr. Sinitb*s work« In the mean time Robins'a 
perforaianoes were not confipedto luatheinaticai (subjects : 
fioHT, in 1339>y there came out throe pamphlets upon politi«r 
oiA affairs^ wbicb.did him .gf^ai>honour. The first was en^ 
lilied ^ S Observations » on the present Convention with 
Bpain;" the second, ^^A Nanative of what passed in the 
Gomsion Hall of the citiaens of London, assembled for the 
dection of a lord mayor ;" the tbird^^^' An Addi^ess tp the 
fileetors and other^free subjects. ofijrreat Britaim occasion^ 
ed by the late Succession; jnwbiqh is contained. a parti* 
oiriar account of; all our negoMationa with Sp^iio, and their 
tneataoent ofi us for above rten y^ars past'' These were.aU 
pRihlishal witboet iiis name ; .and tbet first and last were m 
universaUy esieemed, that they were:g»eoeraUy reputed toi 
have been tbe.production of^Mr. Pujteney, who was at the 
head JdE the opposition to sir Robert Walpole* They proven 
fd of ^aM0b'«onse<|iienoe' to }Afr» Jlobins as to occasio|i,hia 
bftifigi employed in i^ vesyihoaiourabl^post; for, the pppo* 
tttiou having, defeated siriiBohert, iai^d a. committee of the 
iiouse of Qommoos heioK appointed to .e^^amine into bia 
past conduct, Robins, waa^ chorea* their, seciretary. But 
alter a committee : had. :piiBS^n4ed two reports of thetir pro- 
ceedings a^sudden %top wasiput .to their iarther progress, 
fay ai compromise jbefiweenthi^ contending parties. 
t.l4i.i?4S,;,.lm9re, be -published a soiaU 
treatise,* entitled '* Now Principiies gf Gunnery ;" ppntain*. 
iog'the result of, maoyiexi^eriaiMeots he had made, by which 
are discovered the ferae; of .guorfiowderf. and the diiferenct 

««0 R 6 B f K S. 

in the resisting power of the air to swift and slow motion # 
This treatise was preceded by an account of the progrtes 
wbieh modern fortification had made from its first rise; aa 
also of the invention of gun-powder, and of what bad 
already been performed in the theory of gunnery. U{A>a 
h discourse concerning certain experiments being pdbKsbed 
in the ^' Philosophical Transactions/* in order to invalidate 
some opinions of Robins, he thought proper, iti aa liceottafc 
life gave of his book in the same Tmnsacttons, to take wo^ 
tice of those experiments: and, in consequence of this, se» 
veral dissertations of bis on the resistance of the air were 
read, and the experiments exhibited before the Royal So- 
ciety, in 1746 and 1747 ; for which he was presented whb 
a gold medal by that society. . , r: 

' In 1748, came out lord Anson's*'^ Voyage round the 
World ;'' which, though it <3arries Walter^s name' in^ the 
title-page, was in reality written by Robins. Of this voyj^e 
fbe public had, for some time, been in expectation of see- 
ing an account, composed under his lordship's own 'inspec- 
tion : for which purpose the rev. Richard Waker was em- 
ployed, as having been chaplain to the Centurion the 
greatest part of the expedition. Walter had * accordingly 
almost finished his task, having brought it down to his own 
departure from Macao for England ; when be proposed to 
print bis work by subscription. It was thought proper^ 
however, that an able judge should first review and correct 
it, and Robins was appointed ; when, upon examination, it 
was resolved, that the whole should be written entirely by 
Robins, and th^it what Waiter had done, being almost all 
taken verbatim from the journals, should serve as materials 
only. Hence the introduction entire, and many disserta- 
tions in the bc^y of the book, were composed by Robitts, 
without receiving the least hint fii'om Walter's manuscript ; 
and what he had thence transcribed regarded chiefly die 
wind and the weather, the currents, cowsesy bearings,. dis- 
tances, offings, soundings, moorings, the qualities of the 
ground they anchored on, and such particulars as generally 
fill up a saUor's account. No production of this kind ever 
aiet with a more iavourable reception, four Uirge impres- 
sions being sold off within a twelvemonth : it has been 
translated into most of the European languages; and it still 
supports its reputation, having been repeatedly refmnted 
in various sizes. The fif^h editton at London in 1749 was 
revised and corrected by RoUns himself . 

R O B I N a 2«i 

* ' Be w^ ne^ requested to compose an apdi^y for the 
r uafortuii^te affair at Preston Panii in Scotland. This was 
, prefixed as a preface to ** The Report of the Prpceedings 
and. Opinion of tbe Board :of General Officers on their 
efcamination intQ tbe conduct of Lieut^pant-general sir 
: John Cope» &c.^' printed at London in 1749 ; and this pre- 
face was esteemed a master*piece in its kind. Afterwards, 
Robins bad, by tbe favour of lord Anson, opportunities of 
flaking farther experiments in gunnery ; which have been 
< published since his death. He also not a little contributed 
%o the improvements made in tbe royal observatory at 
preenwich, by procuring for it, through the interest of the 
/ same noble person, a second mural quadrant and other in- 
struments, by which it became perhaps the completest ob- 
tervatory then* known. His reputation being now arrived 
at its full height, he was offered the cbqjce of two very con- 
siderable employments* Tbe first was to go to Paris, as 
. Qi^e of the commissaries for adjusting the limits in Acadia ; * 
>be other, to be engineer-general to the East India Com- 
pany, whose focis, being in a roost ruinous cDr\dition, 
ivanted a capable person to put them into a posture of de- 
fence. This latter he accepted,, as it was suitable to his 
.genius, and as the Company's terms were both ad van ta- 
, geous and honourable. He designed, if he had .remained 
, jn England, to have written a second part of the ^^ Voyage 
; round the World ;^* as appears by a letter from lord An- 
son to hiqi, dated ^< Bath, October 22, 1749 :'' 

"Dear Sir, 
. ^f Whep I last saw, you in town, I forgot to ask you, whe- 
' ibejr you intended to publish the second volume of my 
' Voyage^ before you leave us ;; which, I confess, I am very 
sorry for. If you should have la,id aside all thoughts of 
favouring the world with more of your works, it will be 
much disa.ppointed, and no one in it more than your very- 
much obliged humble servant, Anson/' 

.Robins was also . preparing an enlarged edition of his 
. f* New.Principlesof Qunnery ;'\but, having provided him- 
self with a complete set of astronomical and other instru- 
Dients, for making observations and experiments, in the lu^ 
'dies, be. departed hence at Christmas in 1749; and, after 
a voyage in which tbe ship was near being cast away, ar- ^ 
rived at the Indies, July 13, 1750. There lie immediately 
set about bis proper business with unwiearied diligence, arid 
formed complete plans for Fort St. David and Madras : but 

a8» ft O B { N S^ 


he lived not to* put tfaetn into exteation. For^ the gf^eat 
difierence of tfae climate being beyond hi» constiliitiofl ^ 
support, be was attacked by a fever in September ; dndf 
though be recovered out of this, yet about eight mootlw 
after he fell into a languishing condition, in which he con^ 
tinned till his death, July 29, 1751. By his last will, '^e 
left the publishing of his mathematical works to his ho^ 
soured and intitoate friend Martin Folkes, esq. president 
ef the Royal Society, and to James Wilson, M. D. doetor 
of physic ; but, the former of these gentlemen being inca^ 
pacitated by a paralytic disorder for some time before* bit 
death, they were afterwards published by the latter, 1761^ 
2 Tols. 6vo. To this collection, which contains his mathe-' 
matical and philosophical pieces only. Dr. Wilson ha9 pre<t^ 
fixed an account of Mr. Robins, from which this memoir is 
chiefly extracted, fie added also a large appendix at the 
end of the second volume, containing a great many carious 
and critical matters in various interesting parts of tfae ma« 

It is but justice to say that Mr. Robins was one ef th^ 
most accurate and elegant mathematical writers that our 
language can boast of ; and that he made more realim* 
provements in artillery, the flight and the resistance ofpro^ 
jectiles, than all the preceding writers on that subject. 
His <' New Principles of Gunnery^' were translatcid inter 
several other languages, and commented upon by several 
eminent writers. 'Thex;elebrated Euler translated the worfe 
into the German language, accompanied with a large, and 
critical commentary; acKl thi» work of Euler's was agtiin 
translated into English in 1784; by Mr. Hugh Brown^ witk 
notes, in one volume, 4to. ' 

ROBINS, or Robyns (John), an English mathematician^ 
was born in Staffordshire about the close of tfae IBth eeii<j 
tury, as be was entered a student at Oxford in iSlSj anil 
was in 1620 elected a fellow of AH Souls college, where 
he took his degrees in arts, and was' ordained. ' But the 
bent of his genius lay to the sciences, and he soon made 
Such a progress, says Wood, in ^^the pleasant studies of 
mathematics and astrology, that he became tfae ablest per^ 
son in his time for those studies, not excepted his friend 
Record, whose learning was more general. At length,* 

') til* by Dr. WiliieD.*-«»Bipf. Brit. . JSkipplAiMiit.-rltoliB's^ Bi<^ Pb'itot^-^ 
HuttoH's Dictionarj. 

B O B I K S. ^& 

tftkiitg'thb degree of B. p/in 15SI, he waathe yearfoHo^-* 
isg^made by king Henry tbe V^IIlb: (to whom be was chap-^ 
lain) <one of the caaonsofhia college in* Oxon, and in De<L 
fiember 1543, canoit of Windsor, and in'fine chaplain to 
queen Marff who had him ingiseatyenei^ation for his learn-^ 
iHg. Among teveral things that he hath written re)atit>g to 
aatrology (or astronomy) I find these following: * De cuU 
mnaiidne Fixarum Stellarnm/ &c.; ^ De ortu et occasu 
SneUarum Fhcarum/ &c.;. ' Annotationes Ascrologicee/ 
ke. lib. 3 ;' ^ Annotationes Edwardo VI. ;^ ^ Tractatu^ • 
de pro^nosticatioiie per EcUpsin.' All which books, that 
ate in MS. were some time in the choice library of Mr. 
Thomas Allen of Olocester Hal). After his death, coming 
into the hands of Sir Kenelm Digby, they were by hiol 
given to the Bodleian library, where they yet remain. It 
is also «aid, that be the said Robyns hathwritten a book 
entitled ^ De Portentosis Gometis ;' but liu'cb a thing f 
baTO not yet: seen, nor do I know any thing else of the an- 
tboi^, only that paying bis last debt to nature the 25th of 
Ajugust i558f hewas'buHed in tlie chapel of St. George, 
at Windsore.*' This treatise " De Portentosis Cometis," 
which Wood had not seen, is in the royal library (12 B. xv.) ; 
aadinihe British, museum (Ayscough^sCat.) are other works 
by fiobina; and one ^^ De sterilitatem generantibus,'' in 
the Asbmoieatt museum. ' « 

ROBINSON (Akastasia), an accomplished musical per-^ 
former, descended from a good iamily in Leicestershire, 
was the daughter <of a portrait painter, who, having risited 
haiy foir improvement in his art, had made himself mastei" 
ef. the Italian lai^uage, and acquired a good taste in mu- 
sic. Finding that his daughter Anastasia, during her child-* 
hood, tiadain<ear for music, and a promising voice, he had 
her taught by ^ Dr. Crofts, at first as an accomplishment ; 
bat afterwards i being afflicted with a disorder in his eyes,' 
which terminated in a total loss of sight, and this misfor«* 
tntm deprivmg^ him of the means of supporting himself and- 
iuiiily by hils' pencil, he was under the necessity of availing 
fcknselftof his^aughter^s disposition for music, to turu it to 
acoonnt as a. profession. She not only prosecuted her mu-^ 
aical studies. with great diligence^ but by the assistaince of 
i^r fether: bad acquired such a knowledge in the Italtan 
tongtie as enabled her to converse in that language, and 

> Ath» Ox. vol. h aew edlt^ 


to read the best poets in it with, facility. And t^t'Ukf 
taste in singing might approach nearer to that of the natives 
of Italy, 'she had vocal instructions from Sandonr, at that 
time an eminent Italian singing-master resident in London^ 
and likewfse from the opera singer called the' Baroness. 

Her first public exhibition was at the concerts in York- 
buildings, .and at other places, where she usually accom- 
panied herself on the harpsichord. Her general education 
bad been pursued with the utmost care and attention to the 
> improvement of her mind, as well as to ornamental and ex- 
ternal accomplishments ; and these advantages, seconded 
by her own disposition and amiable qualities, rendered her 
conduct strictly prudent and irreproachable. And what 
still entitled her to general favour, was a behaviour full of 
timidity and respect to her superiors, and an undissembled 
gentleness and affability to others, which, with a native 
cheerfulness that diffused itself to all aroudd her, gainefd 
her at all times such a reception from the public, as seemed 
to ensure her success in whatever she should undertake. 
Encouraged by the partiality of the public towards his 
daughter, and particularly by the countenance and pa- 
tronage of some persons of high rank of her own sex, Mr. 
Robinson took a house in Golden-square, where he esta- 
bhshed weekly concerts and assemblies in the manner of 
conversazioni^ which were frequented by all such as had any 
pretensions to politeness and good taste. 

Thus qualified and encouraged, she was prevailed upon 
to accept of an engagement at the Opera, where she made 
her first appearance in Creso, and her second in the cha- 
racter of Ismina, the principal female part in Armitiio* 
From this period till 1724, she continued to perform a 
principal part at the Opera with increasing favour and ap- 
pfanse. Her salary is said to have been 1000/. and h^r 
emoluments, by benefits and presents, were estimated at 
nearly as much more. When she quitted the stage it was 
supposed to have been in consequence of her marriage with 
the gallant earl of Peterborough, the friend of Pope and 
Swift, who distinguished himself so heroically in Spaih 
during the reign of queen Anne. Though the marriagle 
was not publicly declared till the earPs death in 1735, yet 
it was then spoken of as an event which had long taken 
place. And such was the purity of her conduct and cha- 
racter, that she was instantly visited at Fulham as the lady 
of the mansion^ by persons of the highest rank. Here, 

HOB IN S ON; 2«* 

jind at Mount B^vis, the earl's seat near Sputbampton, she 
resided in an exalted station till the year of her decease^ 
1750, surviving her lord fift«en years; who, at the tiinie 
of the connexion, must have been considerably beyond 
bis primey as he was arrived at his seventy-fifth year when 
be died. 

The following anecdotes of Mrs. Anastasia Robinson wera 
communicated to Dr. Burney in 1787, by the late vene- 
rable Mrs. Delany, her contemporary and intimate ac- 
quaintance. '^ Mrs. Anastasia Robinson was of a middling 
stature, not handsome, but of a pleasing, modest coun- 
tenance, with large blue eyes. Her deportment was easy^ 
unaffected, and graceful. Her manner and address: very 
engaging; and her behaviour, on all occasions,' that of a 
gentlewoman, with perfect propriety. She was not onlj 
liked by all her acquaintance, but loved and caressed by 
persona of the highest rank, with whom she appeared al- 
ways equal, without assuming. Her father'3 house ia 
Golden-square was frequented by all the men of geniu» 
and refined taste of the times ; among the number of per- 
sons of distinction who frequented Mr. Robinson^s bouse» 
aud seemed to distinguish his daughter in a particular man^p 

ner, were the earl of Peterborough and general H j the 

latter had shewn a long attachment to her, and his atten*^ 
, tions were so remarkable, that they seemed more than the^ 
efiiects of common politeniess; and as he was a very 
agreeable man, and in good circumstances, he was fa- 
vourably received, not doubting but that his intentions 
\ were honourable. A declaration of a very contrary nature 
was treated with the contempt it deserved, though Mrs. A. 
; Robinson was very much prepossessed in his favour. 

^^ Soon after this, lord Peterborough endeavoured to con- 
vince her of his partial regard for her; but, agreeable tod 
artful as be was, she remained very much upon her guard, 
.which rather increased than diminished bis admiration and 
passion for her. Yet still his pride struggled with his in- 
.dihatioo ; for all this time she was engaged to sing in pub- 
lic, ia circumstance very grievous to her, but urged by tba 
. best of motives, she submitted to it, in order to assist her 
parents, who^e fortune was much reduced by Mr. Robin-* 
son^s loss of sight, which dicfprired him of the benefit of hii 
profession as a painter. 

'^ At length lord Peterborough made his d^claraticm to 
^erph honourable terms; he found it would be vain tooiakf 

4TO R O B I N 8 O W. 

ptoposalson any other ;* and as be omitted ho cirdi&istanGe, 
^bat could engage her esteem and gratitnde, she accepted 
thenif as sbe^vras sincerely attached to him. He earnestly 
irequeUed her keeping it a secret till itvrasa more conve^ 
fiiont time for him to make it known, to which: she readily 
consented, having a perfect confidence in his honour;. 
Among th^ persons of distihctioiithat professed a frien<^- 
afaip for Mrs.' A. Robinson, were the ear) and countess of 
Oxford) daugbter-in^lavr to the iord-treasurer Oxford, Who 
iiot only bore every publie testimony of their affection and 
esteem fot" Mrs. A. Robinaon, but Jady Oxford attended her 
when she was privately married to the earl b( Peterborough^ 
and lady Peterborough erv0r acknowledged her jobligations 
irilh die warmest gratitude; and after bidy Oxford^s death 
.the was particularly distingaished by the dachess of Port* 
landi lady Oxford^s daughter, and was always mentioned! 
by her with the greatest' kindness ^r the many friendiy 
offices ahe used to do her in ber childhood when in lady 
Oxfoid*s family^ whioh tnade a la^tin^g impression-npt^n the: 
4uchess of Portta^dV nobte and generoiM beartj 

<* Mr^4.A«ftobin$on had one aister^ a very pretty accomv 
pliflbed woman^ who married Dr. Arbuthnot's broiixer. Af4 
lev the death of Mr. Robinson, lord Peterborough/ tocde a 
^ome near Fulbam, in the neigbbourbood of ftis own vilia 
at Parson'ft* Green, where be settled Mrs. Robinson and. 
ber fnotben They never lived nnder the same* rdof till the 
earl> being seized with a violent'fit of illness, solicited heir 
10 attend him at Mount Bevis, near Soothampton, which 
ahe reftisedrwkb' firmnessi, < but npoii condition tbat, though 
ftiU denied to take bis name, sbe/migfat be permitted to 
wear her weddiiig<'ving ; to wUch,* finding her loie^ot^ble, ' 
be^ at lengdi consented. 

. :f^ Hiahftoghty (Spirit was still reluctant to the making n 
dedbiratioki that wootd have dune justice to 00 worthy a 
character as tbe^'t^tei^soh to whom be was now utiited ; and, 
indeed^ bis uncontrollableitemper, and high opinioa of Ms 
pwn -actions,' made hisfi a very awful husband, ill suited to 
lady Peterborough's good sense, amiable temper, and de^ 
licite sentiments. She was a Roman catholic, but. never 
gave oSence to those of a contrary opinion^ though very 
•tri^t in what she thought herdiity. Her exceHent' prin* 
ciples and fortitude of mind support;ed her through many 
severe trials in her conjugal state. Bat at last he prevailed 
#11 himself to do her justice, instigated^ it is supposed^ b/ 


BU bad ftat^ x>i health, . whi^h objliged bim (o seek aooiber 
climate, and she al^solutel^ refused to go with him unless 
he declared his marriage;, her atte^idanceupon bim in im 
illne39 nearly co^t her her life* 

*y He appointed a day for all bis nearest relations to mee( 
him at the aparrment over the gate-way of St. James's 
paUi?e, belonging to Mr. PoiotZi who was married ta 
lord Pet^bpro^gh's nieqe^ .ai^d at that time, preceptpr Xo 
prii^ce \VJlliam, a/terwards duke of Cumberland. l>ord 
P^tejrbofough also appointed lady Peterborough to be there 
at the siame time* When.they were a}l assembled, be began 
a most eloquent oration^ enuioerating all the virtues and 
perfections of Mrs. A. Biobinson,' and the rectitude of hev 
cpnduct^during his long acquaintance with heri for wbicb 
be acknowledged his great obligations and sincere attache 
men^, declaring he ^asdctermined to do her that justice 
which he ought to liave done long ago, which was preseojU 
ing her to all his family as bis wife. He. spoke this ba<« 
rangue with so much enexgyv aiid^ ia paits so pathetically^/ 
that lady Peterbovough^.oot being apprised of hisinten* 
tionsy was so affected tba^ she faulted aivay in the midst oC 
.Ibe. company. 

** After lord Pe^rbprougb'sileatb she lireda vesy relire4 
life, chiefly at Mpunt Bevjs, and was seldom, prewailed qu 
to leave that habitasioa, biu by the duchesa of Pordaad* 
who: was alwsays happy to have her company at Bul^lrodft 
whea she pould oj^tatp it, and often yisiteid ber at ber man 

<^ Among lord. Petdvborongh's papera she foiind his iiie«> 
moirsj written by himself, iu wbic^ be declared he had beeu 
guilty of such aqtions as would have reflected very mi^ph 
upon his character. For which reason she burnt them i tbi^^ 
howe.ver, contributed to complete tbe excel^enoy of her 
principles, thpugh it did not fail giving offence .to the cu* 
rioiM inquirers after anecdotes of S9 re^iarkable a cbaraqter 
as that of tbe earl of Peterborough.'' ^ 

ROBINSON (Huoa), a learned divine and schoolmaster^ 
was born in St. Mary's par.ish, in the county of Angleseap 
andeducated at Winchester ^bool, where he was admitted 
probationary fellow of New college» O)cford| in 160%9 and 
in 1605 perpetual fellow. He completed bis master's. de«^ 
gree in 161 1, and about thcee years afbart leaving colleg;e,. 

} Barney '« Hi^t. of Mu»ie.-«»Pope^ Works, bf Btwl^t. 

tSS E O B IN 1^0 19. 

became <:bief master of Winchester school. ' He was ftft«rM 
wards archdeacon of Winchester, canon of Wells, D.!}-* 
and archdeacpn of Gloucester. Having sided with the 
party that were reducing the cbureb to the presbyterian 
form, and taken the covenant, be lost the advantages of 'his 
canonry and archdeaconry, but obtained the rector^ of Hin<^ 
ton, near Winchester, in room of a loyalist. He diedMareb 
30, 1655^ and was buried in St. GilesVin^^tbe* Fields, Lon*- 
don. Wood gives htm the character of an excellent linguist^,' 
an able divine, and very conversant in ancient faistoi*y. Her 
wrote for the use of Winchester school, *« Preces; GraYn-^ 
maticalis qusedam; & Anti^fi® Historio Synopsis,'' prints 
ed together at Oxford in 1616, 8vo ; •'* Scholte Wintonien* 
sis Phrases Latinee,*' Lond. 1654 and 1664, published by hik 
aoH Nicholas; and '^Annalium mundi universalium, &c« 
Tomus Unicus, lib. 14. absolutus/' &c.Lond. 1677, fol. im-^ 

frqved by Dr. Thonas Piairce, dean of Salisbury, by tbd 
jng's command. Wood adds, that he wrote a vindication 
cf the covenant, which he had not seen.* 

ROBINSON* (John), a distinguished English prelate aniL 
•talesmai), was bprn at Cleasby, in Yortcahire, Nov. 7, 1650, 
and educated at Oriel college, Oxford, to which he Was 
afterwards a liberal benefactor. After he had completed 
bis notaster^s^egree, and taken^ orders, hewent about 16SSf 
to Sweden, as domestic chaplain to the British ambaissador' 
at that court ; and in his absence was appbinted first fest^. 
dent, then envoy extraordinary, • arid lastly ambassador. 
He remained in this rank until 1708. During this timefatf 
published his '^ Account of Sweden, as it was in t6Sft/*' 
tvhich is generally printed with 4erd Moiesworth^s aeeoutHl 
of Denmark. On his return to England, her majesty, qu^eff 
Anne, was so sensible of the value of bis services^ that ^ her 
toade him dean of Windsor, registrar of the ordei" of- th^is 
garter, and prebendary of Canterbury. He was also 'in 
1710 preferred to the bishopric of Bristol. His political 
knowledge recommerided bitn to the confidence of the earl 
of Oxford, then at the head of administration, who resolved 
to have him ofthe t>rivy council. For this p4)rpose, be vvas 
first made lord privy seal, and afterwards was admitted to a* 
seat at the council board, where he so distinguished him- 
self that queen^ Anne made choice of him as one of her pie*-- 
Ntpotentiaries at the memorable treaty of Utrecht. Witk 

1 AUi. Ok. vol. II. * ' 

B O B I N a O N. 489 

wtot spirit be behaved on this occasioiiy appears from the 
common histories of the treaty ^ and Swift's ** Four last ^^eara 
of the Queen." He was also appointed one of the com-* 
inissioners for finishing St. Paul's (cathedral, and for bQild«> 
ing fifty new cbttrches in London ;* was a governor of the 
Charter- house, and dean o( the* cbapel royal. On the 
death of Dr. Compton in 1714^ he was translated to the see 
of London, and the queen, indeed, had such regard for' 
bim, that had she .outlived the archbishop of Canterbury^ 
she would have made Dr. Robinaon primate. 
, After his advancement to the see of London, he gave 
nany proofs of his great affection for the established churchy' 
by opposing innovations, contribuiiug to, and promotihj^ 
the augmentation of poor livings; and by vindicating hi» 
dergy against unjust asper&ions. His steady attachment 
to. the civil constitution was not less conspicuous, in hia 
charges to his clergy, and his personal example and coiw 
duct. As a benefactor, he was distinguished by many acta 
of munificence. Every place, indeed, with which he wai 
connected^ felt ibe benefit of his public spirit; the plac^ 
of his birth, in the 'building and endowment of a chapet 
SHud a school ; Oriel college, in the addition! of buildings'' 
towards the east side of the garden, and the foundation of 
some ample exhibitions ; the ecclesiastical houses in which 
he refided were generally repaired by him at great ex^ 
pence; and to the poor in general he was very generous. • 
Machay has described this worthy prelate as '< a little 
brown man ; of a grave and venerable countenance ; very 
charitable. and good^humovred*; strictly religious himself, 
and taking what care he c^n tamake others so.'' . He died 
at Hampsteadi of an asthmatic disorder, April 11, 1723^ 
and was buried at Ful ham, April 19. He was twice mar- 
ried ; his first wife, Maria, was daughter of William Lang- 
ton,: esq. Her liberal mind is delicately commemorated 
on the inscription on the front of bis buildings at Oriel 
OPfUege* His second wife, Emma, whose family name we 

^ It was on this prelate (hat the other bookselier«« aud that he would 

ni>tl>rioa» Ednhuiid'Cartl cndeaToored send his lordship an interleaved cdpy 

tft pbiy'A triickY which has beenr attri* from which he might strike oat what^ 

buted to.and perhaps really attemjHed e^er he thouj^ht amissy and the th^eXM 

by others. The good bishop sent a thus Altered should be reprinted, and 

^MemAtk to Cortl to express his oon- " rendered oooformable to bis' U^d^ 

c^m at hearing that he meant to pab- ahip^s opinion.*' The bishop, iiowever, 

lish an edition of Rochester's poems, saw through the trick, aad rejaieted the 

Corll allowed that such an edition was protferrCMl copy. 
actually printed, not for him oolyi but 

Vol. XXVI. U 


know not| sumved bim, and was buried at Folbam, Jaii* 
36, 1T48. He left no issoe, but many collateral descend* 

- ROBINSON (Maru), a ladjr of consvderable literary 
talents^ wbose maiden name was Darby, was bom at Bris- 
tol,' Not. 27, 1758. Her life having been, published, io 
pai^ written by herself) and completed by a friend^ it may- 
be tbdught we cannot be deficient in materiala fur the pre- 
sent article* But these documents partake too much of 
the nature of a novel for our purpose. Mrs. R<ri>insoR waa 
a/mt/'iady of much note in her day, and for such it has 
been tbe fashion of late years to encourage the publication 
of *^ Apologies,'' tbe object of all which, for they are very 
uniform, is to relax the- obligations of virtue, and to prove 
that vice, with its attendants, vanity and esttravagaoce^ 
has nothing to dread but from poverty. It is then oaiyy 
when all is spent, and indigence stares in the face, that wer 
are to begin to think that something has been amiss, and to 
pour out our exculpatory sympathies in sentimental stFaios./ 
From such narratives, it becooies 4)s to borrow with cautions 
Mrs. Robinson was married very early: in life to a bus-^ 
band who had little to maintain her, and for some time she 
shaped in his misfortunes, but, according to her own ac«^ 
county she spent what she could in dress, resorted muofaK 
to public places, >and admitted the visits of nohlemeo of 
libertine charaetera. At length she had recourse to dief 
stage, and while performing the character of Perdita in* 
Shakspeare^a *^ Winter's Tale," captivated the you^bfiil. 
afiections of a distinguished personage, aod consented ta. 
his terms. This connexion, with all its gay and splendiii 
embellishinents, and all the flattery and admiration wbtok 
beatity and levity oould wish, lasted about two years, at the. 
end of which period she found > herself inr possession of- 
jewels to :the amount of 8000/. and an annuity of 500/.' 
After a short recess from a mode of life, into which hep 
apologists tell usahe was driven by necessity, she formed 
another coiinexion of the same kind, which they allow was 
from choice, with a gentleman of the armfy, and lavished 
thox whole of her dis{K>sable property on this new favourite*' 
She also lost the use of her limbs in following him, during 
a severe winter night,- to a sea^port, where she hasted to 

' Nidiolf *8 Atterbury. — Lysons's Environs, vol. II. — and Supplement. — CbaU 
mers'g Bi8t. of Oxford — ^bVifi't Workt.— Burnetts Own Tunes.— Gent. Mag. toL' 
LIV. and iXXII. 


tdiev^'bim firoih a tern pom vj etnb«rMisBineiitl Not kmg 
Bftery she went to tbet^ontinentfor her health, aod remain* 
ed there about five years. On her return in -1788, she 
e^mmenced her -literary career, in whrcfasbe bad consider- 
able sijccess* IiT 1 800 her healtb begair fea decline rapidly, 
l^incipaUy fron* want of propec exercise, for khe never re- 
covered the use of her Kntbs ; andafter lingering for some 
trine; sfaediedat Englefield Gtreen, Dec/ 28,' of that year, 
and was'bnriedrin Old Windsor xburch-yaird. Sbe retained 
in ber latter days, although only forty-two years old, but 
little of that beauty for which sbe was once admired, aiid 
vdiicb, friom-ffbe ttiditient aprice was set^ upon it, proved 
the t^aose. of all her misfortunes. 

The following is said to be a complete list of her publi- 
cations: 1. "Poems,'* in twovolun^es, 8vo, iJ. " Legiti- 
ipate Sonnets, with Thoughts on .Poetical Subjects, and 
Anecdotes of the Grecian Poetess; Sappho.'' iJ. ** A Mo- 
nody to the memory of the Queen of France." 4. " A 
Monody to the memory of Sir Joshua Reynolds." 5. Mo* 
dern Manners ; a Satire, in two cantos,"* 4to; 6. "The 
Sicih'an Lover, a- Tragedy, in fire acts." 7. " Sight; The 
Gavern of Woev and SoKtude; three Poems," 4to. 8/ 
A Pamphlet in vindication of the Queen of France.; pub« 
liabed without a name. i9. A Pam^phlet entitled ^'Thought^i 
on the- condition of Women, and the Injustice of Mental 
Subordination.'' 10. ^ Vancensa^ a Romance," 2 vols. 
1 K ^ The Widow," a Novel, 2 vols. 12. " Angelina," a 
Novd, 3 vols. 13. « Hubert de Sevrac," a Romance, 3 
vols. 14. " Wateingbaro,'? a Novel, 4 vols* 15. "The 
false Friend," a Novel, 4 vols. . 16. " The Natural Daugh- 
ter^'? a Novel, 2^s. 17; " Lyrical Tale«," 1 vol. crown 
Bw^, IS: ** A Picture of Palermo, translatfed from Dr* 
Hager;" 1^. "The Lucky Escarpe," a farce, not pub- 
lidbed. 20. ** Nobody," a comedy, aW not published. 

Ofall'tbese^ it tis probable tbsM; her poems will longest 
continue to be read» ■■ She bad in her earliest oflForts of this' 
Und adopted th6 false style of the Delia Grosca school, so 
happily ridiculed by the author of the ** Bavtad'? and " Mob- 
viad," bdt her late :prod actions displayed a mOre correct 
tiaisie, anrd^more ease and elegance of versification, with 
equal, -hcliness of imagination. Her *< Plays" had but 
tfemporary success ; and her:^* Novels/? although not desti- 
tute of inventipn, were written with too. much haste fof 
lasting reputation. She appears to have been frequently 

u 2 

i92 R d B I N S O R 

importuned by her employers to furnish the circulating \u 
braries with novelties, when her powers both of *bocly anS' 
mind were considerably in^pairedy y^t she laboured with 
greiait perseverance, and is said to have earned by her lite* 
rary performances nearly the amount of her ajinuity.^ 

ROBINSON (Richard), archbishop df Armagh^ and 
lord Rokeby, was the immediate descendsint of the Robin- 
sons of Rokeby, in the north riding of the comity of York^ 
and was born in 1709. He was educated at Westminst^« 
school, whence be was elected to Christ chuixh, Oxford, in 
1726. Afier continuing his studies therefor some years, 
and taking his master^s degree in 173S, Dr. Blackburn^ 
archbishop of York, appointed him his chaplain, and cot- 
, lated him first to the rectory of Elton, in the east riditigof 
Yorkshire, and neict to the prebend of Grindal, in the ca.- 
thedral of York. In 175 1 he attended the duke of Dorset, 
lord lieutenant of Irellind,'' to that kingdom, as his first 
chaplain, and the same year was promoted to the bishopric 
of Killala. A family connexion with the earl of Hoidernesse, 
who was secretary of state that year, with the earl of Sand- 
wich and other noblemen related to him, opened the fair- 
est prospects of attaining to the first dignity in the IHsb 
church. Accordingly, in 1759, he was translated to the 
isnited sees of Leignlin and Ferns, and in 1761 to Kildare. 
The duke of Northumberland being appointed to the Ireo- 
tenancy of Ireland in 17j55, JDr. Robinson was advanced to 
the primacy of Armagh, and made lord almoner and vice- 
chancellor of the university of Dublin. When lotd'^Haf-. 
court was lord-lieutenant of Ireland in 1777, the king was 
pleased, by privy-seal at St. Jameses, Feb. 6, and by patent 
at Dublin the 26th of the same months to create htm bafon 
Rokeby of Armagh, with remainder to Matthew Robinson 
of West Layton, esq. and in 1783 he was appointed predate 
to the order of St. Patrick. On the death of the duke oC 
Rutland, lord-lieutenant of Ireland, in 1787, he was no- 
minated onQ of the lords justices of that kitigdom. Sir 
William Robinson, his brother, dyiiig in 1785, the primate 
iucceeded to the title of baronet, and was the survivor in 
the direct male line of the Robinsons of Rokeby, being tiie 
eighth in descent from William of Kendal. His grace died 
at Clifton, near Bristol, in the end of October, 1794. 

No primate ever sat in the see of Armagh, who watched; 


.t.« Mtmoirs of Mn* Robiason^ written by berielf,'* dec 13Q1> 4 wUu. ISmo.. 

R O E I N S O N. 293 

More carf fully over the legal rights of the church of Ireland, 
as the statute*book evinces. The act of the 1 ith and l^ih 
of bis present, majesty, which secures to bishops and eccle- 
siastical persons repayinenc by their successors of expendi- 
tures in purchasing glebes and bouses, or building new 
liouses, originated from him, and must ever endear his 
Dame to. the clergy* The other acts for repairitig clxurches^ 
and facilitating the recovery of ecclesiastical dues^ were 
.among the mauy happy exertions of this primate. 

But it was at Armagh, the ancient seat of the primacy, 
that he displayed a princely munificence. A very elegant 
palace^ 90 feet by 60, and 40 high, adorns that town ; it is 
Ijlgbt and pleasing, without the additioa of wings or lesser 
parts ; which too frequentl}% wanting a sufficient uniformity 
with the body of the ediGce, are unconnected with it ia 
.effect, and divide the attention. Large and ample offices 
are conveniently; placed behind a plantation at a small dis- 
tance. Around the palace is a large lawn, which spreads 
on every side over the hills, skirted by young plantations, 
in one of which is a terrace, which commands a most beau- 
tiful view of cultivated hill and dale. This view from the 
jpalace is much improved by the barracks, the school, and 
^ new church at a distance ; all which are so placed as to be 
e.xceediiigly ornamental to the whole country. The bar- 
,)facks were er^ected hnder the prioiate^s direction, and form 
^^j^rge and handsome edifice. The school is a building of 
fco^siderable extent, and admirably adapted for the pur- 
^ppse ; a more beautiful, or one better contrived, is no wt^ere 
;tQbeseen; there are apartments for a master; a school- 
TQom 56 feet by 2d, a large dining-room and spacious airy 
^dormitories, with every other necessary, and a spacious 
, play-ground, walled in; the whole forming a handsome 
from: and attention being paid to the residence of the 
master (tl^e salary is 400/. a year) the school flourishes, and 
must prove one pf the greatest advantages to the country. 
.This edifice was built entirely at the primtfte^s expence. 
The church is erected of white stone, and having a tall 
^pire, makes a very agreeable object, in a country where 
churches and spires do not abound. The primate built 
three other churches, and made considerable reparations 
> in the cathedral : he was also the means of erecting a pub- 
lic infirmary, contributing amply to it himself. He like- 
wise coitstructed a public library at his own cost, endowed 
it^ and gave it a large collection of books. The room is 


45 feet by 2 5/ and 20 high, with a gallery; atid apariments 
for the librarian. 7'he town iie ornamented with a market-* 
bouse and shambles, and was the direct means, by giving 
leases upon that condition, of almost new building the whole 
place. He found it a nest of mud-CiibinS( and he left it a 
well-built city of stone and slate. Nor was he forgetful of 
the place of his education. On the new gate, built bv 
Wyat, for Christ-church, Oxford, the primate is comme** 
morated as one of the principal contributors to the eXpenca 
of building that gate- and repairing Canterbury quadrangle. 
In these noble and spirited works, the primate expended 
upwards of 30,000/, The celebrated Mrs. Montagu \Vas 
cousin to this prelate; and her brother, the late eccentrio 
lord Rokeby, bis successor in that title^ on which, however^ 
be set no value.' * • ' ; ' 

ROBJNS^ON (Robert), a dissenting divine, of the Bap^^ 
list persuastoiiy was born in October 1735, at Swaflliam, in 
the county of Norfolk, and was son of Mr. Michael Iiobiu-> 
sop, a native of North Britain, who possessed a moderate 
independence. He wa3 sent to a Latin school at SwafFham^ 
at the age of six years, vyhere he made a considerable pro« 
ficiency, and discovered tn Uncommon capacity for learn# 
ing, and afterwards to an endowed grammar-school at 
Scarning, where be gained some knowledge of the French^ 
as well as of the cla^ical Idnguages. Ail this, however^ 
ended in his being put apprentice to a hair-dresser, in 
Crutched-Friars, London. For this occupation his mind 
was, as may be supposed, already unfitted by the taste foif 
learning which hh education had given him, and \^i>ich he 
still endeavoured to improve during some part of the hours 
devoted to sleep. During his apprenticeship he appears 
to have imbibed serious impressions of religion, whi^h b^ 
encouraged, by attending the most celebrated preachers of 
the day among the independents, the baptists, and the 
Calvinistic clergy. Dr. Guyse and Gill among the dUsen^ 
ters, Romaine in the church, and Whitfidd, the leader of 
the Calvinistical methodists, were his chief favourit^k; 

When about the age of twenty, his indentures were given 
up, at his own request, as he had a strong desire to become 
a preacher. His first sermon was delivered to a ismall con* 
gregation at Mildenhall, in Suffolk, and he afterwards con* 
tinued to preach among the methodists, at various places^ 

) Eooydopgiclis Sritsaniqat 


ibr about two years, when being' Ofisuccessrul in forming k 
.church among them, be left them, and formed a small in^ 
xlependeiit congregation at Norwich, on leaving which, he 
»lso gave up infant baptism^ lii 1759, he became preadh^ 
^o a congregation of baptists at Cambridge, and such wato . 
his popularity here, that bis hearers, daily increasing, were 
jeqaUed to build a new and commodious meeting, in 1774* 
here he was frequently interrupted by the impertinent visins 
of some under-graduatQs, against whom be was finally com^ 
pelled to appeal to the laws of bis country, which secured 
<the future tranquillity of the assembly. This seeolsi to hto 
the period of his life most happy and faultless^ He had not 
as y^t publicly engaged in abstruse theological difi^putatiotifT; 
bQ vigilantly performed the duties of his pastoral office*; 
and, if some of the younger students of the university^ in 
ibe gaiety of youthful intemperance, had insulted him, be 
was amply repaid for it by the. friendship and protection of 
many of its most worthy and learned metnbers ;• for^ he 
embraced erery opportunity which that university afforded * 
of making amends for a defective education, and pursued' 
a course of reading extensive and varied. ^ The ^piibHc li- 
braries were not only open to biro, but he was allowed tb*e 
plrivilege of having books from them at his own habitation*. . 
. In 17713, as his salary was inadequate to provide fot his 
numerous family (be married in 1759), he removed to - 
Chesterton, near Cambridge, and commenced farmer, to 
which,, in tinrie, be added the businefss of ^'dealer in -corn 
and jcoals. These occupations, however,' did not intefrupt 
bis literary pursuits, nor do they appear to have been very 
profitable. He was first known ad an author by publishing, 
in 1774, " Arcana," a pamphlet respecting the petition tb 
parliament for relief in matters of subscription ; and the fol- 
lowing year, an appendix to Alleyne's *' Legal Degrees of 
Marriage.** It consists of a discussion of the question, *' Is 
it lawful and right for a man to marry the sister of his de- 
ceased wife?" in which he maintained the affiriihative. In 
the same year he published a volume of " Sermons,^ trans- 
lated from the French of Saurin, which was followed, at 
different periods, by four others. Introductory to these 
volumes are prefatory dissertations, containing memoirs of 
the. reformation in France, and the life of Saurin, together 
with reflections on deism, Christian liberty^ &c. -^ » 

In the year 1776, during the controversy respecting the 
divinity of Christ, which had been carried on principalfy 



196 R O BINS QN. 

jby ojiemberii of the church of England, Mr. Robinson pdbk 
lisbed ** A Plea, for the. Divinity of our Lord Jesus Cbriat^ 
&c.'V This piece is written with much ingenuity, and it 
procured the author. a number. of handsome complicnents^ 
not only from, dissenting ministers, but ^so from sevexai 
dignitaries of the established church. . Among the lattee 
were Dr. HinchlifTe, bisbop of Peterborough, Dr. HaiUfax^ 
afterwards bishop of Gloucester, Dr.,Beadon, afterwarda 
bishop of Bath and Wells, and Dr. Tucker, dean of Giou* 
ceater. Some years after, Mr. Lindsey published, first 
without, but afterwards with his name, ^^ An Examination 
of Mr. Robinson's Plea for the pivinity of Christ ;'l to 
•which Mr. Robinson, although frequently called upon, de^ 
dined to reply. . To his friends he ss^id, '^ The anonymous 
examiner has not touchj^d loy arguments^ aod his spirit; is 
• bitter and contemptuous. His faith stands on criticisms^ 
and my argument is, that, if :the doctrine requires critical 
prqof, it is not popular, and therefore not divine."> Thil 
silence, however,, occasioned some suspicion .that be was 
not very sincere, which his conduct aftexwards confirmed; 
In 1777, Mr. Robinson pqbiisi^ed a small trat^t, eutitled 
/* The History and. Mystery p^f Qood Friday," in which he 
employed the same ^^ bitter. and contemptunus spjritv^/ 
which be had just complained pf, in ridiculing tb^a i:iOiiiiii«'-* 
iDoration of the death of our Saviour. In 1778, MiT. Robin* 
son published ^^ A Plan, of Lectures on the. Principles- of 
Nonconformity, for the instruction of Catechumens.!* This 
piece contains an outline, of the whole controveray of the 
•dissepters with the church of England, and of their bisteuc):, 
,from the period of the reforfiiation, to 1778, which of 
course appeared highly, satisfactory, to his brethren, Toi^ 
wards the close of the same year, be published ^^ An Essay 
on the Composition^of a Sermoji, t^ranslat^d from the ori« 
ginal French of the, rev. John. Claude, with Notes," in i 
vols, 8vo, . The preface: to the first volume of ihe/^Eway'' 
consists of nxemuirs of the life of the author. * i 

In 1780^ i^r: Robinson paid a visU to. the university of 
Oxford,, apd afte;rwards accompanied some friends on II 
toiir into Scotland, whc^re he was much, gratified by civi> 
lilies shewn him by soq[ie of the literati of Edinburgh^ and 
he might have received the diploma of .doctor of divinity, 
had he not thought, proper to decline, that compliment. 
Soon after his ret.urn to Cambridge, he. published a iittle 
tract well calculated to produce a Catholic spirit among 

K O B I N S O N. 1J97 

hik beeifaren of the Baptist denomination, et^tuled '< The 
General Dodtrine of Toleration, applied to the particaiar 
Case of Free Communion,*' It was about this period he' 
preached and published a sermon, entitled *^ Slavery in-' 
eonaiatent with the Spirit of Christianity,** and he was the 
aotbor of atv excellent petition from tbe gentry, clergy; 
fve^holders, and other inhabitants in the county of Cam^ 
bridge, which was presented to the House of Commons. 
In the year 1781, at the desire of his brethren, he began 
ilo collect materials for the History of the English Baptists. 
Ift his researches he was led to enter on a larger field than 
5¥hat bad been originally proposed to him, and, instead of 
confining himself to the history of English Baptists, he 
Mra^t induced to trace the history of baptism from the 
i»trliest use of that rite, as well as that of Bap^sts in all 

f In tbe y«ar 17»2, Mr. Robinson published ** A* Politicgd 
Catechism,*' intended to convey, in a familiar manner, 
.what be conceived to be just ideas of 'good civil govern- 
Jbent, and the British constitution. In 1786, he published 
tf^Siirteen Discourses on several Texts 6f Scripttlre, ad- 
dheeased to Christian Assemblies, in vilUges near Cam- 
bridge; to which are added, Six Morning Eicercises/* 
Siich of these as touch on docjtrinal subjects \^ere writteh 
in a manner which gave bis friefids reason to thin£ that he 
(was now beginning to depart from the principles he had 
hitherto held so strenuously ; and they were not mistaken. 
With his congregation at Cambridge, however, he still 
continued hi$ ministerial labours; and remained high in 
their esteem, although, as a public instructor, he must, 
among so many changes, have become either useless oir 

.^ During the latter years of his life the intense application 
he had bestowed on his work on Baptism undermined the 
strength of his constitution, and brought on a gradual de* 
cay, attended with a great depression of spirits. In these 
eircunistaoces, it was hoped by bis family that a journey 
to Birmingham, and an interview with Dr. Priestley, which 
he had long wished for, might prove beneficial to bim. 
Jiaving arrived at that town, he ventured to. preach twice 
on the same Sunday, for the benefit of the charity schools. 
.His friends peroeiVed that he was ill, but none of them sus* 
pected his end was so near ; he spent the evening of the 
/following Tuesday in tbe cheerful society of his friends. 


but next nHoriiing, Jun^ 3, l%90j be was f6iindtk»d ih liiii 
bed. Some tioie before ^bis be bad became a complete 
convert to ttie doctrines of the htodern Socinians ; acban|{4 
whicb they seem willing to attribute to tbe writings of tit\ 
Priestley. This diviiie, we are told, charmt^d as he was 
with Mr« Robinson^s conversation, confessed himself much 
disappointed with bis preachings and characterized it in 
these words: '^ His discourse was unconnected arid desuU 
lory : and bis manner of treating the Trinity savoured ra^ 
ther of burlesque than serious reasoning. He attacked 
orthodoxy more pointedly aad sarcastically tbaa ever I did 
in my life.!' Few of our readers will require any other 
character of Mr. Robinson's attacks, on those prificiplep 
which he once held sacred. His largest work, *'The His^ 
tory of Baptism/' &c» appeared after bis death in a quarts 
voIume> with another connected with the subject, but evh 
titled, << Ecclesiastical Researches •;" both written with 
considerable ability, but less finished than if he had lived 
to prepare them Tor tbe press. The latter, in .parttculaf^ 
exhibits striking proofs of his rooted* inveteracy tolheestab^ 
lished church, as well as of his glaring inconsistency* .H^ 
appears, indeed, in none of bis works, as a man who hiUl 
attained that truth, or those positions, which. he soiiigbt to 
establish ; what was wanting in argument he aimed to sup** 
ply by a kind of buffoonery peculiar to himself ; and yetj; 
ivhiie thus versatile and unsteady in all his opinions, no mail 
was more intolerant towards t:l)ose who rested in. tbe belief 
of what they had been taught, and were desirous to pro^ 
pp.gate, * . . . - • 

ROBINSON (Ti^NCR£D), a learned physioian and bo<K 
tanist, and physician in ordinary to George K by whom he 
was knighted, was the very intimate friend of the celebrated 
Ray, who distinguishes htm by the title of amicorum alpha^. 
Of his early history we have not been able to recoveir 
many particulars^ He was nearly of an age, and ran his course 
for some time with sir Hans Sloane, with whom, when a 
student, be travelled to France, He was educated at St^^ 
John's college, Cambridge, where he took his degree uf 
bachelor of medicine in 1679, and that of doctor iu 1:685, 
While at Montpellier he wrote a letter to Dr. Martin Lif- 
ter, dated Aug. 4, 1 683, concerning, the fabric of the ie^ 
markable bridge, called. Pont de S« E^sprit, on the Rbine^ 

* Dyer's Li£p of Robinsooj 1796, Svo. 



Whieb was printed in the Pbilosopbical Transactions for 
June 1684; and, after his return in that year, he was 
elected a fellow of the Rojal Society. To this learned 
body he made various comuiunications, particularly an ac-^ 
count of the first four volumes of the ^* tfortus Matabari« 
cus f on the natural sublimation of sulphur from the pyrites 
end limestone at ^tna, &c.; an account of Henry Jen-^ 
kins^ who lived 169 years; and on other topics of natural 
history. The printed correspondence between him and 
itay commenced during Dr. Robin^n's travels, before men^ 
ttonedy and was continued for upwards of ten years. Se« 
Tenteen of his letters appear in the ^^ Philosophical Cor- 
respondence/* with all Mr. Ray*s answers. They run much 
cm the subject of Zoology ; but contain also botanical and 
philosophical observations. These, and what be communi<v 
cated to the *^ Philosophical Transactions/* prove him to 
liave been a man well acquainted with various parts of 
learning : to which he added also an intimate knowledge of 
natural history. In this branch Bf^y bad the hii^hest opinioa 
of him', and placed the greatest con'fidence in his assist 
tance. He had a seat in the council of the Royal Society 
for many years. He died March 29, 1748. * 

ROBINSON (Thomas), a late eminent divine at Leii> 
cester, the son of James Robinson, hosier of Wakefield iA 
Yorkshire, was born Aug. 29, 1749. He was educated at 
the grammar-school of his native place, where he mad^ 
aucU proficiency that his masters earnestly solicited hi% 
father to permit him to cqn tin ue a l^rned education, in- 
stead of putting him to business, which was his originafl 
intention ; and when it was determined to send him to the 
ttniversity, the governors of the school unanimously 
agreed to allow him a double exhibition. With this pro- 
vision he was admitted a sizar of Trinity college, Cam- 
bridge, in Oct. 1768. Various circnthstances, for which 
we«iay refer the reader to an elabor?^te life of him lately 
published, contributed to give his mind more serious im- 
pressions than are usual at his period of life, and his wholb 
behaviour as a student became exemplary. He scrnptr- 
lously obsei'ved all the attendances which were required of 
him, and quickly obtained the reputation of having made 
much proficiency as a scholar. His religious character 
too^ though not yet formed to that degree of strifctne^s 

^ Bio|;. ]9/it. art. Sloane.— Pulteney's Sketches. 


whtfh it Mftefw»h attained^ vm M \eaut to fsa advanced 
m w fvade h» loMUy caovcr^atian^ and a«wed cyaiom 
wiMy difff:fettt from tbute at u»e ggeater pan «f his ooo* 

In bit acadeflMcai pmnmu, be appean to bate divided 
bf» Mttmiim betireen clue clMiea aod matbeaaocay relier* 
ing both occaMOfiallj bj tbe penual of treaciset ia divinigry 
ii» irbu;ii be gai^e ibe ptefetence to tboie of tbe CalrioiMc 
](»i>d. In April 1771 be was elected a sdiolar of Trioitj* 
eolieget after a strict ao4 cooprebeosive examination. Ip 
Dec^mhet of tbe sapie year be obtained tbe second <tf Dn 
Booper^s prizes for tbe best Eoglisb declamatioo. He 
gained greait credit from bis matbemgiiral disputations in 
$b^ schools^ tbe year previous tp bis first d^;ree. What is 
not irery common eireti with tbe more advanced matbemati- 
cal proficients, be always made bis own arguments, when 
be kept an opponency, and these were in general skilful, 
ai( well (IS ably defended* In one of those disputations, 
be invented an argument against tbe doctrine of prime and 
ttliiinate ratios, a« taught by one of our ablest matbemati- 
ciaiiK^ Mbich, it is >aid, has never yet been satisfactorily 
aiifti^crcil* litrieed, be was particularly calculated to excel 
jn rhis speciei of exercise; as possessing a remarkable de- 
gree of acuteiiess, solidity, and self-possession, together 
with a fair i»bare of niatheniatical knowledge. He w^ 
well acquainted with natural philosophy, though but littje 
with aimlytics. 

Accordingly he was ranked high from the school^, being 
p1aci*d in the first class; so as to be a competitor with 
those who were far his superiors in depth of reading. He 
stood sitventh in the senate-bouse examination ; which was 
considered a high degree at tliat time, for one who had 
not enjoyed the advantage of a private tutor. Dr. Toqir 
line, the present bishop of Lincoln,, the senior ^rangier .of 
the year, with whom be was engaged in this honourable 
competition for academical distinction, is well, known, to 
have expressed a high respect for Mr. Robinson^s charac- 
ter, and lor his attainments as a scholar. Mr. Robinspn at 
this time used to say tjmt he never .expected to cope with 
hii lordship and with his other competitors, who were 
placed bolbre him, in algebra and fluxions^ what he knew 
, was chiefly in philosophy. Locke's *^ Essay,*' and Butler's 
*^ Analogy,'' which he had studied attentively, were also 
of service to him in the examination. His friends, who 

R O B I N S O N, 301 


could daly estimate his talents, were anxious that he 
should be a candidate for one of the classical medals ; but 
he declined offering himself^ through the determination he 
had formed of entering as soon as possible into the church. 
He was elected fellow of Trinity-college, with peculiar 
circumstances of distinction, Oct. I, 1772; and in 1773 
he obtained the second of the middle bachelor's prizes for 
the best Latin essay on some moral subject. On this occa-^ 
lion he had eight competitors. Dr. James, the late head 
master of Rugby-school, who particularly excelled in writh- 
ing Latin prose, gained the first prize; but Mr. Robinson 
was allowed to be at this time the best general scholar of 
his year ; and his seniors, who were most competent to 
decide upon his Ifterary merits, declared that they bad not 
Itnown his superior. His biographer gives us an anecdote 
whichshows, in a very striking point of view, the cfaarac-^ 
ter he held among his contemporaries. An attempt was 
made, during bis under-graduateship, to set aside sub-* 
scription to the Thirty-nine articles. Some young men 
went about the university, endeavouring to prevail upon 
the under-graduates to sign a petition for. that purp6se. 
In Trinity -college, the first question which the under*, 
g^raduates put to those persons who applied to them was, 
^ Has Robinson signed the petition ?^' and they declined 
signing it, when they found he had not: and the argument 
which the persons applying made use of to prevail upon 
Mr. Robinson to sign was, ^^ If j/ou will sign, ail the un-^ 
der*graduates in Trinity-college will sign." Mr. Robin- 
son, it' is scarcely necessary to add, refused to sigh this 

Soon after receiving his first degree, Mr. Robinson was 
; brdained by bishop Keene, and entered upon the curacy 
of Witcham, in the Isle of Ely. To this was added that of 
Wichford ; and his performance of the duties of both wajs 
equally conscientious and successful. About two ycar^ 
after, he quitted this situation and accepted the curacy of 
St. Mairtin's Leicester, under the rev. Mr. Haines : here he 
had considerable oppbsition to encounter ; but at length 
acquired a great degree of general popularity, and the 
respect of many of the upper classes, who were at first pre- 
judiced against his youth and his doctrines. He was alsa 
chosen afternoon lecturer of All Saints, and in 1774, chap- 
lain to the Infirixiary. To these labours he adiled, during 
a considerable part of his life, the care of instructinjj; some 


young getitlebien in ohtssical learmng, wko were preparing^ 
far tbe university) but in some cases at leasts would accept 
of no pecuniary compensation. In tbe same year (1774) 
he married a iady, whose name his biographer does nols 
mention, by whom he bad a family, and who died in 179U 
III 1778 a weekly lecture being founded at St. Mary'a 
church by Mr. Joseph Wheatley, an opulent manufacturer 
of Leicesteri with the consent of tbe incumbent^ and of 
tbe bishop of tbe diocese, Mt. Robinson was appointed 
first Tectur^r. Soon after, in the same year, oh the death 
of the incumbent, Mr. Robinson was instituted to the livw 
log of this church, by the lord-chancellor. It was here 
that he preached a course of sermons on' ** Scripture Cha- 
racters,^' which has since been - printed, and forms the 
most popular of his works, having gone through several 
editions, in 4 vols. 8vo. . . 

' In 1788, when a general stir was made by the dissenters, 
throughout the kingdom, to obtain the repeal of the Cor-» 
poration and Test Acts, and when the Midland counties 
were made to feel the more intense flame which burned 
pretty widely, through the adjacent influence of Dn 
Priestley, a large c^itral meeting, for the purpose of pro* 
moting the cx)mm0n object, was held at Leicester, to which 
Mr. Robinson was earnestly invited, but be peremptorily 
refused, and thai in language which could not be agree-^ 
able ; for, among other things, he told the applicants that 
it was ^* mbney and power" which they wanted, and '^ not 
the means of serving God more acceptably, or of preach* ^ 
ing his gospel more extensively.'' Strong attachment to . 
government ; deference to the powers that be ; an high 
sense of the importance and utility of a dignifled bierar* 
chy, together with cordial approbation of the forms and 
discipline of the church of England, not less than of her 
doctrines; were a sort of primary element in bis mind. 
On the same principles, one of his last public acts was to* 
unite with a large body of his brother clergymen, in peti- 
tioning parliament against the tepeat of the remaining re- 
strictions upon popery, 

-The seventh of March 18(3 was the thirty-ninth aoni- 
versery of Mr. Robinson's connection, as a preacher, with 
the town of Leicester. He hiad been ticar of St. Mary's, 
during thirty- four years, and by his zeal and ability in 
performing his pastoral duties, as well as by his pious and 
benevolent character in private life, had overcome all op- 

.ROB I N SO N. 303 

poiition and ali. prejudice, when he was seized with a fit of 
a|iop]exj on the 24th of the month before-coentionedi and 
expired \)«thin a few hours, in his .sixtjfxfQur^h year. For 
many minutiie of character, many illusitrative anecd(>te9» 
and much discussion on his character and writings, we 
futistf refer to our authority/ ^Besides his *' ScHpture Cba<- 
meters/' already noticed, he was the author of ^^ A seri* 
ons exhortasticm to the Inhabitants of Great Britain, with 
reference to the approaching Faf^t,'* 179^ ; *^ An address 
to the Loyal Leicester Volunteer Infantry," 1795 ; <* The 
Christian System unfolded, or Essays on the Doctrines 
and Duties of Christianity/' S vols. 8vo, intended as a 
popular body of diTinity, but drawn. out in the form of 
Essays^* instead of Sermons, in which the .subjects had been 
formerly discussed from the pulpit: ^^ The Parochial Mi-> 
leister's address to his Parishioners ;" .a tract ** On Confir- 
mation;" «< Address on the Peace of 15^02 ;*' " The Se- 
siaas Calif* one or two occasional sermons, and ^' Pro-' 
pkeciefton the Messiah."' . 

'ROBISON (J.oii:N), an eminent natural philosopher and 
mathematician^ was born at Boghall, in the county oi 
Stirling^ in Scotland, in 1739. His father, a merchant in • 
Glasgow, having, by. a conirse of .aucicessfaliodustry, ac- 
(j[uired considerable property, employed it in the purciiase 
6f an estate :to wiiich he retired during: the latter part of 
his life His son was educated at GlasgQw, and before 
entering on his nineteenth year had completed his course 
ef study at that university, but had manifested a peculiar 
prediieclioQ for the mathematics. Though he went deep 
iHtO'dlgebra and fluxions, yet he derived from the cele-* 
Wated Simson, and always retained, a disposition to. prefer 
the more accurate though less comprehensive system ojf 
ancient geometry. The ^rst thing which is said to have 
obtained him the notice of that eminent professor, was hij» 
havii^ produced a geometrical solution of a problem which 
had been given oixt to the class in an. algebraic form. 

He was designed by his parents for the clerical profess 
sion, but though he was deeply impressed with the truths 
of veKgion^ he bad some scruples which induced him to 
decline eFntering into orders. His friends, tUereforei be-*^ 
gan td consider of some other situation in which his 

' From " Some aceount of, &c. by thn Rex. Kdward TJif^mas Vau jhan, M. A. 
▼icair of St. Martin's and All Saitits, Leicester/' &c. 1315, Svo. 

364 R O B I S O N. 

tnathematical talents might be turned to advantage* Dr{ 
Dicky professor of natural pbilosophyi being iii want of a» 
assistant, Mr. Robison, then not quite nineteen years of 
age, was recommended by Dr. Adam Smith as a proper 
person for discharging that office. Dr. Dick thought him; 
too young, but joined with Dr* Simson in recommending 
him to Dr. Blair, prebendary of Westminster, whom they 
understood to be in quest of a young mah to go to sea 
with Edward duke of York^ and read mathematics with, 
his royal highness. On reaching London, however, this 
flattering prospect was found to have- no solid fouodatkyn^ 
the duke of York having no intention of going to sea. Mr* 
Robison, however, to whom a return to Glasgow would 
have been very disagreeable, embraced an opportunity 
which now offered itself, of going to sea as mathematical 
tutor to Mr. Knowles, eldest son of admiral Knowles, and 
the duke of York's intended companion. His pupil being 
appointed lieutenant on board the Royal William, Mr. 
Robison, at his own request, was rated midshipmao*; 
Here he spent the three following years, which he often 
spoke of as the happiest of bis lifew He devoted himsellt 
particularly to the study of the art of seamanship, and, was 
sometimes employed in making surveys of coasts and 

In this capacity his merit attracted the notice of lord. 
Anson, then at the head of the Admiralty-board, by whom 
be was sent, in 1 762, to Jamaica, in order to make trial of . 
Harrison's time-keeper. But on returning from this mis- 
sion he found his prospects of advancement completely 
clouded : lord Anson was dead ; the vessel, on board of ^ 
which was his pupil Mr. Knowles, had foundered at sea,' 
and all on board perished ; and admiral Knowles had rer 
tired to the country inconsolable for the loss of his son* 
He determined, therefore, tp return to Glasgow, and , ad- 
miral Knowles soon after placed under his care his remain- 
ing son, who was afterwards rear-admiral sir Charles 
Knowles. At Glasgow Mr. Robison renewed his studies . 
with great assiduity,, but his instructors were changed.. 
Dr. Simson was dead ; and Dr. Adam Smith had left Glas- 
gow to travel with the late duke of Buccleugh ; but the 
place of the latter was well supplied by Dr. Reid, and Mr. 
Robison had also an opportunity of attending the lectures. ^ 
of Mr. Millar on civil law, and Dr. Black on chemistry. 
When Dr. Black, in 176^^ was called to Edinburgh, Mr. . 

it 6 B I S ON. SOI 

ftobison was appointed.' to succeed' him as lecftirer do 
bbemistryy and read lecCures on that science with great 
applause for three ye^rs. 

In 1770, sir Charles Knowles having gone to Russia, on 
the invitation of the eniipress Catherine, then intent on the 
ifll^provement of her marine^ he invited Mr, Robison to 
Accompany him as his official secretary, with a salary of 
i250/. a-year/ Ashe was still attached to the navy and to 
his former patron^ and as, though lecturing on chemistry» 
he did not enjoy the rank of professor^ Mr. Robison made 
no hesitation in accepting the proposal. His conduct at 
St. Petersburgh, and the knowledge which he had there 
occasion to display, seems to have powerfully recom- 
mended him to the board of admiralty ; for in 1772 he was 
appointed 4nspector-general of the corps of marine cadets, 
an a[cademy consisting of upwards of four hundred young 
gVotlem^n and scholars under the tuition of about forty 
teachers. As the person who fills this office has the rank 
of lieutenant-colonel, it became necessary, by the customs 
of Russia, that Mr. .Robison should prove himself a gentle- 
nian, or what is there called a dvoranin^ and the proof rje- 
qiiired was entered on record. In this office his employ- 
mhitt consisted in visiting daily every class of the academy; 
in receiving weekly reports from each master, stating the 
diligence and prpgress of every person in his class ; and 
tmce a year, in advancing the young gentlemen into the 
higher classes, according to their respective merits* Of 
these he was considered as the sole judge, and from his 
s0iitextce there lay no appeal. He lived in terms of the 
utmost harmony with general Kutusoif, who was military 
head of the academy, and held the third place in the ad- 
miralty college. By him all Mr. Robison's measures were 
supported, and he was even introduced to. the notice of 
the grand diike, as an admirer of the Russian language^ 
iNftiich his imperial highness patronized. 

But although his situation was thus honourable and ad- 
taptageous, he felt that something more was necessary to 
tender it comfoi:table. He could not but regret his dis- 
tance from his native country^ and residence among a 
.people who, though rapidly improving, weresiill tinctured 
with barbarism. His appointment also attached him, not 
'to the capital, but to Cronstadt, where he was nearly, cut 
off from all effligbtened society. Receiving an invitation^ 
therefore^ from the magistrsttes ^ud towa-co\incil to ^U tb« 

Vqi^XXVI. X 

toe R O B I S O N. 

place of professor of natural philosophy in the qniversit^ 
of Edinburgh, be gladly removed to that city. The grand 
duke parted with him reluctantly, and requested, when be 
left the acadei)[iy, that he would take with him some young 
men of talents from the corps of cadets ; and he^ promised 
him a pension of 400 rubles (SO/.) a-year. That pen^ioa 
was regularly paid only during the three years that the 
gentlemen whom he selected resided in Edinburgh ; it was 
then discontinued, it is believed, because he did not con- 
tinue a correspondence with the academy, and commuoi- 
cate all the British improvements in marine education. 

Of his lectures, in his new professorship, high expecta- 
tions were formed and were not disappointed. If there was 
any defect, it was that h6 was sometimes abstruse, and did 
not lower himself sufficiently to the comprehension of bis 
youthful, auditors. This, however, appears to have bef a 
owing, not to any want of order or perspicuity, but to his 
expecting to find in them a more complete acquaintance 
with pure mathematics than many of them had attainef^. 
Unfortunately, he was prevented for many years from 
teaching, by a languishing state of health, accompanied 
with peculiar depression of spirits, a not unfrequent atten*- 
dctnt on too entire a devotion to mathematical studies, and 
of the recluse and pensive habits which they tend to gi^ne- 
rate.' By the judicious choice, however, which be made 
of substitutes, the want of his personal instructions was 
less severely felt. For a year or two before his death bb 
began again* to lecture, having only engaged the rev. Tho- 
mas Macknight to afford him occasional assistance; an 
office w bich was performed by that gentleman with ac- 
knowledged ability. When the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh was incorporated by charter in 1783, he was chosen 
by that learned body to be their general secretatyy^and 
iliseharged that office to their entire satisfaction, as 
his. health permitted, on the dechne of which he resigiiied 
it. To their Transactions he contributed several intevesit-' 
ing papers. - ' 

- In 1798, Mr. Robisofn ' published a work which aittracte^, 
in ah uncommon decree, the attention of tbe^public, undefr 
•(he title of <^ Preofs of a Con'»piracy against altthe religions 
•land -governments of Europe, carried on in the secret' nieeK- 
t\Sgs of Free-masons, llluminati, and- reading societies, &ci'* 
48vo. It is needless to say how diflPerent fafave been* tba 
fttdgodii^ts probottoc^ on tbia p^bUoation^ according •U> 

It 6 B I S O N, CQ» 

Xh^ di^erent parties to which its readers happened to l>'^ 
mtached. That there is ^considerable ground for the state- 
Inents contained in it, appears evidently from the best iri« 
formed Gernoan authors ; at the same time several circum- 
, "Stances led the author to form an idea of the magnitade and 
botis^quence^ of the conspiracy, which perhaps was some- 
' What exaggerated. But whatever opinion was formed ox\ 
this subjecti it was generally acknowledged that his mis* 
takes were unintentional, and that the work was written 
ifirom the best of motives, aftd with the sole view of defend- 
ing the most important interests of religion and civil so* 

A few years after; on the death of Dr. Black, Mr. Ro- 
i>ison published the lectures of that great chemical dis- 
coverer, with notes, which are universally allowed to add 
greatly to their value. In consequence of Mr. Robison^s 
connexion with the court of Russia, a copy of this publi- 
cation was sent to the reigning emperof, and the editor 
deceived, in return, the present of a box set in diamonds, 
accompanied by a letter strongly impressive of the regard 
in which his character and talents were held by that vir- 
tdous and enlightened monarch. The last work on whicli 
Mr. Robison's attention and care was bestowed, was bis 
**' £lements of Mechanical Philosophy,^* intended to com- 
prize the substance of his lectures on that subject, and tQ 
Xionsist of four or five volumes. The first appeared accord- 
ingly in IB04, atid fully answered the expectations which 
the scientific ^6rld had- entertained ; and although his death 
'prevented the completion of the plan, he is said to have 
left materials for a continuation, which are intended for th^ 
press. On Monday, Jan. 28, 1805, he delivered a lecturci 
'as usual to his class, and went afterwards to take his accuse 
-'tbmed walk* Being, however, exposed to a greater degree 
'of. cold than usual', he was seized soon after his return with 
^'M exCrenii'e degree of diebility, which terminated in his 
"^death, Wednesday morning the 30th, This seems to have 
'been less the consequence of any particular illness, than of 
'ft frame worn out by long^continued illness and suffering. 
' In 17^8 he was complimented with the diploma of LL.D* 
^ t>y the American college in New Jersey, and in the f(dlow- 
ihg year received the saine honour from the university of 
* Glasgow. In 1900, he was unanimously elected foreign 
member of the imperial academy of sciences at St< PeietB» 
burgh, in the room of Dr. Black* Besides the works alreadj 

X 2 


804 R O B I S O N. 

mentioned^ it must not be forgot that Mr. Bpbison fur^ 
nished some most valuable contributions to the edition of 
the ^* EncyclopaBdia Britannicay'* superintended by his 
friend Dr. Gleig, to whom the public is indebted for thie 
preceding particulars of his life ; and it is said to be the 
intention of Mr. Robison's friends to collect the articles 
be furnished for this work, and publish them in a sepa^ 
rate formi along with what he inserted in the <^ Transaci^ 
tions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.^ 

ROBORPELLO (Francis), a celebrated critic in the 
sixteenth century, was born at' Udina in 1516. After 
being educated at Bologna, he taught rhetoric and moral 
hilosophy with reputation at Lucca, Pisa, Venice, Bo- 
pgna, and Padua, in which last city he died, March IQ, 
1567, aged fifty-one. He has left a treatise, " On History," 
1543, 8vo, which is of little value; commentaries on se- 
veral Greek and Latin poets; " De Vita et victu popitii 
Romani sub Imperatoribus,** 1559,' folio, and oth^r works 
on Roman antiquities, in which he frequently discovers s^ 
degree of asperity unworthy of a liberal mind. His con- 
tentious disposition had at one time nearly proved fatal, as 
lie received a wound from the sword of Baptist Egnacius, 
and for some time his life was thought to be in danger. 
He had also some. fierce literary contests with Alciatus and 

ROCABERTI (John Thomas de)> a celebrated general 
pfthe Dominicans, and one of the most zealous defenders 
of papal authority, was born at Peselada on the frontiers of 
Roussillon and Catalonia, about 1624^ He was the son of 
Francis viscount de Rocaberti, of an ancient family. Hav- 
ing entered the Dominican order early in life, be became 
provincial of Arragon in 1&66, general of his order in 1670, 
archbishop of Valencia in 1676, and grand inquisitor of 
the faith in 1695. Flis catholic majesty, whose favour he 
acquired, made him. twice viceroy of Valencia. He died 
June 13, 1699, leaving a long treatise ^ De Romani Pob- 
tificis Autoritate,^' Z vols, folio, esteemed in Spain and 
Italy, but prohibited in France ; and ." Bibliotheca Ponti* 
£cia ;'* a large collection uf all the treatises which have beea 
'written by different authors in favour of the pope's authority 
.^nd infallibility; Rome, J 700, &c. 21 vols^ folio. The par-' 

• 1 Phi)oiophio«) Mpigftziiie, vols. X. an4 Xllltf 
. f,;^Qnri.— Tirabofchu— Diet, Ui^ti. 

R O C A B E R T L , 30^ 

liament of Paris also prohibited the sale of this immense 

ROCCA (Angelus), a learned Italian, was a native of 
Rocca Contrata, a town in the marche of Ancona, and born 
in 1545. When young he was sent to Camerino, wherei 
jn 1552, he took the habit among the hermits of St. Au* 
gastine, and remained so long here that some have given 
iiim the surname of Camero. He afterwards continued 
his studies at Rome, Venice, Perusia, and Padua. He 
received the degree of doctor of divinity at the university 
of Padua, in Sept. 1577, and acquired much celebrity as a 
preacher at Venice, and as a teacher of the belles lettres 
to the juniors of his order. In 1579 Fivizani, the vicar- 

~ general of the Augustines, invited him to Rome to be his 
secretary, and pope Sixtus V. placed him in the Vatican 
in 1585, and confided to his superintendance those edi- 
tions of the Bible, the councils, and the fathers, which is- 
sued from the apostolical press during his pontificate. In 

.1595, pope Clement VIII. made him apostolical sacristan 
in the room of Fivizani, now deceased, and titular bishop 
of Tagast^ in Numidia. He collected a very large and ex- 
cellent library, which he presented in his life-time, by a 
deed of gift, dated Oct. 23, 1614, to the Augustinian mo- 
nastery at Rome; but upon the express condition, that it 
should be always open for the benefit of the public. Rocca 

■died April 8, 1620, at the age of seventy-five. Rocca had 
read much, but was either deficient in, or seldom exer- 
eiseli his judgment, as appears by the most of his works, 
>Among these may be mentioned his ^< Bibliotheca Aposto- 
lica Vaticana," which Fabricius calls a very trifling work ;' 
*^ Bibliotheca Tbeologica et Scripturalis ;" " Notae in No- 
vum Testamentum ;•' " De Patientia;" " De Cometis ;'* 
** Observationes in VI Libros Elegantiarum Laur. Vallae ;'* 

, ^ Observationes de Lingua Latina;" and other pieces 
which were collected together, and printed in 1719, 2 "vols. 

-folio. From his manuscripts was also published, in 1745, a 
very curious collection, entitled " Thesaurus Pontificiarum 
Antiquitatum, necnon Rituum ac Ceremoniarum,*' in 2 
vols, folio. • . 

^ ROCHEFORT (William de), a modern French writer, 
was born in 1731, at Lyons. He had an eioployment in 

f GtD. Diet— Mortri. * Niceron, vol. XXI.-*Dict. Hiit. 


Sl(% R O C H E F O R T. 

the finances at Cette in Languedoc, which he held for te» 
years; but having more turn for literature than calculations^ 
he went to Paris, and composed three tragedies upon the 
Oreek models, but bad no more success than others wbor 
have made similar experiments on the public taste* Iii. 
prose he published a " Refutation du Systeme de la Na*. 
ture ;** a " Critical History of the opinions of the>Ancient& 
concerning Happiness, 1778,*' 8vo ; and a ** Complete 
Translation of the Plays of Sophocles." The last*nani$d 
work gained him much credit by the elegance and fidelity^ 
of the version, and the judicious notes annexed to iu He 
undertook also a complete translation of Hoikier^s Iliad and 
Odyssey, of which the preliminary discourses and the notes 
obtained more applause than the version itself, which, how- 
ever, he had splendidly printed at the royal press in 1781, 
in 4to. He was a member of the academy of inscriptions 
and belles lettres, to which he contributed several learned 
memoirs. He died in 1788, highly esteemed for a temper 
in which there was nothing unsocial or selfish. He was 
always, we are told, fonder of talking of other people's 
works than of his own, a case, it is added, of some singu-^ 
larity in literary company.^ 

ROCHEFOUCAULT (Francis, Duke of), prince of 
Marsillac, and governor of Poitou, was born in 1613. He 
was the son of Francis, the first duke of Rochefoucauit, and 
was distinguished equally by his courage and his wit At 
the instigation pf the duchess de Longueville, to whom he 
had been long attached, he engaged in the civil wars, and 
signalized himself, particularly at the battle of St. An^ 
toine. After his return his house became the rendezvous 
of all the wits of Paris, Racine, Boileau, &c. who were 
captivated by the charms of his conversation. He died at 
Paris in 1680, aged seventy-seven. As a writer he i» 
chiefly known by a small work, which has often beto re« 
printed in this country, in English, entitled <^ Maxims,'* 
of which Voltaire has not scrupled so say, that it contri* 
buted more than any performance to form the taste of the 
French nation, and give it a true relish of propriety and 
correctness. '' Though there is,'* continues he, *^ but one 
truth running through this whole piece, namely, that ^ self- 
love is the spring of all our actions and determinations ;' 
yet this thought presents itself under such a variety of 

1 Pict. Hiit. 


forms a8 sever fail to strike with new surprise. It is not so 
properly a book itself, as a set of materials to embeUish a 
book. Tbis little collection was much read and admired ; 
h accustomed our authors to think, and to comprise their 
tiaoughts in a lively, correct, and delicate ti^rn of phrase ; 
which was a mjerit utterly unknown to any European writer 
before him since the revival of letters." It has, however, 
been mostly admired by those who entertain an unfavour- 
able opinion o£ mankind, and who have been soured by 
disappointment and misfortune, particularly by disap- 
pointed ambiuon* Chesterfield and Swift are on the side 
of Rochefoucault We have also of this noble author 
^^ M^moires de la R6geoce de la Reine Anne d'Autricbe/* 
written with great sense and a deep penetration. 

The abb6 O'OUvet, in his History of the French aca- 
demy, $ay3 that Bochefoucault could never be a member 
of il, though greatly desired both by the academicians and 
himselfj from the necessity of making a speech of thanks 
on the day of admission : with all the courage he had shewn 
on so many eminent occasions, and with all the superiority 
thtit birth, aud such prodigious parts as the vrorld allowed, 
gave him, he was not ^ble to bear the look of an audience, 
nor could pronounoe four lines in public without fainting.^ 

RODNEY (GfiORGE BrVdges), a celebrated nawl com^ 
maiider, was the second son of Henry l^odney, esq. of 
JWaltoa on Thames, and Mary, eldest daughter and co- 
keir to sir Henry Newton, knight, envoy-extraordinary to 
XSenoa, LL. D. judge of the high-court of admiralty, and 
chancellor of the diocese of London. His father, as a na- 
vaI oflicer, commanded the yacht- in which king. George h 
attended by the duke of Chaiidos, used to embark in going 
to or coming from Hanover, and in consequence, asked 
leave that his son might be called George Brydges. He 
was born in Dec. 1717. At the desire, or by the com- 
mand, of his ray^i and noble god-fathers, he entered early 
into Uie navy, and in 1742 he was lieutenant in the Namur, 
commanded by adoiiral Matthews. In November of the 
same year^ be was promoted by the admiral to the com- 
mand of the Plymouth, of sixty guns; 09 returning home 
he was removed into the Sheerness, a i^mall frigate ; and 
in 1744 he was appointed to the command of the Ludlow;- 
oastle, of forty-four guns. In this ship he. does not appear 

1 Diet. Hut-^Siede de Louis XIV. 

3l2 RODNEY. 

to have continued long,. for in May 1746, he was capt«iai 
of the £agle, a new ship of sixty guns, then employed a 
a cruiser on the Irish station. While here he captured two 
large privateers. He continued in the Eagle during the 
remainder of the war, and was one of the commanders 
under the orders of rear-admiral Hawke, when in 1747 he 
defeated L*£tendiere^s scjuadron. On this occasion capt, 
Rodney behaved with much spirit, and may be said to have 
then laid the foundation of that popularity he afterwards in 
so high a degree possessed. On the conclusion of the war 
be was, in March 1749, appointed to the Rainbow, a fourth 
rate, and in May following was nominated governor and 
commander-in-chief in and over the island of Newfouod** 
land* Immediately afterwards he proceeded thither with 
the small squadron annually sent there in time of peace, 
for the protection of the fishery. Some time after his re* 
turn in ^53 he married Miss .Compton, daughter of Charles 
Compton, esq. and sister to Spencer, then earl of NiH*- 
thampton. In 1757 he was engaged, under the commaod 
of admirals Hawke and Bosoawen,- to^attempt a descent on 
the coast of France, near Rochefort ; and in 1759. he was 
advanced rear-admiral of the blue« In this same year be 
was sent to bombard Havre de Grace, where a large force 
was collected for the purpose of attempting an invasion of 
this country. He executed the trust committed to him so 
completely, that the town itself was several times on fire, 
^^nd the magazines of stores and ammunition burnt with 
fury upwards of six hours, notwithstanding the exertions 
used to extinguish it. Thus had admiral Rodney the hap- 
piness of totally frustrating the design of the French court; 
and so completely did he destroy their preparations, that 
the fort itself, as a naval arsenal, was no longer during the 
war in a state to annoy Great Britain. In 1761 admiral 
Rodney we^s very instrumental in the capture of the islands 
of St. Pierre, Granada, St. Lucia, and St* Vincent, when 
the whole Caribbees came into the possession of the^ Eng- 
lish, For his skill and bravery in the war^ he was, after 
*the conclusion of it, raised to the dignity of a baronet In 
4768, after an expensive, and to sir George Rodney i^ 
ruinous, contest with Mr. Howe, he was elected member 
'of parliament for Northampton. In the month of Octbher 
1770 he was progressively advanced to be vice-adqiiral of 
the white and red squadrons, and in the month of August 
1771) to bp rear-admiral of Great Britain. In the very 

R O D N E y. ^ 31S 

tmrly part of this year he resigned the mastership of Green- 
wich hospital, to which he had been appointed in 1765; 
and was immediately after made commander-in-chief on 
the Jamaica station, whither he repaired, having hi^ flag 
on board the Princess Amelia of SO guns. The appoint- 
ihent of this ship to that service was intended as a particu<^ 
)ar and pointed compliment, it being extremely unusual to 
fiend a three-decked ship on that station, except in time of 
actual war. It is said the command in India was offered to 
him, which he declined, entertaining hopes of being ap« 
pointed governor of Jamaica in case of the death of sir 
William Trelawney ; but in this he was disappointed. After 
his return to England at the expiration of the time allotted 
for the continuance of his command, he retired to France, 
where lie lived some years in obscurity, hoping to retrieve 
the losses he had suffered at the Northampton election. It 
is said that the French king wished to take advantage of 
his pecuniary embarrassments, and through the duke de 
Biron made him the most unbounded oflers if he would 
quit the English for the French service. ' In reply to this 
proposal he said,/' My distresses, sir, it is true, have driven 
me from the bosom of my country, but no temptieition Cart 
estrange me from her service. Had this offer been volun- 
tary on your part, I should have deemed it an insult, but f 
am glad to learn it proceeds from a soOrce that can do^no 
wrong.*' The duke was so struck with the patriotism of 
the admiral, that he became attached to him as a friend^ 
;BLnd is said to have advanced him a sum of money to revisit 
England, and solicit a command. 

Before this event the French had united with the Ame<i 
ricans in a war against this country, and about the close of 
1779, the chief command of the Leeward islands was given 
to sir George Rodney, upon which he hoisted his flag on 
board the Sandwich. From this time he was very success-*, 
ful against his majesty's ei^emies, but our limits do nt)t 
allow us to particularize all the advantages that resulted 
firom his services during the remainder of the war of which 
we are speaking. In the first year he had done enough to 
obtain a vote of thanks from the House of Lords, and the 
fireedom of the cities of London and Edinburgh ; but his 
great triumph was on the 12th of April, 1782, in an en« 
gagement in the West Indies with count de Grasse. Thi« 
battle was fought among the islands of Gnadaloupe, Do- 
jDQinique, the Saintes, and Marigalante. As soon as the 


day broke admiral Rodney threw out the signal for clasii. 
lection, anci every vessel obeyed it most scrupulously. Tb(9 
British line was formed at the distance of one cable's lengtb 
bet^veen each ship. x\s the ships came up separately, tbej( 
ipanged close alongside, their opponents, passing along the. 
ei^my for that purpose, giving and receiving, while tb^ . 
taking their stations, a most dreadful and tremet>dous fira 
The action continued in this manner till noon, whe:n ad- 
miral Rodney resolved to carry into execution a mano^uvrq. . 
which be expected would gain him a complete and decisive 
victory : for this purpose, in his own ship, the Formidable, 
supported by the Namur, the Duke, and the Canada, h^ 
bore down with all the sail set on the enemy's line, withia 
three ships of the centre, and succeeded in breaking througt^ 
it in a most masterly style* As soon as he had accoj^- 
plished this, the other ships of his division followed l^M^ 
and they all wore round, doubled on the enemy, and thui^ 
they placed between two fires those vessels which, by tbq 
first part of the manoeuvre, they had cut off from the re^^ 
of the fleet. As soon as admiral Rodney and the vessel 
which, folloiyed him, wore^ he made the signal for the van 
to tack, by ^hicb mean$ they gained the windward of the^ 
French, and oompleted the disorder and confusion in whicf^ . 
the breaking of the line had thrown them. One conse*] 
quetice of the breaking of the line was, that opportunities 
were given for desperate actions between single ships. The 
whole loss of the enemy on this occasion amounted to eight . 
ships ; one had been sunk, and another blown up after she 
had been taken, and six ship^ remained in possession of the 
conquerors. It' wad esteemed remarkably fortunate, and 
glorious, for the victors, that de Grasse's ship, the Ville de 
Paris, was the only first rate man-of-war that had ever, at 
that time, been taken and carried into port' by any com- 
mander of any nation. And this ship was on the present 
occasion fought so well, that when it struck there were but 
three men left alive and unhurt on the upper deck. 

The British nation were so sensible of the bravery dis- 
played both by officers and men in this action, andof th^ 
importance of it as the only means of preserving the re-t 
mainder of the WeSt India islands, that they manifes^ied the 
most exces9ive joy when intelligence of the yictory arrived- 
It came extremely seasonable in other points of view. 
Neither by land, nor by sea, except where admiral Rodney 
had been engaged, had we been able to meet tb^^o^i^j' 


on aby occasion with great and decisive advantage; and^ 
»n too many instances, we had retired frooi the contest not 
ia the most honourahle manner. As the means of obtain- 
ing more favourable terms of peace, this important victory 
was hailed with joy and exultation ; and as admiral Rodney 
was looked up to as the cause of it, the gratitude of tbct 
natioB towards him was deeply felt, and expressed in warm 
and glowing language. It was, recollected that the fortune 
of sir George Rodney had been peculiarly singular, as well 
as highly glorious in the war. Within little more than two 
years he had given a severe blow to each of our three 
powerful continental enemies, the French, Spaniards, and 
Dutch. He bad in that time taken an admiral of eadh na- 
tion ; added twelve line of battle ships, all taken from the 
enemy, to the British navy ; arid destroyed five more. He 
received the unanimous thanks of both houses of parlia- 
ment ; and his majesty added dignity to the peerage of thi( 
realm, hy calling the victorious admiral to a seat in the 
upper house, by the title of baron Rodney, of Rodney 
Stoke, in the county of Somerset. 

It has been observed that the victory of the 12th of 
April was gained by putting in practice an entirely nevi^ 
system of naval tactics, the adoption of which formed an 
era in our naval history, and may be regarded as the cause 
of the glorious victories by which the fame of British sea- 
men has been raised to such a pitch of glory ; and the ma- 
ritime power of our enemies in the late war, has not only 
been crippled, but absolutely annihilated. It has been 
said, in order to derogate from the honour of the admiral^ 
that, m the instance of the 12th of April, it was the effect 
of chance, and not effected by the foresight of sir George 
Rodney. This idea has been satisfactorily exposed and 
refuted. The only question on the subject is, whether the 
honour of the plan is due to admiral Rodney or Mr. Clerk^ 
the author of a treatise on ^' Naval Tactics ;*' but on this 
our limits will not permit us to enter. 

With the brilliant victory of the 12th of April sir Greorge 
closed his professional career ; to his title was added a peiir 
aion of 2000/. to descend to his heirs. He died in London 
the 24th of May, 1792. For his important services to the 
West Indian islands in particular, a temple was^built to 
receive his statue at Spanish Town, Jamaica. 

A contemporary of the noble admiral said, that as an 
officer of nautical abilities^ none were his superiors^ and 

SIB R O D N E r. 

but few^ his equals. He possessed a bold and original g6« 
nius, which always carried him directly to the object be 
bad in view. As a man, he was benevolent, generous, and 
friendly. H^ has been known to be writing his private 
letters, and dictating to three secretaries at the same time;* 
^^ In private life he displayed the manners of an accom-* 
plished gentleman ; and he who, when called by his coun- 
try, coiald hurl its thunders against the foes, and lead its 
navies to almost undeviating victory, was, in peace, the 
oirnament of domestic society, and a pattern of that elegant 
and polished behrviour, which almost always distinguishes 
the higher orders among us." > 

RODON, or DERODON (David), a celebrated French 
professor of philosophy in the seventeenth century, was 
born, according to fiayle, in Dauphiny,^ but more pro- 
bably at Orange, where, as well as at Die, Nismes, and 
Geneva, he taught philosophy, and was accounted the 
greatest master of dialectics in his time. The story of 
qui Erasmus ant diabolus has been told of him ; a stranger 
to his person, when puzzled by his arguments, having ex- 
claimed es diabolus aut Derodo. In physics he adhered to 
the principles of Gassendus. He had been educated in 
the protestant religion, but embraced that of popery in 
1630, and published his reasons in a volume entitled 
^* Quatre raisons pour lesquelles on duit quitter la religion 
pretendue reformee," Paris, 1631, 12mo. Bayle had never 
seen this, and makes him to have. been educated a papist. 
But whatever satisfaction his '^ quatre raisons^* might have 
jSifForded to the catholics, they were not of permanent in- 
fluence on his own mind, for he afterwards became again 
an adherent to the reformed religion, in which he died. 
In 1645 he published in 8vo, his ^^ Disputatio de suppo- 
sito," at Francfort (Orange), in which, Bayle tells us, he 
declared for Nestorius against St. Cyril, not in admitting 
two persons, but in maintaining that Nestorius does not 
admit them, and that St. Cyril confounds the two natures 
of Jesus Christ. This was the opinion of Giles Gaillard, a 
gentleman of Provence, and an intimate friend of Rodon^s^ 
whoQi he often quotes, but without naming. The woirk 
was condemned to be burnt by the parliament of Toulouse, 
•nd the copies are therefore now very rare. Bayle had not 

} Cbaroo6k'8 Biof . Navalis.— CoUiifi'f Peerage, hf sir £• Brydges.•Tr1Uo•^ 

R O D O N. 317 

been able to procure one, and is obisled by Sorbiere iif 
thinking that Gaillard wrote a* book with the same title as 
Rodon's. But the work of Kodon which made the most 
' noise was his ^^ Tombeau de la Messe/' or downfall of the 
masSy published at Geneva in 1654, 8vo, 1662^ Amst. 1682. 
'For this he was banished from France, by an arret of Jan. 
29, 1663, on which he took refuge in Geneva^ where he 
died in 1664. Saurin, who saw him in that city about the 
tiine of his death, says he appeared to him to be perfectly 
orthodox. His character is amply discussed in Saurin'a 
controversy with Jurieu, "Examen de U Theologie de.M. 
Jutieu, &c." and Jurieu^s answers. 

Senebier, in his literary history of Geneva, gives the 
following list of Rodon's other works: 1. ** Dispute de 
rEucharistie," 1655, 8vo. 2. " Metaphj^sica," Orange, 
1659, 8vo. 3. ** Logica resiituta," Geneva, 1659, 4to, 
4. " De existentia Dei,". 1661, 4to. 5. « De Atomis," 
Geneva, 1662, 8vo. This is probably his " Disputatio,de 
libertate et atomis," which he printed at Nismes the same 
year. 6. " Disputatio realis de ente reali," Nismes, 1662. 
7. " Disputes de la Messe," or a discourse on these w6rds, 
"This is my body," Nismes," 1662, Svo. 8. " Discours 
contre TAstrologie judiciare," 1663, Svo. 9. " Opera phi- 
losophica," Geneva, 166i, 4to. 10. ** Philosophia con- 
tracta," 1664, 4to. 1 1. ^^ La Lumiere de la raison opposde 
.aux tenebres de Timpiet^," Geneva, 1665. 12. "Les In- 
constants," Geneva, 1672, Svo, To these from Senebier, 
we may add his "Compendium Logics^," 1663, 8vp^ and 
:** L'Atbeisme convaincu," in 1649, 8vo. Some authors 
ascribe to him a treatise entitled " Messe trouv6e\ dans 
L'Ecriture,'' 1647, Svo, written when he was a catholic, 
but there is more reason to attribute this to Lucas Jansen.* 

ROE (Sir Thomas), an able statesman and ambassador, 
was born at Low-Lay tun in. Essex, about 15S0, and ad- 
mitted into Magdalen college, Oxford, in 1593. He was 
taken from the university in a year or two ; and, after 
•pending some time in one of the inns of court, and in 
f ranee, was made esquire of the body to queen Elizabeths 
In 1604, he was knighted by kin\; James ; and soon after 
tent, by Henry prince of Wales, to make discoveries in 
America. In 1614', he was sent ambassador to the great 
Ipogul, at whose court he cantinueji till 16 IS. During hit 

* * . 

1 iif en. Diet. — Bios. Uulv. art. Deroduii« 

$i4 ROE. 

iresid«nc^ there, be emprloyed bhnself zeal6dsfy in t)ie«^ 
vice of the East India merchants, but gave a singH'lar offence 
to the grand mogul. This monarch, hajbpy in his pricie 
ftnd ignorance, fancied his dominions to be tbe greats 
part of tbe habitable world. But his mortification was greM 
when, in Mercator^s maps, presented to him by sir Tboasafe 
Roe, he found that he possessed but a ^A)aU part of It ; and 
he was so chagrined, that he ordeted the tiaps to be -givett 
lo sir Thomas again. ' 

In 1620, he was elected a burgess for Cirencester lit 
Gloucestershire ; and, the year foUowitig, se'n-t ambassador 
to the grand seignor ; in which station be continued ond^ 
tbe sultans Osman, Mustapha, and Amu^ath IV. in his 
passage to Constantinople, be wrote a letter to Villiers 
iduke of Buckingham, then lord high admil^al, complaining 
of the great increase of pirates in the Mediterranean sea*; 
and, during bis embassy, sent ^* A true and faithful rela^ 
tion to his majesty and tbe prince of what hath lately hkp*- 
pened in Constantinople, <:oncerning the death of suhah 
•Osman, and tbe setting up of Mustapha his uncle," which 
was printed at London in 1622, 4to. He kept a very cu^ 
'rious account of his nep^ociations at tbe Porte, which rt^ 
mained in manuscript till 1740, M'hen It was published, by 
the society for promoting learning, under this title : ** Thte 
Negotiations of Sir Thomas Roe, in bis Embassy to tbd 
Ottoman Porte, from the year 1621 to ][628 inclusive ; con^ 
taiuing a great variety of curious and important matcero, 
relating not only to the affairs of the Turkish empire, htH 
also to those of the other states of Europe in that perioJ: 
his correspondences with the most illustrious persons, fcUr 
dignity or character, as, with the queen of Bohemia, Becfa^ 
lem Gabor prince of Transylvania, and other potentates df 
different nations, &c. and many useful and instructive par- 
ticulars, as well in relation to trade and commerce an to 
subjects of literature ; as, ancient manuscripts, ' coin^^ ini- 
scriptions, and other antiquities,' ' folio. 

During bis residence in the East, he made a large cbK 
lection of valuable manuscripts in the Greek and oirientlri 
languages; which, in 1628, he presented to the Bodleittn 
library. He also brought over the fine Alexandrian mftnthi> 
script of the Greek Bible, sent as a present, to Charles'I. 
by Cyril, patriarch of Constantinople; which has aincfe 
been transcribed and published by Dr. Grabe. In 162d| 
he was sent ambassador to mediate a peace between the 

R O ft. ' 8l» 


kings of Poland and Sweden. He succeeded in his nego^ 
daiion ; and gained so much credit witli tfae great Gu^- 
tavus Adolpbus of Sweden, that be inspired that king with 
m deaign, which he executed in 1630, of making a descent 
into Germany to restore the freedom of the empire. AdoU 
phos, upon gaining the victory of Leipsic, sent sir Thoma^ 
« present of 2000/. and in his letter calls him his *^ stre- 
Imamjconsultorem," he being the first who had advised hrnh 
to the war. He was afterwards employed in other negor- 
ciatioiis. In 1640, be was chosen member of parliament 
for the university of Oxford ; and shewed himself a persoh 
of great eloquence, learning, and experience, as appeals 
irom his printed speeches. The year after, he was sent 
ambassador to the diet of 'Ratisbbn, in order to mediate thfe 
restoration of the late king of Bohemians son to the pala- 
tinate ; and, npon his return, was made chancellor of th^ 
garter, and one of the privy council. The calamities of 
the nation, in which be could not avoid having a share, 
not only embittered his life, but. probably contributed 'to 
shorten it; for he died in Nov. 1644, An epitaph was 
composed for him by Dr. Gerard Langbaine, but never set 
^ : it may be seen in Wood's " Athen. Ox6n.'* By will 
ix'e left to the Bodleian two hundred and forty-two silvdr ' 

' He^had ftll the accomplishments of the scholar, the gen- 
tleman, and the courtier. He left a great number of ma'- 
imscripts behind him ; and, in 17!S0, proposals were pub* 
Wished for printing by subscription, in 5 vols, folio, " Thfe 
'Negotiations and Embassies of Sir Thomas Roe, from 1620 
'to 1644 :" but, the undertakets not meeting with sufficient 
encouragement, the design was dropped, and 'only itie 
"ydlume mentioned iibove was published in 1740 by Mr. 

' ROEBUCK (John), an eminent physician and gre^ 
benefact6rto Scotland, was born at Sheffield in Yorkshire, 
4n 17 IB. Vth ftither was a considerable manufacturer and 
-exporter of SheflSeld goods, and intended this his son for 
'^e sahie business, but perceiving his inclination to learn- 
%^, determined to give him a liberal education, or such 
1M wa^ attainable atnong the dissenters, of which he wa(s 
'6ne of the siric»t sort. After some school education, theref- 
*(osef at Sheffield, he sent him to the academy kept by this 

1 Bids. Brit-— Atb, Ox. wqI XL 


Celebrated Dr. Doddridge at Norttiamptoni where thff 
youug man laid the foundation of that classical taste aq4 
knpwledge for which he was afterwards much distinguished^ 
From Northanipton he was sent to the university of Eldia^ 
burgh, where he studied medicine, and particularly che^f > 
mistry. After the usual course of these studies here, he 
pursued the same at Leyden, then considered a^ the &r^i . 
medical school in Europe^ and took his doctors degree ia 
February 1743. 

Soon after his return from the continent, some circucnr 
stances induced Dr. Roebuck to settle as a physician- at 
Birmingham, where he met with great encouragement, and 
at his leisure hours was induced to turn his studies and in-^ 
dustry to various objects besides those of his professibu. 
Strongly attached to the rising science of chemistry, b^ 
conceived high views of extendinjg its usefulness, and ren- 
dering it subservient to the impravement of arts and ma- 
nufactures. With this view he fitted up a so^aii laboratory 
in his bouse, in which he spent ev^y moment of histiose 
which he could spare from the duties of bis. profession. 
The first efforts of his genius and indnstry led him to the 
discovery of certain improved methods of T>efiuiDg goldaqd > 
silver, and particularly to an ingenious method of collect- 
ing the sn)aller particles of these precious metals^ wbicb 
had formerly been lost in the practical operations of iiiany 
of the manufacturers. By other chemical processes, car^- • 
ried on about the same time in his little laboratory, be dis-*. 
covered also improved methods of making sublimate^, 
.hartshorn, and sundry other articles of equal importance. 
In order to render these beneficial to himself, and usefiiL. 
.to the public, be associated himself with Mr. Samuel Gac* 
bet, of .Birmingham, a gentleman of abilities and enter-, 
prizitig spirit, and estabusbed a laboratory upon a large^ 
jcale, : which was productive of many advantages totthe 
manufacturers of that place, and of sudb emolument to 
themselves, as contributed greatly to the boldness of their, 
future projects. * 

The extensive use of the vitriolic (sulphuric) acid in. cbe^ 
.rnistry, and the prospect of its application to some of the, 
.mechanic arts, had produced a great demand for thatarti'^> 
cle, and turned the attention of the chetpists to various Inct- 
thods of obtaining it.. Dr. Ward had made great progress^ 
in this, and was the first who established a profitable manu-^ 
facture, ^ut the price of it was still high, arising from th^ 

R O E B U C li. 3^1 

great expence of the glass vessels, which be used in pro* 
cl&nng it, and the frequent accidents to which th^'y were 
)iable in the process. Dr. Roebuck, however, ^ho had 
been for some time making experiments on the subject, 
discovered a method of preparing it by substituting^, in 
place of the glass vessels formerly used, liead ones of a great 
size, -which, togenhei* with various other improvements in 
different parrts of the process, completely efTected his end; 
After '«he nece^s^ry preparations had been made, Messrs. 
Roebuck ai>d Garbet established a manufacture of the oil of 
vitriol a< Ptestort-pans in Scotland, in 1749, and not only 
served the public at a cheaper rate than had ever been 
done formerly, but realized a greater annual profit from a 
smaller capital than bad been done in any similar'under'tak- 
ing. The -vitriol work is still carried on at Preston-pans ; 
but long before Dr. Roebuck^s death, be withdrew his ca- 
pital from it. • - 

'About this time Dr. Roebuck was urged, by some of his' 
fHends, to leave Birmingham, and to settle as a physician 
$t London, where his abilities might have a more extensive 
field of exertion. But the chemical concerns, with which 
be wis now deeply occupied, holding out to him the pro- 
spect of a richer harvest, determined him to give up the 
practice of medicine altogether, and to fix his residence 
for the greatest part of the year in Scotland. In the pro- 
secution of his chemical experiments, he had been led to 
bestow great attention on the processes of smelting iron 
stone, and had made some discoveries, by which that ope- 
ration might be greatly facilitated, particularly by using 
pit-codl in place of charcoal. This led him and his enter- 
I^rizing partner to project a very extensive manufactory of 
iron ; and such was the confidence which their friends re- 
posed* in their abilities and integrity, that a'sufRcient capi- 
tal was soon procured. When all previous matters had 
bfeen concf^rted. Dr. Roebuck began« to look round for a 
proper situation, and after a careful examination of many 
places, at length made choice of a*spot on the banks of the 
river Carron, as the most advantageous situation for the' 
^lablishment of the iron manufacture. Here he found they 
could easily command abundance of water for the neceasary 
machinery; and in the neighbourhood of it, as well as tf\'^ty^ 
wb^re both along the nprth and south coasts of the Pfith of 
Pbrtfa, were to be found inexhaustible quarries of ifon-stotie, 
lime-stone, and coaL From Carron also, they cotild easily 

Vou XXVI. Y 

332 R O E B U C k. 

transport their manufactures to different countries by 86a« 
The communication with Glasgow at that time by land ca)r* 
riage, which opened to them a ready way to the American 
market, was| short and easy. 

Many otb^r things, that need not -be here enumerated, 
fell to Dr. Roebuck's share in preparing and providing for 
the introduction of this new manufacture into Scotland, 
particularly with respect to the planning and erection of 
the furnaces and machinery. To insure success in that 
department, nothing was omitted which ability, industry, 
and experience could suggest. With this view be called in 
the assistance of Mr. Smeaton, then by far the first engineer 
in England, and from him received plans and drawings of 
the water-wheels and blowing ap)3aratus, which, notwith- 
standing all the mechanical improvements which have b^en 
made since, remain unrivalled in any of the other iron- 
works erected in Britain. This was the first introduction 
of Mr. Smeaton into Scotland, and was the occasion of 
various other displays of the skill and experience of that, 
celebrated engineer in that part of the island. With the 
same view, aud to the same effect^ in. a future period of his 
operations, be employed the celebrated Mr. James Watt, 
then of Glasgow, and had the merit of rendering that in-, 
Tentive genius in the mechanical arts, better known both 
iu Scotland and England. The necessary preparations for 
the establishment of the iron works at Carron were finished 
in the end of the year 1759, and on Jan. 1, 1760, the first 
ifurnace was blown ; and in a short time afterwards a second; 
was erected. The subsequent progress of this great work, 
the many improvements introduced, and its vast importance 
to Scotland, are matters of local history and interest, on 
which we cannot enter in this place ; but enough has been 
said to prove that it is to Dr. Roebuck that country owes 
these great advantages. 

When the business at Carron sunk by degrees into a 
matter of ordinary detail, and afforded less scope for Dr^ 
^Roebuck's peculiar talents, he was^unfortunately tempted 
«to engage in a new and different undertaking, from th^^ 
failure of which he suffered a reverse of fortune, was de- 
prived of the advantages resulting from his other works, . 
jand during the remainder of bis life became subjected ta: 
^luch anxiety and disappointment This was his becoming., 
lessee of the duke of Hamilton's extensive coal and salt 
works at Borrow9tounness» Tb€ coal there was I'epresented 


to l^kist in great abundance, and understood to be of supe* 
rior quality; and as Dr. Roebuck had made himself ac* 
quainted with the most improved methods of working coal 
in England, and then not practised in Scotland, he had 
little doubt of this 'adventure turning out beneficial and 
highly lucrative. In this, however, he was cruelly disap* 
pointed; and the result was, that after many years of la-^ 
bour and industry, there were sunk in this project, not only 
bis own) and the considerable fortune brought him by his 
wife, but the regular profits of his more successful works : 
and along therewith. What distressed him above every 
thing, great sums of money borrowed from his relations 
and friends, which he was never able to repay; not to 
mention that from the same cause, he was, during the last 
twenty years of his life, subject to a constant succession of 
hopes and disappointments, to a course of labour and 
drudgery ill suited to his taste. and turn of mind^ to the 
irksome and teazing business of managing and studying the 
humours of working colliers* But all these difficulties hir 
persevering spirit would have overcome, if the never-ceas- 
ing demands of his coal-works, after having exhausted the 
profits, had not also compelled him. to withdraw his capital 
from all his different works in succession : from the refining 
work at Birmingham, the vitriol work at Preston-pans, the 
iron works at Carron, as well as to part with his interest in 
the project of improving the steam-engine, in which he had 
become a partner with Mr. Watt, the original inventor, and 
from which he bad reason to hope for future emolument. 

It would be painful to mention the unhappy consequent* 
ces of this ruinous adventure to his family and to himself. 
It cut off for ever the flattering prospect which they had 
of an independent fortune, suited tt> their education and 
tank in life. It made many cruel encroachments upon the 
time and occupations of a man whose mind was equally 
fitted to enjoy the high attainments of science, and tha 
elegant amusements of taste. As the price of so many 
sacrifices, he was only enabled to draw from his colliery, 
and \that by the indulgence of his creditors, a nipderate 
annual maintenance for himself and his family during his 
life. At his death, his widow was left without any pro- 
vision whatever for her immediate or future suppoit, and 
without the smallest advantage from the extraordinary exer'». 
lions and meritorious industry of her husband. 

Dr, Roebuck bad, some years before bis death, been 

y 2 

IH A O E B U C t. 


attacked l^y a complaint that required a dangerous chirxust 
gicial operation, which be rapported with his usual spirit 
and resolution. . In a short time be was restored 4o a con-4 
siderable share of his former health and activity ; but the 
effects of it never entirely left him, and several slighter re^ 
turns of the complaint gradually impaired his constitution. 
He still, however, continued^ until within a few weeks of 
bis death, to visit his works, and to give directions to bis 
clerks and overseers. He was confined to bis bed only a 
few days, and died July 17, 1794, iu the seventy-sixth 
year<i^f his age, retaining to the last all his faculties, his 
spirit and good humour, as well as the great interest which 
be took, as a man of science and reflection, in the uncom* 
mon events which the present age has exhibited. 

From a man so deeply and so constantly . engaged in 
the detail of active business, many literary compositions 
were not to be expected. The great object which he 
kept invariably in view, and which gives him a just 
claim to the respect and gratitude of bis country, was tp. 
promote arts and manu&ctures, rather than to establish 
theories and hypotheses;. The few essays which he left, 
bowever, enable us. to judge of what might have bean ex- 
pected from hia talents, knowledge, and boldness of inven- 
tion, if he had bad more leisure fbr study and investiga- 
tion* A comparison of the beat of Loudon and Edinburgh^ 
read in the Royal Society of London June 29, 1775 ; ^ex- 
periine<its on ignited bodies, read there Feb. 16, 1776; 
observations on the ripening and filling of com, read in the 
Koyal Society of Edinburgh June 5, 1784, are all, the 
\yritings of bis, two political pamphlets excepted, which 
have been published.' 

RO£L]Li (Hjsrmamn-AlexakdiER), a celebrated protes- 
tant divHie, and theological professor, was born in .1653 
at Doelberg, in Westphalia. He received, at Unna, an 
excellent educatlbn in the Latin, Greek, and Hebcew lan- 
guages, and in 1670 maintained with great ability a thesis 
*^ de studio math^attco pbilbsopbice prflemittendo." In 
ibe same year he went to Utrecht, where he received lee* 
tares from the celebrated Francis Burmann on the scrip*' 
tures; but on the war with France, was obUged to go .to 
Cottingen, where be studied under James Alting: thia 
place also becoming unsafe, be returned to Germany, and 

> TraofactioBi of tbt Rojal Society of Edinborgh, toL IV* 

It O E L L. $i> 

ijtbdied fpir some time at Marparg, and after that at Hei- 
delberg. From thence he went to Basil and Zurich; and 
ID 1676 be once more visited the United Provinceis, and 
tpent tfro years at the universities of Utrecht and Leaden. ^ 
No sooner bad be returned to his natite countrjr thacn he 
received an invitation to become pastor of the protestant 
church at Cologne, which he declined, owing to iit-heahh; 
and be undertook the chaplainship to Elizabeth, abbess of 
Hervorden, and daughter of Frederic, king of Bohemia | 
which post he retained till the death of the princess, in 
1680. After this be was appointed preacher to Albertinei 
princess of Orange, and widow of William of Nassau j 
audio 1686, was elected professor of divinity at the uni- 
versity of Franeker. In June 1704 he was appointed, on 
very honourable and advantageous term^, professor of di-» ' 
vinity at Utrecht, a post which he retained vvitb gre^t re- 
putation till bis death, Juty 12, 1718, in the 66th year of 
his age. Borman says, he was without dispute a first-rate 
philosopher and divine; but leaves it to bis brethren to 
determine whether he was not somewhat heretical in his 
singular opinions on the generation of the don of God, 
and on the temporal death of believers. These were ex- 
pressed in his <* Theses Theologies de generatione filii, 
et morte fidelium temporalis*' Francfort, ]6lA9, 4to, and 
were answered by Vitringa and others. His principal 
works are, 1. ^^Commentariusin princrpium epistolse Pauli 
ad Ephesos," Utrecht, 1715, 4to. 2j A continuation of 
the tome, with an exegesis on the Coloi^sians, ibid. 1731, 
4to. 3. '' Es^plicatio Catecheseos Heidelbergensis,** ibid. 
1728. 4. " Exegesis in Psalmum Ixxxix.'* Duisburg, 1728, 
8vo. 5, '* Gulicbii Analysis et compendium' librorum 
propbeticorum antique et novi foederis,*' Amst. 1683, 4to» 
6. ** Oratio inauguralis de reiigione rational!," afterwards, 
and often reprinted under the title of a* ^VDissertatio," 
which Heomann calls a very learned and elegant work.^ 

ROEMER (Olaus), a* Danish astronomer iamd mathe- 
matician, was born at Arhusen in Jutland in 1644; and, 
at eighteen, was sent to the university of Copenhagen. He 
applied biinself assiduously to the study of' mathematics 
and astronomy, and became such an adept in those scien- 
ces, that, when Picard was sent by Lewis XIV. in 1671, 

1 Chaofepte.— f Burman Traject. Eruditam, 

526 R O E M E R. 

to make observations in the North, he was so pleased wiA 
'him, that he engaged him to return with him to France, 
and had him presented to the king, who ordered him to 
teach the daaphin mathematics, and settled a pension on 
liim. He was joined with Picard and Cassini, in making 
astroiiomical observations; and, in 1672, was admitted a, 
member of the academy of sciences. During the ten years 
-he resided at Paris, he gained a prodigious reputation by 
liis discoveries ; yet is said to have complained afterwards 
that his coadjutors ran away with the honour of many 
things which belonged to him. In 1681, Christian V. 
king of Denmark called him back to his own country, and 
made him professor of astronomy at Copenhagen. He 
employed him also in reforming the coin and the archi- 
tecture, in regulating the weights and measures, and in 
measuring the high roads throughout the kingdom. Fre* 
deric IV. the successor of Christian, shewed the same 
favour to Roemer, and conferred new dignities on him. 
He was preparing to publish the result of his observatiqns, 
when he died Sept. 19, 1710, aged 66 ; but some of his ob- 
servations, with bis manner of making those observations^ 
were publisbedin 1735, under the title of ^* Basis Astro* 
nomise," by bis scholar Peter Horrebow, then professor of 
astronomy at Copenhagen. Roemer was the 6rst who 
found out the velocity with which light moves, by means 
of the eclipses of Jupiter's satellites. He bad observed 
for many years that, when Jupiter was at his greatest dis- 
tance from the earth, where he could be observed, the 
Emersions of his first satellite happened constantly 1 5 or 1 6 
minutes, later than the calculation gave them. Hence he 
concluded that the light reflected by Jupiter took up this 
time in running over the excess of distance, and conse- 
quently that it took up 16 or 18 minutes in running over 
the diameter of the earth's orbit, and 3 or 9 in coming 
from the sun to us, provided its velocity was nearly uni- 
form. This discovery bad at first many oppos^rs ; but it 
was afterwards confirmed by Dr. Bradley in the most in- 
genious and beautiful manner. ^ 

ROGER, or rather Richard of Hexham, an ancient 
historian, was brought up in the convent of Hexham, in 
Northumberland, where he embraced the monastic life, 

^ Elogef des AcademicieDt^ toL l«— ^HqUoo's J)ictioaary.«->Chaufepie.— Bit>f« 

. ft a G E R. S27 

lind was elected prior some time at least'before IISS,. for 
lie saw the Scottisix army march into Yorkshire, under 
their king David L previous to the battle of the l^tandard, 
which was fought in September that year. He wrote the 
llistory of that campaign, wherein be points out, in the 
most declamatory style, tiie ravages committed by the 
Scottish army. But such was his ignorance, that he calls 
t^he Highlanders, and Galovidians, who composed part of 
king David^s army, Ptc^i, or Picts, as if they had painted 
their bodies in tlae same manner as in ancient times ; 
whereas those people only wore party-coloured garments^ 
which the Highlanders call Tartans. ^ 

ROGERS (Benjamin), doctor of music, and an eccle- 
siastical, composer, whose works are still contained in our 
cathedral service, and for whose fame Anthony Wood has 
manifested great zeal, was born at Windsor, and brought 
up in that college under Dr. Nath. Giles ; being employed 
there, first as a singing boy, and afterwards in the capa- 
city of lay clerk or singing man. Thence he went to Ire<« 
Ijand, and was appoiated organist of Christ-church ia 
Dublin, where he continued till the breaking out of the 
rebellion, in 1641 ; at which time, being forced to quit his 
station, be returned to Windsor, where he was again re« 
instated as choirman ; but being soon after silenced in coq^ 
sequence of the civil v^ars, he procured a subsistence by 
teaching in the neighbourhood. And during this timci 
according to his friend Anthony Wood, having addicted^ 
himself much to study, he acquired great credit as a 
composer, and produced several' sets of airs in four parts 
for violins and an organ, which being then imagined the 
best that could be composed of that kind, were sent as 
great rarities to the archduke Leopold, afterwards emperor, 
^d himself a great musician ; and, upon their being per- 
formed by his band, they were very much admired. 
• In 1658, by the favour of his friend.Dr; Ingelo, he ob- 
tained the degree of bachelor in music at Cambridge, and 
acquired great reputation in that university by his exercise. 
3oon after, on Dr. Ingelo going chaplain to Bulstrode 
lord Whitelock, into Sweden, he carried with him some 
of Rogers's best compositions, which, upon being repeat- 

1 Taoner.—Twisden^s Decern Scriptores. — Whartoa's AngliA Sacra, vol. I. 
Preface, p. 48. 

82S R.O G E R S. 

cdly (i^rformed in the . presence of Christiana^ qMen 0f 
Sived«n, were very much applauded. At the restoratioil 
be was appointed to compose the music that was performed 
at.Guildhall| on the day his nctajesty and his brothers, the 
dukes of York and Gloucester, dined there with the. lord-" 
mayor, by which he greatly increased his reputation*. 
About this time also he was chosen organist of Eton college, 
which he resigned soon after, on being invited to Oxford^ 
where he was appointed to the same office in Magdalen 
college. And in 1669; upon opening the new theatre iii 
that city, be was created doctor in music. He continued^ 
says Ant. Wood, in the aniversity,^ where he was mncfat 
esteemed, till 1685, when be was ejected, in company 
with the fellows of bis college, by king James II. after 
which- he long re»ded in the skirts of the town, wholly 

' *' His compositions for instruments," says Ant. Wood/ 
^ whether in tv^o, three, or four parts, have been highly 
valued, and were thirty years ^ago always first called for,' 
taken out and played as well in the public music schools,* 
as in private chambers : and DrJ Wilson, the professor, 
(the greatest and most curious judge of music that ever 
was), usually wept wb^n be heard them well performed^, 
as being wrapt up in an ecstacy; of, if /ou will, melted 
down: white others smiled,' or had their hands. and eyetf 
Kfted up, at the excellence of them." *^ It is to be feared,^^ 
says Dr. Bumey, ^* that instead of weepings the wicked 
lovers of modern music would now laughs if* they were to* 
bear the quaint and starched strains, and see on paper the 
rufl^ and roIUups'of honest Ben. Rogers at the Opera-r. 
bouse, or professional concert, Hanover^s^uare.* But, alas$ 
what isr the secular music, that thirty years have not wfin*- 
kled, withered, and rendered superannuated T' ' 

ROGERS (Charles), an antiquary, and a man of taste^ 
was born Aug. 2, 1711, in Dean-street, Soho, and receiv* 
ed the first rudiments of education at a private school near 
the Mews, but be did not for some time after this devote^ 
himself seriously to literary pursuits. When- be did, bow-* 
ever, he exerted that innate industry and ap{>Ucation,' 
which constituted a striking part of his character; and, 
with no aid but bis own abilities, overcame all other diffi** 
cutties which stood in the way of an acquaintance with' 

) Boniey apd HftwUiis*f UitU of MvaU:, 

B O G E R S: 32» 

Jei|ni)nfg and scietice. ^ In May 1731, he wa^ placed m 
the Custom-bouse, where he executed the duties of the 
several places which he held, with strict attention and in« 
tegrity, and at length arrived at tbe office of clerk of the 
certificates, in which he continued almost to the end of 
Ills life. 
. From the time of his admission into the Custom-house^ 
he employed his leisure hours in the cultivation of his mind^ 
and in forming the valuable collection of print& and drawn 
ings which he left behind him. In the course of these pur^ 
«oits, he beb&me acquainted with several persons of simir 
lai^ taste, and among the rest Mr. Pond, a well-Jcnown and 
judicious collector. By him he was introduced to the 8a# 
<^ty of Antiquaries, Feb. 23, 1752, of which he became a 
very nseful member, and was several timea chosen of the 
council. In 1757, he was chosen a fellow of the Rojral 
Society. After Mr. Rogers bad begun to form his collect 
tlons, and had made some progress, he conceived the ides 
of communicating, to tbe public, specimens of the manners 
of the several different masters, a work requiring great 
industry and perseverance, and likely to be attended with 
gre^ expence. Tbe farmer he knew he could cominandjt 
and tbe latter, as he was a bachelor, gave him little Con*^ 
cern. The execution of this undertaking may be con«« 
sidered as the principal object of his life. It appeared 'u$ 
1777, 2 volumes, folio, under the title of ** Descrtptioii; 
of a Collection of Prints in imitation of drawings, to whlcb 
are aniiexed. Lives of their authors, with explanatory and 
critical notes.*' The selection consists of 1 f2 prints, en- 
graved by Bartolozzi, Ryland, Basire, and other artists o£ 
reputation, from original drawings in tbe collections o( hisft 
majesty, the duke of Marlborough, earls of Bute, Choi- 
mondeLy, Spencer, lord Frederick Campbell, sir Josbcia 
Reynolds, and his own. The heads of the different pain<^, 
ters, and a variety of fanciful decorations, are also gives,, 
in a peculiar style of engraving on wood, by Mr. Simon. 
Watts. The whole performance at once reflects honour on 
the country, as well as on the liberality of tbe undertaker^ 
who neither was, nor, it is supposed, ever expected to be 
reimbursed the great expence he had incurred. Besides 
this work, Mr. Rogers printed an anonymous ** Tranala-^ 
tion of Dante's Infei'no,"' 17S2, 4 to, in the performance of 
which he chiefly attended to giving Jkbe sense of his author^ 
with fidelity, the character of a poet not seeming to have 

«30 ROGERS. 


been the object of bis ambition. He also published in the 
'^ Archseologia/' vol. III. a paper on the antiquity of horse- 
shoes ; and in vol. VI. an account of certain masks from 
the Musquito shore. A curious letter of bis, to Mr. Astle, 
on some ancient blocks used in printing, may be seen in 
Gent. Mag. vol. LI. p. 169; and another paper, which was 
|vad at the Society of Antiquaries, Feb. 18, 1779, is pre* 
served in vol. LIV. p. 265. Mr. Rogers died Jan. 2, 1784, 
'and was buried tn the family-vault in St. Lawrence Pount^ 
Bey burying-ground.* 

ROGERS (Daniel), a man of considerable ability in 
the conrt of queen Elizabeth, and who in some of bis writ- 
ings calls himself Albimontanus, was the son of John Ro- 
gers of Derytend in the parish of Aston in Warwickshire, 
where he was born about ld40. His father, who had em«. 
braced the reformed religion, being obliged to quit bis 
country, at the accession of queen Mary, took his son 
abroad with him, where, at Wittemberg, be was educated 
vnder the celebrated Melancthon. When the death of 
queen Mary had put an end to persecution for religion^ 
sake, Mr. Rogers, senior, returned with his family, and 
placed his son at Oxford, where he appears to have taken 
his degrees,' although Wood has not been able to specify 
when, or in what college he studied. Afterwards he ob- 
tained an introduction to court, where his talents recom- 
mended him to the place of one of the clerks of the council, 
and be bad the farther honour of being often employed by 
queen Elizabeth in embassies to the Netherlands and other 
parts^ in 1575, 1577, and 1588. During' these embassies 
be appears to have acted with wisdom, diligence, and cau* 
tion, and to have been of the greatest utility to Cecil from 
the correct information he procured of the proceedings of 
foreign governments. Strype, who had seen a volume of 
his political notes and letters, formed during his residence 
abroad, has preserved one of his communications to secre- 
tary Cecil, in the appendix to his ^' Annals,*' No. 48. It 
contains aome important intelligence on political subjects, 
and is evidently the prodbction of a sensible man accus- 
tomed to view the world and its inhabitants with an eye of 
penetration and sagacity. Many of his letters and instruc- 
Uous are among the Cotton. MSS. in the British Museum. 

1 Gent. ^ag. toU LIV. where is a copy of bis portrait from sir Joshua |^y« 

A O Q £ R S. 331 

He died Feb. 1 1, 1590^ and was buried in Sunbury cburch^ 

Wood add9y that be was ^^ a very good man, excellently 
well learned, a good Latin poet, and one chat was espe- 
cially beloved by the famous antiquary and historian WiU 
liam Camden, for whose sake he had laid the foundation of 
^ A Discourse concerning the acts of the Britains, the form 
of their Commonwealth, and the order and la^s by which 
4hey lived'." This was intended for Camden's *' Britan** 
nia,'' but be did not live to finish it. He wrote, 1. ^VOdae, 
Epigrammata, Epitaphia," &c. in laudem et mortem Jo- 
hannis Juelli Episc. Sarisbur. at the end of Humphrey** 
Life of Jewell. 2. ^^ A memorial or oration of Dr. Dan. 
Rogers on the death of Frederic IL and the accession of 
Christian IV.*' (probably addressed to the senate of Den- 
mark, Copenhagen, July 19, 1588). 3. ^^ Dr. RogersV 
Search," being a repertory of various transactions relating 
to Commerce : the two preceding are among the. Cotton 
MSS. 4. '^ Dan. Kogersii Albimontii Angli, ad Stephani 
Malescoti Catechesin TfO0-^Aiyn<ri$> carmine Latino,". Basil, 
1567, 8va 5. " Elegia ad Gulielmum Cecilium baronem 
Burleigh,'^ among the ^* Ulust. et clar. virorum .Epist. se- 
lect." Leyden, 1617, 8vo. 6. *^ Epistolae tres ad Bucha** 
nanum," among the '^ Epist. Bucbanani," Lond. 1711, 
Qvo.. 7. ^' Epistola Adriano Yander Mylen," among the 
above Leyden epistles. Among the Harieian MSS. is hit 
*^ Letter to' Abraham Ortelius at Antwerp," compliment- 
ing him on the glory he will reap from posterity by his 
geographical works, and concluding with the mention of 
his own commentary upon the laws and manners of the an- 
cient Britons. Wood also mentions an epigram of his 
printed with Ralph Aggas's description of Oxford in 1578« 
Wood notices another Daniel Rogers, and his works, 
** David's Cost ;" " A practical Catechism ;" " Lectures 
upon the history of Naaman," &c. This, however, was 
a puritan divine born in 1573, and educated at Cambridge. 
He was son to Richard Rojgers, and brother to Ezekiel 
Rogers, both puritan divines, and men of note in their day» 
but we do not find in their memoirs much to recommend a 
distinct article on either. It remains to be noticed, that 
Strype, iii his Life of Whitgift, conjectures the above 
Daniel Rogers, the ambassador, to be son to John Rogers 
the proto- martyr ; but this is inconsistent with the above 
account, and sterns founded on no authority, as the martyr 

3St B O G E R 9. 

BjO>ger!i nevet left the kingdom on the accession of qneei^ r 
Mary, btit remained to be the first sacrifice to her infernal 
bigot fy* * 

ROGERS (John), the proto-martyr in the days of queen 
Mary,^ received a liberal education in the university of 
Cambridge, and there, we presume^ entered into holj^ 
ordersr Some time after this the company of merchant 
adventurers^ as they were then called, appointed him theit 
chaplain at Antwerp, where he remained many years* 
T'his proved also the means of his convertion from popery^ 
for jBeeting there with Tindal and Coverdale, who had left 
England that they might enjoy their religious opinions witU 
snore freedom, he was induced by their conversation \.i 
e^^amine the points in controversy more closely, the result 
ef which was his embracing the sentiments of the reformers 
as far as then understood. He also joined with thes.e ooU 
leagues in making the first translation of the Bible intd 
English, which appeared at Hamburgh in 1532, under thd 
ictitious name of Thomas Matthew. Rogers was corrector 
^f the press on this occasion, and translated that part oF 
the Apocrypha which was left unfinishied by Tindal, and 
also contributed some of the marginal notes. At Antwerp 
Mr, Rogers married, and thence went to Wittemberg, and 
had acquired such readiness in the Dutch language that he 
was chosen pastor of a congregation there, which office 
lie discharged greatly to their satisfaction until the acces* 
sion of Edward VI. At this time bishop Ridley invited 
him home, and made him prebendary and divinity«readei^ 
0>f St. lr^aul*s, where he was a very frequent preacher as 
long as Edward lived. When queen Mary made her trium- 
phal entry into London, Aug. 3, 1553, Rogers had the 
boldness to preach a sermon at Paul's Cross on the follow^-^ 
ing Sunday, in which he exhorted the people to abided by 
the doctrine taught in king Edward's day^, aftd to resist 
popery in all its forms and superstitions. For this he wad 
immediately called before the privy-council, in which were 
several of the restored popish bishops, but appears no have 
defended himself so ably that he was disfmissed unhurt. 
This security, however, was not of long duration, and two 
days before Mary issued her proclamation against flreach-^ 
ing the reformed doctrines (August 18) h^ was ordered to 
a prisoner in his own house at St. Paul's. From 

) Ath. Ox. vol.1, sew edit, by Bliss.— Brook*! LiTMof tbe Poriiam. 

It O G E B j9. 


tbis he might, it is thought, easily have escttped, and ha 
certainly had many inducements to make theattefmpt fi^r 
knew he could expect Yio forgiveness ; that he Bright he 
well provided for in Germany ; and that he had a wife and 
ten children ; but he preferred giving bis testimony to the 
truth of what he had believed and preached, at whaltev^ 

After being confined six months in his own boose £# 
was removed to Newgate, where his confinement was ag- 
gravated by every species of severity ; and in January 1 555, 
was examined before Gardiner, bishop of Winchester: the 
{>urport of his examination, as written by himself, is gived 
4i^t considerable length by Fox, but is not <:apable of abridge 
pient. The issue was that Mr. Rogers was condemned to 
he burnt on Feb. 4, which sentence he bore with the great-- 
est constancy and patience. On the day of his execution 
he was awakened with some difficulty out of a sound sleeps' 
and only requested of Bonner, who came to perform the 
office of degrading him from holy orders, that he might see 
his family ; but this was denied him. On bis way, how* 
ever, to Sihithfield, his wife and ten children, with one at 
the breast, contrived to meet him. When he came to die 
0take, although not permitted to say much, he exhoite4 
the jpeople to remain steady in the faith and doctrine which 
had been taught them, and for which he was now williag 
to resign his life. As he was the 6rst who had suffered m 
this reign, and one well known for his piety and usefulness^ 
Ills death made no slight impression on the multitude who 
witnessed it, many of whom were afterwards emboldei^^ 
by such scenes as this wretched reign presented, either to 
suffer in the same cause, or to preserve the tenour aad 
spirit of the reformation until the accession of Elizabeth 
restored them to their liberty.* 

ROGERS (Dr. John), an English divine, wais bom in 
1679, at Ensham in Oxfordshire, where his father was vicat 
and rector of Wick-Rissington, in . Gloucestershire. He 
was educated at New college school, in Oxford ; and, i« 
169?, elected scholar of Corpus Christi college. After 
taking the degrees in arts, and entering int6 orders, lie 
waited a long time for a fellowship, by reason of the siotr 
Succession in the college ; but at length succeeded Mn 

I Fox's Acts and Monuoients.— Sfcrype^s Cranmer, p, 59^ %%, 2^, 313, 341, 
249| 441.-«-Wor«lsw9rth*ii Eecl. Biography. 

S34 K O G E R S. 

Edmund Chnbull, in 17O69 but in the mean time had beefH 
preseVited to the vicarage of Buckland, in Berkshire, about 
ten miles from Oxford, in which he continued about five 
or six yeafsy dividing his time usefully between his cure 
«nd the university. At the former he became so'popular, 
that the inhabitants entered into a handsome subscription 
for an afternoon sermon by him, which was discontinued 
after he left them. In 1710, he took a bachelor of divi- 
Bity^s degree ; and, two years after, went to London, to be 
lecturer of St. Clement's Danes. He afterwards became 
lecturer of the united parishes of Christ-church, and St. 
Leonard's Foster-lane. In 1716, he was presented to th^ 
rectory of Wrington, in Somersetshire ; ^nd, the same year^ 
resigning his fellowship, married the bon. Mrs. Lydia Harje, 
sister to the lord Colerane, who was his pupil in the uni-^ 
Tersity. Some time after, he was elected canon resident 
tiary of the church of Wells ; in which he also bore the 
office of sub-dean. In 1719, he engaged in the Bangorian 
controversy, and published, upon that occasion, ^^ A Dis- 
course of the visible and invisible Church of. Christ: in 
which it is shewn, that the powers, claimed by the officers 
of the visible church, are not inconsistent with the supre- 
macy of Christ as head, or with the rights and liberties of 
christians, as members of the invisible church,'' 8vo. The 
Rev. Dr. Sykes having published an *' Answer to this Dis- 
course," our author replied to him in " A Review of the 
Discourse of the visible and invisible Church of Christ." 

He gained much, credit by these performances, even 
those who were against his argument allowing him to have 
good parts and an excellent pen ; and the university of 
Oxford made a public iacknowledgmeut of their opinion of 
bis noerit, by conferring on him, in 1721, without his 
knowledge, and by diploma, the degree of doctor in divi-. 
nity. In 1726, he was made chaplain to George II. then 
prince of Wales ; and about the same time appeared in 
defence of Christianity, against the attacks of Collins in 
his ** Scheme of Literal Prophecy." Rogers did not at 
6r8t professedly write against the '^Scheme;" but, pub- 
lishing, in 1727, a volume of sermons, entitled ^^ The 
liecessity of Divine Revelation, and the truth of the Chris- 
tian Religion, asserted," he prefixed to them " A Preface 
with Remarks on the Scheme of Literal Prophecy." This 
preface, however, in the opinion of his friends^ seemed 
liable tQ some exception^ or at least to demand a mor« fulf 

R O E R 8» SSI 

and distinct explication : and he received a letter upon it 
the same year from his friend Dr. Natb. Marshall He en^ 
deavpured to give satisfaction to all ; and therefore^ Collint 
having written ** A Letter to the Rev. Dr. Rogers, on oc- 
casion of his eight Sermons concerning the necessity of 
Divine Revelation, and the Preface prefixed to them/* our 
author published <^ A Vindication of the Civil Establishment 
of Religion, wherein some positions of Mr. Chandler, jth^ 
author of the ^ Literal Scheme,' &c. and an anonymouf 
Letter on that subject, are occasionally considered. With 
an Appendix, containing a Letter from the Rev. Dr. Mar-t 
shall, and an Answer to the same,'' 1723, 8vo. 

The same year, 1726, having resigned his lecture of St; 
Clement's Danes, he retired from London, with ao inten« 
tion to spend the remainder of his life in the country, chiefly 
at Wrington : but he had not been there long, when ho 
received an oifer, from the dean and chapter of St. Paul's,, 
of the vicarage of St. Giles's Cripplegate, in London, iio' 
was instituted to it, Oct. 1723, but with the greatest an x* 
iety and reluctance; for be had set his heart upon the 
country, and was then, as he had always been from his 
youth, remarkably fond of rural exercises and diversioos*- 
He did not enjoy his new preferment above six months; 
for he died May ], 1729, in his fiftieth year. He was 
buried in the parish church of Ensham, where a handsome 
monument is erected to his memory : his funeral sermon 
was preached by Dr. Marshall. After his decease, some 
volumes of his sermons were published ; and two tracts, viz^ 
*^ Reasons against Conversion to the Church of Rome," and 
" A Persuasive to Conformity addressed to Dissenters,'* 
never before printed. 

Dr. Rogers was a man of good abilities, and an excellent 
writer, though no profound scholar, nor ambitious of being 
thought one. He neither collected nor read many books; 
being persuaded^ that a few well chosen, and read to good 
purpose, serve infinitely more to edification, if.not so mxicli 
to ostentation and parade. We are told, that the judicious 
Hooker and the ingenious Mr. Norris were his favourites ; 
and that he was particularly conversant^in their writings.^ 

ROGERS (Thomas), whom Wood styles " a most ad- 
mirable theologist, an excellent preacher, and well deserv- 
ing every way of the sacred function," was a native of Che'-^ 

I Life by Dr. Burton prefixt^d t9 his Sermons.— «Biog. BriL 

SS6 R G £ R & 

ftbire, and entered a student of Christ church id 15€d. H^ 
took orders very early, and became a constant preacher | 
was M. A. in 1 576, chaplain to Bancroft, bishop of London ; 
and at last, in 1581, rector of Horninger, near Bury St« 
Edmunds, in Suffolk, where he lived in great esteem, and 
died Feb. 22, 161 6. These are all the pahiculars Wood 
kas given of this Mr. Rogers, who appears to have been a 
Voluminous author and translator. Among his .original 
works are^ 1. *^ A Philosophical Discourse, entitled. The 
Anatomy of the Mind," Loud. 1576, 8vo, with iBOme en- 
comiststie verses by his fellow student, afterwards the cele-* 
brated Camden. 2. " Of the End of the World, and Se- 
cond Coming of Christ," ibid. Lond. 1577, 4to, reprinted 
1582. and 1583, in 8vo. 3. ** The English Creed, wherein 
is contained in tables an exposition on the articles which 
every man is to subscribe unto,-' &c. ibid. 1579 and 1585, 
foL This appears also to have been reprinted twice under 
a somewhat different title; the last edition, in 1586 and 1621, 
is called ^^ An Exposition of the 39 articles of the Church 
of England," 4to. This work, according to Wood, was- 
.not at first received so well as it deserved, and some things 
in it he says gave offence, not only to papists and schisma- 
tics, but even to ^* many protestants of a middle temper." 
Wood has expressed their objections rather obscurely, but 
it may be conjectured that Mr. Rogers interpreted the arti* 
cles in their literal sense, and did not admit, as Wood adds, 
of '^ the charitable latitude formerly allowed in those arti- 
cles." 4. ^^ A golden chain taken out of the rich treasure- 
house of the Psalms of David," ibid. ] 579 and 1587, 12mo. 
5. '* Historical Dialogue touchingantichristandpopery," &c. 
ibid. 1589, 8vo, 6. ** Sermons on Romans xii. v. 6, 7, 8," 
ibid. 1590. 7. ^* Miles Christianus, or, a Defence of all 
necessary writings and writers, written against an Epistle 
prefixed to a Catechism by Miles Moses," ibid. 1590, 4to« 
8. ^^ Table of the law&il use of an Oath, and the cursed. . 
state of vain swearers," ibid. 9. ** Two Dialogues," or 
Conferences concerning kneeling at the Sacrament, ibid. 
1608. Wood enumerates about thirteen volumes of trans- 
lations from various foreign divines, among whom are St. 
Augustine, Thomas a Kempis, &c. &c.^ 

ROGERS (Thomas), another English divine, of a some- 
frhat different stamp, was the son and grandson of twa 

1 Akh. Ox. TOl. I. new edit by BHm. 

ROGERS^. %i1 

Bttbcessive rectors of Bishops ttamptoii, itt W^rwicfeshir^i 
where he was born, Dec. 27, 1660, and educated at the 
free-school there. In Lent-term 1675, he entered of Tri- 
tiity college, Oxford, but soon after removed to Hart hall^ 
where b6 took his degrees in arts, and went into holy or- 
dtsrs. Wood celebrates him as a man of extraordinary me- 
mory, and independent of the common helps to that faculty, 
either in the pulpit or in conversationk * The latter he enli- 
vened by quotations of uncommon accuracy^ particularly 
from the classics, and would even give the page> &c. if re* 
quiredi His sermons he carefully studied, yet delivered 
them fluently without liotes, and, as Wood says, in elegant 
and correct language. In July 1689) he was inducted to 
the small rectory of Slapton, near Towcester, in North- 
amptonshire. He died of the small-poX) while on a visit 
ftt London, June 8, 1694^ and was buried in St. Saviour's^ 
Southwark. Wood speaks of him as a true son of the 
ehurch of England, in opposition to all extremes, and his 
writings shew him a friend to the revolution. Tliese writ- 
ings are mostly poetical, published without his name. As 
we have not seen any of them, we can only deduce from 
some expressions used by Wood, that they were not all 
becoming the character of a divine; their titles are, 1. 
•* Lux occidentalis:' or Providence displayed in the coro- 
nation of king William and queen Mary,^' Lond. 1689. 2, 
" The Loyal and Impartial Satyrist, containing eight mis- 
cellany poems,*' ibid. 1693, 4to. These seem mostly le- 
velled at the Jesuits and Jacobites. 3. " A Poesy for Lo- 
Yers,'* &c. ibid. 1693, 4to. 4. ** The conspiracy of guts 
and brains; or an answer to the Turn-shams," ibid. 1693. 
In prose, he wrote ** A true Protestant Bridle ; or some 
cursory remarks upon a Sermon preached (by William Ste- 
phens, rector of Sutton) before the Lord Mayor, &c. Jan. 
30, 1693,-'' ibid. 1694, 4to; and the "Commonwealths- 
mart unmasted,*^ a rebuke, as he calls it, to the " Account 
t( Denmark,*' by Molesworth. This he dedicated, and 
bad the honour to present to king William^ who received it 
.very graciously.^ 

ROHAN (Henky DiJKE de), peer of France, prince of 
Leon, colonel general of the Swiss and Grisons, one of the 

freatest men France produced in his age, was born August 
if 1572, at the castle of Blein, in Bretany. . He distin» 

* Ath. Ox. rol. Hi 

Vol. XXVL Z 


guisbed himself at the siege of AmieDS when butsixtee^v 
in presence of Henry IV. who bad a sincere regard for him, 
and after the death of that prince he became chief of the 
French protestants, to whom he rendered the most import* 
WLtit services, both at tbe head of their armies, and in ne« 
gociations. He fought with success in Holland, Germany^' 
Italy, and France, and carried on three wars against Loui» 
XIII. in favour of tbe protestants ; the last, however, ended 
to tbe advantage of the catholics, in the capture of Rocbelle. 
But notwithstanding the consternation into which this event 
threw the. duke's party, be supported himself by those co- 
pious resources with which his prudence furnished him, 
refusing to surrender but on advantageous terms, and these 
v^ere granted by the peace of 1629. The civil wars with 
the protestants being thus terminated, he regained the fa* 
vour of Louis XIII. but not choosing to live at court, retired 
to Venice, and was chosen by that republic for their, gene- 
ralissimo, after the unfortunate battle of Valleggio, against 
the Imperialists, but tbe treaty of Querasque, concluded 
June 29, 1631, rendered his plans useless* The king of 
France afterwards employed him as ambassador extraordi- 
nary to tbe Grisons, to assist them in reducing to obedience 
the VaUeline, and counties of Bormio, and Chiavenes, 
>vhich were supported in rebellion by the Spaniards and 
Imperialists. The. Grisons immediately declared him their 
general, and their choice wa^ confirmed by Louis XIII. who 
appointed him in 1632, ambassador extraordinary to the HeU 
yetic bodj^ ; but early in 1635, he received orders to return to 
Venice, and having staid there some months, was sent back 
to the Grisons, and seized tbe passages of the Valteline, 
took Bormio, Chiavenes, and Biva^ and defeated the Ger- 
mans and Spaniards. The Grisons having rebelled some 
time after because France delayed to withdraw its forces, 
he made a new treaty with them March 26, 1Q37, which 
did not please the court, and this circumstance obljged him 
to retire to Geneva, that he might avoid the resentment of 
cardinal Richelieu ; but be left that city in January 1638, 
|o join his friend the duke of Saxe Weimar, who was going 
to engage the Imperialists near Rbinfeld. Tbe duke of 
jlohan placed himself at the head of the Nassau regiment^ 
i^roke through the enemies* ranks, was wounded, Feb. 2d, 
1638, and died of his wounds, April 13 following, aged 
8fty-nine. He was the author of many works, among which 
are, U ^< Memoirs,,'' tbe most complete edition of which 

ft O tt A Ni 3S9 

Is th 2 voW. l!2mo, conteining the transactions of PfAnce' 
from 1610 to 1629. 2\ " Les int^r^sts des Printjesj'* 12md» 
3. " Le parfait Capitaini^, ou V Abreg6 des Guerres des 
Cottimentaires de C^saf,'* 12mov 4. " Memoii-es" and 
Letters, relative to the waf of the Valtelini&s, 3 vols. 12aio; 
Vol. L contains the *' Mcnaoirs ;" the two others^ the " Pieces 
Justificatives')" the greatest part of which had never been 
pdnted before. From the preface we leafn the following 
tttiecdote V This nobleman being at Venice^ was informed 
that the grand signor would sell him the kingdom of Cy 
prus, and grant him the investure of it^ on condition of lipft 
giving the Porte two hundred thousand crowns, and Sigreeing 
to pay an annual tribute of twenty thousand crowns. The 
duke being a pfotestant> intehded to purchase this island^ 
arid settle the protestant families of France and Germany' 
"there. He negociated the affair skilfully with the Porte, by 
means of the patriarch Cyril, with whom he was much con- 
nected ) but that patriarch^s death, and other unexpected 
incidents, prevented the e^cecution of his design* The 
cibove anecdote originated in the memoirs of the duchess of 
Rohan, Margaret de Bethune, daughter of the great Sully, 
who married at Paris, Henry de Rohan, February 7, 1605*' 
This lady, who was a protestant, tendered herself cele- 
brated by her courage. She defended Castres against the 
niarechal de Thymines, 1625, lived in strict conjugal har*> 
mony with the duke her husband, atid died at Paris, Oct» 
22, 1660. The French biographers tell us that all Henry 
de Rohan^s works are excellent, and extremely proper to 
form good soldiers : he writes like a great general and able 
politician, and his letters on the war of the mountains are 
very instructive. The duke trod in the steps of Sertorius, 
which he had learned from Plutarch, and the marechal de 
Catinat trod in those of the duke. To all these uncommon 
talents, the duke joined great sweetness of temper, the 
most affable and pleasing manners, and a degree of gene^^ 
rosity seldom seen. He discovered neither pride, ambition, 
nor selfish views; and frequently said, that glofy and seal 
for the public welfare, never encamp where private interest 
is the commander. We have two good lives of this great 
man, one by Fauvelet du Toe, Paris, 1666, 12mo, the 
other by the Abb^, Perau, Paris, 1767, 2 vols; 12mo» — Some 
notice may be taken of Benjamin de Rohan, brother oJf the 
preceding, who supported the duke^s undertakings during 
the protestant war, after having learned the military art in 

z 2 

SM n O H A N 

Holland under prince Maurice of Nassau. He made bim^ 
aelf master of Lower Poitou, 1 622, ^nd went into England 
soon after to solicit help for the Rochellers. In 1625, be 
took tbe isle of Rh£, and ravaged the whole coast from the 
mouth of the Garonne to that of tbe Loire, by tbe capture 
of several merchant ships. M, Rohan was driven from the 
isle of Bh6 some time after, then from that of Oleron, and 
forced to retire into England, where he was active in pro- 
curing the succour sent to Rochelle ; but that city being 
taken, notwithstanding these succours, he would not re-- 
t^n to France^ and died in England 1630, leaving no 

DO HAN (Anns), sister of the duke de Rohan, deserves 
also to be mentioned as a zealous suj^porter of vbe reformed 
religion during the civil wars, in which period she sustained 
with great courage the hardships of tbe siege of Rochellet 
and, with her mother, refused to he comprehended in the 
capitulation, choosing rather to regain a prisoner of war. 
She was celebrated among bei? party for her piety and cou* 
rage, and generally respected for her learning and capa- 
city. She was also admired for her poetical talents ; par- 
ticularly for a poem written on the deatih of Henry IV. of 
France. She studied the Old Testament in the original 
language, and used in her devotions the Hebrew Psalms* 
She died unmarried, September 20, 1 646, at Paris, in tbe 
sixty-second year of her age. The celebrated Anna Maria 
Schurman addressed some letters to this li^dy, which are in 
the collection of her works*' 

ROHAULT (Jam£s), a French philosopher, w^ tbe son 
pf a rich merchant at Amiens, and born there in 1620. He 
cultivated the languages and belles lettr^s in his own coun^. 
try, and then was sent to Paris to study philosophy. He 
seems to have been a lover of truth, and to have sought it 
with much impartiality. He read the ancieot and modern 
philosophers; but was most struck with Des Cartes^ of 
whom he became a zealous follower, and drew up aa 
abridgment and explanation of his philosophy witk great 
clearness, and method. In tbe preface to his <' Physics^'' 
for so his work is entitled, he makes no scruple to say, thajt 
^< the abilities and accomplishments of this philosopher 
Viust oblige the whole world to confess, that France is at 
(east as capable of producing and raisiiig mea versed in all 

I Moreri. — Diet Hist. 

^GfiK Oietf— Dicu det Femmei cekbre*. 

R !! A U L T. »*l 

•arts and branches of knowledge as anciemt Greece." Cler* 
seiier, well known for his translation of many pieces of 
Des Cartes, conceived such an affection for Rohault, ont 
account of hii attachment to this philosopher, that he gave 
htm his daughter in marriage^ against all the remonstrances 
of his family. 

Robault's physics were written in French, but have been 
translated into Latin by Dr. John Clarke, with his brother 
Dt. Samuel Clarke's notes, in which the Cartesian errors 
are corrected upon the Newtonian system. The fourth 
and best edition of " Rohaulfci Pbysioa," by Clarke, is that 
of 1718, 8vo« He wrote also << El^mens de Math£ma-« 
tiques," a " Traltg de M^chanique," and " Entretiens sur 
la Pbtlosophie :*' but these dialogues are founded and car- 
ried on upon the principles of the Cartesian philosophy, 
which has now no o^her merit than that of having corrected 
the errors of the ahciehts. Rohault died in 1675, and left 
behind him the character of an amiable and learned man, 
and an able philosopher. 

His posthumous works were collected and printed in two 
fteat little voVutnes, first at Paris, and then at the Hague 
ifi 1690. The contents of them are, 1. The first six books 
df Euclid. 2. Trigonometry. 3. Practical Geometry. 4. . 
FortiBcatiori. 5. Mechanics. 6. Perspective. 7. Spheri- 
od(l Trigonometry. 8. Arithmetic.'' 

ROLAND (Marie-Jeanne Philepon), wife of one ot 
the republican ministers of France, who signed the order 
for the execution of the king, was born at Paris in 1754, 
Sbewas the daughter of an engraver, and acquired some 
skill in music and painting, and a general taste for the finei 
arts. In 1780 she married Roland, and in 1787 visited 
{Switzerland and England, and in these countries is said ta 
have acquired that ardent attachment to the principles of 
liberty, wJiich was in general so little understood by her 
countrymen. M. Roland having been appointed inspector 
ti the matiufactories at Lyons, was deputed to the consti* 
tuent assembly, to obtain from it succours necessary for 
the payment of the debt of that town. Madame Roland at 
this period settled with her husband in the capital, and 
took delight in making her honse the rendezvous of the 
Brissotine party, and among them acquired such supe- 
riority, that her biographers Would have us believe that, 

1 lf«reri.-»MaTtia'f Biof . Pbilot .-rHutton't JDiiitioiiary. 

340 ROLAND. 

for a time, she w|ts the secret paw^r that directed ilm 
whole government of France ; perhaps one reason why U 
was so ill directed. In March 1792, when the kingendea<H 
voured to allay the public discontents, by appointing i^ 
popular administration, Roland was cbosei^ minister of the 
interior, and what kind of minister be was may be conjec^r 
tured from a speech of Danton^s. When Roland resigned, 
and was urgently pressed by the assembly to resume bi^^ 
functions, Danton exclaimed, ^' if we give s^n invitation to 
Roland, we must give one to bia wife too. I know all th^ 
virtues of the minister, but we want men who see other? 
wise than by their wives," Indeed this lady, whp bad si 
remarkably good opinion of herself, informs us in her me-r 
moirs that she was in fact the minister without the name: 
and revised, or perhaps dictated, the letter which Roland 
addressed to the king on going out of office; ^^ if be bad 
written sermons,^' said she, ^4 should have done thesaofie." 
On the 7th of December, 1792} having appeared at the 
bar of the national convention, to repel a denunciation 
made against her, she spoke with ease and eloquence, and 
was afterwards admitted to the honours of a sitting. SbQ 
presented herself there again^ when the decree was passed 
against her husband ; but then, her eloquence hi^ving lost 
its charms, she was refused a bearing, and was herself s^ent 
to the Abbaye. From this prison she wrote to the assembly^, 
and to the minister of the interior ; her section also de- 
manded her liberty, but it was in vain ; and on the 24tb 
of June, 1793, she was sent to the convent of St, P^lagie^ 
which bad been converted into a prison, where she passed 
her time in consoling her fellow prisoners, and composing^ 
an account of her own life, which has since been published. 
At length she was called before the revolutionary tribunal^ 
and on Nov, 8, was condemned to death for baying con- 
spired against the unity and indivisibility of the i-epu^licu 
Her execution immediately followed On passing th^ 
statue of liberty, in the Plac^ de la Revolution, she bent 
ber head towards it, exclaiming, ^^ O Liberty, how. many 
crimes are perpetrated in thy name.'' She left on^ daygh-^ 
ler, whose only provision was her mother^« writingSy which 
are as follow ; ^' Opuscules,"' on mor^l topics, which treat 
of the soul, melancholy, morality, old age, fri^pdship, love, 
retirement, &c, ; *' Voyage en Angleterre et en Suisse;"- 
and when in prison she composed what she entitled ^' Ap^ 
pel i rimpartiale Posterity/' containing her owii private 

ROLAND. «4f 

ttiemoirs, a strange mixture of modern philosophy and 
the current politics of the revolution, with rhapsodies of 
romance, and every thing that can shew the dangers of a 
*• little learning.^* Although this work was written when 
she was in hourly expectation of death, its principal cha^* 
tacteristics are levity and vanity. She was unquestionably 
a woman of considerable abilities, and might have been, 
what we are told she was very ambitious of, a second Ma* 
eauley, without exciting the envy of the amiable part of 
her sex ; but she would be the head of a political party 
that was to guide the affairs of a distracted nation, and she ' 
fell a sacrifice to the confusion of principle in which she 
had assisted.* 

ROLANDINO, an early Italian historian^ was born ai 
Padua in 1200. He studied at Bologna, and had kept a 
chronicle of memorable events as they occurred, which was 
continued by his son, and in 1262 was read publicly before 
the university of Padua, submitted to an attentive exami- 
nation, and solemnly approved. Rolandiuo died in 1276« 
His history, which extends to 1260, is accounted faithful^ 
and has been highly praised by Vossius, who thinks that be 
surpassed all the writers of his age in perspicuity, order, 
and judgment. An edition of his work, with other chro« 
nicies, was given at Venice in 1636, by Felix Osius, and 
it has been reprinted by Muratori, in the seventh volume 
of bis Italian historians.' 

IiOi.LE (Henry), a learned and upright judge, was the 
second «on of Robert Rolle of Heanton in Devonshire, 
where he was born in 1589. In 1606 be entered Exeter 
college, Oxford, and resided there about two years, after 
which he was admitted a member of the Inner Temple, 
Feb. 6, 1608, and studied thie law with great perseverance 
and success. His contemporaries here were Littleton, 
Herbert, Gardiner, and Selden, with all whom he formed 
a lasting friendship. Being admitted to the bar, he prac>- 
tised in the court of King^s Bench, and raised a very high 
reputation as a sound lawyer. His reading and practicp 
were equally extensive ; and he sedms to have been formed 
by nature for patient study, deep penetration, and cleiSir- 
ness |ind solidity of judgment. He soon discovered tb^ 
hinge upon which every cause turned, and when he wai 
convinced himself, had the art of easily convincing oiher> 

1 Appel a PimpartiaU Post«rit^.^Bio|^i Modtrae.— Diet. Hist. 
• Mor«ri. 

944 R O L L |L 

In the latter end of the reign of James I. and beginning of 
that of Charles I, he sat as member of parliament for KeU 
lington in Cornwall; and in 163S was elected summer 
reader of the Inner Temple, but the plague raging theii 
in London, he did not read until Lent following, and ia 
1640 he was made serjeant at law. On the breaking out 
of the rebellion, he took the covenant, and, in 1645, was 
made one of the judges ; and in 1648 was promoted to be 
lord chief justice of the King's Bench, in which office hi^ 
integrity was acknowledged by the generality of the 
loyalists themselves. He was, of all the judges, the most 
averse from trying any of the king's party for treason^ 
thinking indeed that their defence, in which they insisted 
upon the illegality of the government, was too well founded. 
He resigned his office some time before his death, which 
happened July 30, I656« He was buried in the church of 
Shapwicke near Glastonbury in Somersetshire, the manor 
of which he had purchased some years before, and had bif 
residence there. In Tawstock church near Barnstaple in 
Devonshire, is a monument to Alexander Rolie, a lawyer, 
who died in 1660, aged forty -reight, and was probably soa 
to our judge. 

The *^ Reports of sir Henry Rolle in the King^s Bench 
from 12 to 22 Jac. I.'' 2 vols, folio, French, as well as his 
other learned woils, are held in great repute; and be- 
sides these, which were printed in 1675, be wrote '^ Aa 
Abridgment of Cases, and Resolutions of the Law,^' ia 
French, which was published by sir Matthew Hale, with a 
learned English preface, addressed to the young students 
|n the law of England, in which he gives judge Rolle a very 
high character. According to Wood, the '^ great men of 
the law living in those times used to say, that this Henry 
Rolle was a, and that Matthew Hale was a good 
man ; yet the former was by nature penurious, and his wife 
inade him worse : the other was contrary, being wonder- 
fully charitable and open-handed.'^-— Mr. Hargrave men* 
tions the above '^ Abridgment*' as excellent in its kind, 
and in point of method, succinctness, legal precision^ an4 
many other respects, fit to be proposed as an example for 
other abridgments/^f the law. D'Anvers and Viner were . 
so sensible of this, that they both adopted lord RoUe's 
method ; in fact D'Anvers's abridgment, as far as it; goes^i 
U translated from that of lord Rolle.^ 

• 1 Ath. Oi^, Tol. II.^->Brid|;maD's Le^al |lib1iopraph j. . 

R O L L £» 345 

UOLLE (MiCJ^BL), a French matbeonatician, was born 
1^ Ambert^ a small town in Auvetgne, April 21, 1652. Hia 
$r»t studies and employments were under notaries and at« 
torneys ; occupations but little suited to his genius, and, 
therefore be quitted tbeoi and went to Paris in 1675, with 
no other recommendation than that of writing a fine hand, 
and subsisted by giving lessons in penmanship. But as it 
was his inclinatiott for the mathematics which had drawn 
him to that city, he attended the masters in this science, 
and soon became one himself. Ozanam^proposed a ques- 
tion in arithmetic to him, to which Rolle gave a solution 
so clear and good, tbat the minister Colbert made him a 
handsome gratuity, which at last became a fixed pension. 
He then abandoned penmanship, and gave himself up en-» 
tirely to algebra and other branches of. the mathematics. 
His conduct in life gained him many friends ; in which his 
^ientific merit, bis peaceable and regular behaviour, with 
an exact and scrupulous probity of manners, were conspi-» 
CQ0U5* He was chosen a member of the ancient academy 
of sciences in 1685, and named second geometrical-pen* 
sionary on its renewal in 1699 ; which he enjoyed till hit 
death, which happened July 5, 1719, at the age of 67. 

The works published by Rolle were, 1. '^ A Treatise of 
Algebra,'' 1690, 4to. 2. <^ A method of resolving Inde- 
terminate Questions in Algebra,^' in 1699. Besides a great 
many curious pieces inserted in the Memoirs of the Aca* 
demy of Sciences, as follow i 1. A rule for the approxima- 
tion of irrational cubes, an. 1 666^ vol. X. 2. A method of re- 
volving equation^ of all degrees which are expressed in ge- 
neral terms, an. 1666, vol. X. 3. Remarks upon geometric 
lines, 1702 and 1703. 4. On the new system of infinity, 
.1703, p. 312. 5. On the inverse method of tangents, 
-1705, p. 25, 171, 222. 6. Method of finding the foci of 
geometric lines of all kinds, 1706, p. 284. 7. On curves, 
both geometrical and mechanical, with their radii of cur- 
vature, .1707, pt 370, 8. On the construction of equationSf 
1708, and 1709. 9. On the extermination of the unknown 
quantities in the geometrical analysis, 1709, p. 419. 10. 
Rules and remarks for the construction of equations, 1711, 
p. 86. 11. On the application ot diopbantine rules to geo- 
metry, 1712. 12. On a paradox in geometric efFections, 
]^713, p. 243. 13. On geometric consiructioos, 1713, p. 
961, and 1714, p. 5.' ^ 

1 fi|o|;e by FoQleqtlle.^Moreri.-^HttttoD^i Diet. 

346 ft O L L I. 

ROLLI (Paul Antonio), a learned Italian, was born 9t 
Rome in 1687. He was the son of an architect, ami u 
pupil of the celebrated Gravina, who inspired him with a 
taste for learning and poetry. An intelligent and learned 
English lord, we believe lord Burlington, having brought 
him to London, introduced him to the female branches of 
the royal family as their master in the Tuscan language, 
and he remained in England until the death of queen Caro- 
line, who patronized him. In 1729 he was elected a fel- 
low of the Royal Society, by the title of Dr. Paul Antonio 
Rolli. He returned to Italy in 1747, where he died in 
1767, in the eightieth year of his age, leaving behind him 
a very curious collection in natural history, &c. and a va- 
luable and well-chosen library. His principal works first 
appeared in London in 1735, 8vo, consist,ing of odes in 
blank verse, elegies, songs, &c. after the manner of Ca- 
tullus. There is likewise by him, a collection of epigrams, 
of which there are a few good, printed at Florence in 1776, 
8vo, and preceded by his life by the abb6 Fondini. Rolli 
bore the character of one of the best Italian poets of his 
day, and during his stay in London superintended editions 
of several authors of his own country. The principal of 
these were the satires of Ariosto, the burlesque works of 
Bemi, Varchi, &c. 2 vols. 8vo ; the " Decamerorf* of Boc- 
caccio, 1727, 4to and folio, from the valuable edition of 
1527 ; and lastly, of the elegant ** Lucretius'^ of Marchetti 
(see Marchetti), which, after the manuscript was re-^- 
vised, was printed at London in 1717. There are like- 
wise by Rolli, translations into Italian verse of Milton's 
"Paradise Lost," 1735, folioj and of « Anacreon,'* 1739, 
Svo. * 

ROLLIN (Charles), a French writer of very great abi- 
lities, was the second son of a master-cutler at Paris ; and 
born there Jan. 30, 1661. He was intended, as well as 
his elder brother, for his father?s profession ; when a Bene- 
dictine, perceiving in him a peculiar turn for letters, com- 
municated this to his mother, and pressed her to give him 
a liberal education. The proposal was flattering, but as 
she had been left a widow, and had nothing to depend 
upon but the continuation of her late husband's business 
and was incapable of providing for his education, she was rer 
luctant to lose the advantages of her son's skill. The go94 

1 Sue jd. Brhannioa,— Diet Hitt.— Burncy'g Hist of Masif^ 

R O L L I N. UT 

Senedictine, however, removed part of her fears, by pro- 
curing the youth a pension in the college of Du Plessis^ 
and RoUin was now suffered to pursue the natural bent of 
his inclination. He distinguished himself immediately by 
pans and application, and easily obtained the first rank 
among his fellow-students. Many stories are told to his 
advantage in this respect, and how he became known and 
esteemed by the minister Pelletier, whose two eldest sons 
were of Rollings class. He studied rhetoric in the college 
of Du Plessis under Mr. Hersan, whose custom it was to 
create emulation among his scholars, by bestowing on them 
epithets, each according to his merit ; and is said to have 
declared in public, that he knew not sufficiently to dis- 
tinguish the young Rollin otherwise than by giving him 
the title of ^' Divine :" and when Hersan was asked for 
any piece in verse or prose, he used to refer them to RoU 
lin, ^^ who,*' he said, *^ would do it better than he could." 
Hersan intended Rollin for his successor, therefore first 
took him as an assistant in 1683, and afterwards, in 
1687, gave up the chair to him. The year after, Hersan, 
with the king's leave and approbation, declined the pro- 
fessorship of eloquence in the royal college in favour of 
his beloved disciple Rollin, who was admitted into it. No 
man ever exercised the functions of it with greater eclat : 
be often made Latin orations, to celebrate the memorable 
events of the times ; and frequently accompanied them 
with poems, which were generally read and esteemed. In 
1694, he was chosen rector of the university, and conti* 
nued in that office two ye^rs, which was then a great mark 
of distinction. By virtue of his office, he spoke the an- 
nual panegyric upon Louis XIV. He made many useful 
legolations in the university, and particularly revived the 
•tudy of the Greek language, which was then growing into 
neglect. He was a man of indefatigable attention, and 
trained innumerable persons, who did honour to the churchy 
che state, and the army. The first president Portail Wat 
pleased one day to reproach Rollin in a jocular strain, as 
if he exceeded even himself in doing business: to whom' 
'Rollin replied, with that plainness and sincerity which was 
natural to him, ^* It becomes you well. Sir, to reproach 
me with this: it is* this habit of labour in me, which has 
distinguished you in the place of advocate general, which 
has raised you to that of first president : you owethe great- 
liess of your fortune to me.'' 

84» R O L L I N» 

Upon the expiration of the rectorship, cardinal NteiUen 
engaged him to superintend the studies of hts nephews^ 
who were in the college of Laon ; and in this office he 
was agreeably employed, when, in 1699, he was with 
great reluctance made coadjutor to the principal of the 
college of Beauvais. This college was then a kind of a 
desert, inhabited by very few students, and without any 
manner of discipline : but Rollings great reputation and in- 
dustry soon made it a most flourishing society. In this si- 
tuation be remained till 1712 ; when, the contests between 
the Jesuits and the Jansenists drawing towards a crisis, he 
fell a sacrifice to the prevalence of the former. F. Le TeU 
lier, the king's confessor, and bigoted agent of the Jesuits, 
infused into his master prejudices against Rollin, whose 
connections with cardinal de Noailles would alone have 
sufficed to have made him a Jansenist ; and on this account 
he lost his share in the principality of Beauvais. No many 
however, could have lost less in this than Rollin, who had 
every thing left him that was necessary to make hira happy ; 
retirement, books, and a decent competence. He .now 
began to employ himself upon Qnintilian ; an auttor he 
justly valued, and not without uneasiness saw neglected*. 
He retrenched in him whatever. he thought rather cujfioui 
than useful for the instruction of youth : he placed BiifniKi»* 
ties or contents at the head of each chapter ; and he ae^ 
companied the text with short select notes. His edition ap^ 
peared in 1715, in 2 vols. 12mo, with an elegant preface^ 
Betting forth his method and views. , 

In 1720, the umversity of Paris, willing to have a bead 
jiuitable to the importance of their interests in the then cri- 
tical conjuncture of affairs, chose Rollin again rector: but 
lie was displaced in about two months by a lettrede cachet» 
The imiversity had presented to the parliament a petitiooi 
in which it had protested against taking any part in tfae^ad*- 
}ustment of the late disputes ; and their being congrata<^ 
lated 'm a public oration by Rollin on this step occasioned 
the letter, which ordered them to chuse a rector of more 
tnoderation. Whatever the university might suffer by the 
removal of Rollin, the public was probably a gainer -, for 
he ncyw applied himself to compose his excellent treatise 
*^ Upon the manner of studying and teaching the Belki 
Lettres :** " De la maniere d'etudier et d'enseigoer les 
BellQ9 Lettres.** This work was published 1726, in two vo- 
lumes, and two more in 1728, 8vo, at^d a copy of it 

R O L LIN. H9* 

presented to bishop Atterbury, then in bani^hinenty who 
Wfote to Rollin a Latin letter, of great beauty and 
elegance, which gives a just idea of our author and his. 
writings. Whatever defects more recent inquiries have 
discovered in this work, it was for many years the first of 
its kind, and may, yet be recomme.nded as laying the foun* 
dation of a go<Ml. taste. 

Encouraged by the great success of this work, and the 
hi^py reception it met with, he undertook another of 
equal use and entertainment; his ^^ Histoire Ancienoe,'' 
&c. or ^' Ancient History of the Egyptians, Carthaginians, 
Babylonians, Medesand Persians, Macedonians and Greeks,^* 
which he finished in 13 vols. 8vo, and published between. 
1730 and 1738. Voltaire, after having observed that Rol« 
lin was '< the first member of the university of Paris wba 
wrote French with dignity and correctness," say& of this 
work, that *^ though the last volumes, which were writtea 
in too great a hurry, are not equal to the first, it is never* 
theless the best compilation that has yet appeared in any 
language; because it is seldom that compilers are eloquent^ 
and Rollin was remarkably so." While the last volumes of 
his "Ancient History" were printing, he published the finst 
of his " Roman History ;'' which he lived to carry on^ 
trough the eighth and into part of the ninth, to the war 
against the Cimbri, about seventy years before the battle 
of Actium. Crevier, the worthy disciple of Rollin, con« 
tinned the history to the, battle of Actiuaa, which closes the 
tenth volume ; and has since completed the original plaii 
of Rollin, in 16 vols. 12mo, which was to bring it down 
from the foundation of the city to the reign oF Constantise 
the Great. All these works of Rollin have met with uni« 
versal approbation, been translated into several language^ 
and in English have long been popular, although strict 
criticism may find much to object, as to inaccuracies, and 
want of purity of style. What, however, forms an ho« 
nourable distinction in all his works, is his regard for the 
interests of religion and virtue. 

This excellent person died Sept. 14, 1741. He had.been 
named by the king a member of the academy of inscrip** 
tions and belles lettres in 1701 : but, as he had not then 
brought the college of Beauvais into repute, and found h^ 
had more business upon his bands than was consistent with 
a decent attendance upon the functions of an academician^; 
^e begged the privileges of a veteran, which were honoura« 

S3(y R L L I R 

biy granted him. Yet he maintained his connexions with 
the academy, attended their assemblies as often as be 
could| laid the plan of his ^* Ancient History'' before^ tbem^ 
and demanded an academician for his censor. He was a* 
mfan of many excellent qualities, very ingenious, consum-^ 
mate in polite learning, of rigid morals, and great piety^ 
which last has given some of his countrymen, and their* 
imitators here, an opportunity to remark that he wanted, 
nothing but a mixture of the philosophic in his nature to 
make him a very complete person. When he was dis->- 
charged from the rectorship in 1720, the words of the let- 
tre de cachet were, as we have seen, that the university 
should choose a rector of more moderation : but that was 
hardly possible ; for, nothing could be more benign, more 
pacific, or more moderate, than Rollin's temper.^ He 
shewed, it must be owned, some zeal for the cause of Jan« 
senism : he had a very great veneration for the memory of 
abb6 Paris^ and had been seen with others to visit his tomb 
in the church-yard of St. Medard, at Paris, and to pay his 
devotions to him as a saint: he revised and retouched the 
life of this abb^, which was printed in 1730: be translated 
into Latin, at the request of father Quesnel, the protesta- 
tiou of this saint, and was assisting in other works designed 
to support Jansenism ; and, on these accounts, he became 
obnoxious to the Jesuits and the court. It is related, that, 
when he was one day introduced to cardinal Fleury, in 
order to present him with a volume of his ^^ Roman His- 
tory,'* the minister, very uncivilly, said to a head-officer 
of the guards, *^ Sir, you should /endeavour to concert this 
man :" to whom RoUin very well, and yet not disrespect- 
fully, replied, ^* Oh, my lord, the gentleman would lose 
his time ; I am an unconvertible, man." Rollin was, how- 
ever, a very estimable character.- We find in his works, 
generous and exalted sentiments, a zeal for the good of 
society, a love of virtiue, a veneration for Providence, and 
in short every thing, though on profane subjects, sancti- 
fied with a spirit truly religious. So says even Voltaire,, 
and we may add the similar testimony of the poet Rousseau, 
who conceivjsd such a veneration for RolHn that he came 
out of banishment incognito to Paris, on purpose to visit 
and pay his respects to him. He looked upon his histories, 
not only as the best models of the historic kind, but as a 
complete, system of politics and morals, and a most inatruc* 

R O L L O C K. Siii 

tive school for princes as well as subjects to learn all their 
duties in.' 

ROLLOCK (Robert), the first principal of the college 
of Edinburgh, was the son of David RoUock, of Poohouse, 
or, as it is now written, Powis, in the neighbourhood of 
Sterling, in Scotland. He was bom in 1555, and learned 
the rudiments of the Latin language from Mr, Thomas Bu* 
xhaoan, who kept, says archbishop Spotswood, a famous 
school at that time, at Sterling, as we learn from Melchior 
Adam, who appears to have copied from the Latin life of 
Bollock. From school he was sent to the university of St, 
Andrew's, and admitted a student in St. Salvator's callege. 
His progress in the sciences, which were then taught, was 
so gre^t and so rapid, that he had no sooner taken his 
master's degree than he was chosen a professor of philoso- 
phy, and immediately began to read lectures in St. Salva- . 
tor's college. This must have been at a very early period 
of life, for he quitted Sl Andrew's in 1583, when, accord* 
ing to Mackenzie, he had taught philosophy for some time. 
Not long before this period, the magistrates of Edinburg^h 
having petitioned the king to erect a university in that city^ 
he granted them a charter under the great seal, allowing 
them all the privileges of a university ; and the college 
being built in 1582, they made choice of Mr. Rollock to 
be their principal and professor of divinify. 

At what time he was ordained, or whether ordained at 
all, has been the subject of some controversy, but it is 
certain that he became famous in the university, and among 
his countrymen in general, for his lectures in theology, 
and for the persuasive power of his preaching : for Calder- 
wood assures us that in 1589, he aud Mr. Robert Bruce, 
another popular preacher, made the earl of Bothwell so 
sensible of his vicious courses, that, upon Nov. 9, his lord- 
ship hui]tibied himself upon his knees in the east church in 
ithe forenoon, and in the high church in the afternoon, con- 
fessing before the people, with tears in his eyes, his disso- 
lute and licentious life, and promising to prove for the 
future, another man. 

In 1593 principal Rollock and others were appointed by 
the parliament to confer with the popish lords; and in the 
next year he was ox»e of those who, by appointment of the 
jg^eneral assembly of the church, met at Edinburgh in the 

' NictrM^ Tol XLIII.— ChaufepTc* — Diet. Hist. 

id2 tl O L L O C K. 

month of May, and presented to bis msgesty a pApet eti* 
titled ** The dangers which, through the impunity of ex- 
communfeated papists, traffickers with the Spaniards, and 
other enemies of the religion and estates, are imminent to 
the true religion professed within this realm, bis majesty's 
penon, crown, and liltrerty of this our native^ country.'* Ift 
15^5 be was nominated one of the comifiissioners for the 
visitation of colleges, to inquire itito the doctrine and life 
of the several masters, the dfseipline usetf by them, the 
state of thetr rents and Imng, and to mafce thei^ rt^port to 
the next assembly. In 159^, the bebarioar of some of the 
clergy baring drawn upon them tlie resentment of the I^ing^ 
Mr. Roltock was employed, on account of his moderation', 
to soften that resentment, and to turn bis majesty's wrath 
against the papists. In 1597 be was chosen moderator of 
the general assembly, the highest dignity in the Scotch 
church, and had the inflnence to get some abuses redressed. 
Being one of the fourteen ministers appointed by this as-> 
sembly to take care of the afKiirs of the church, the first thing 
which he did was to procure an act of the legislature, re^ 
storing to the bishops their seats in parliament. Though 
he spent the greater part of his life in conducting the 
affairs of the church, we have the authority, of Spotswood 
for saying, that be would have preferred retirement and 
study. To the bustle of public life, especially at that tur- 
bulent period, his constitution was not equal ; and his in« 
dination would have confined him to his college and his 
library. He was dreadfully afflicted with the stone; the 
torments of which he long bore with the fortitude and resig- 
nation of a Christian. He died at Edinburgh Feb. 28, 1 598^ 
in the forty-third year of his age, having exhorted bis 
brethren, with his dying breath, to carry themselves more 
dutifully to their gracious sovereign. 

The only English work Mr. Rollock published was, 
** Certain Sermons on several places of St. Paul's Epistles,** 
Edinburgh, 1597, 8vo. The rest of his works are in Latin^ 
and consist of commentaries on Daniel, on the gospel of 
St. John, on some of the Psalms,- and on most of the 
Epistles. Besides these he published ** Prolegomena in 
primum liBrum Quosstionum Theodori Bezse;'* "Tractatus 
de vocatione efficaci,*' Edinburgh, 1 597 ; ** Questiones ei 
Responsiones aliquot, de i^dere Dei et de SacrameHtis,'^ 
ibid, 1596, Svo; " Tractatus brevis de providentia Dei ;*' 
and *^ Tractatus de Excommunicatione,'' Lond. 1604> 

R O L L O C K. »53 

Geneva, 1602, 8vo. A Latin life of bim was published 
by George Robertson at Edinburgh in 1599, 12n]0, which 
Melchior Adam has chiefly followed. It contains enco- 
miums and epitaphs on Mr* Rollock from many of the most 
eminent divines and scholars of his time. ' , 

ROLT (Richard), an English historical and miscella* 
necus writer, was born in 1724 or 1725, it is thought at 
Shrewsbury, but descended from a family of that name in 
Bedfordshire. He was first placed under an officer of the 
excise in the North of England, but having, in 1745, 
joined the rebel army, he was dismissed from his situation* 
He then went over to Dublin to visit Ambrose Philips the 
poet, who was his relation^ but, owing to Philips's death 
soon after, failed of procuring any establishment in that 
country. While in Ireland he is said to have published 
Akenside*s ** Pleasures of the Imagination," as his own, 
but his biographer has refuted this story. He probably, 
by more honourable means, recommended himself to per- 
sons of distinction, as his poem, entitled '' Cambria" was^ 
when first written, intended to have been patronized by sir 
.Watkin Williams Wynne, and when corrected and pre- 
pared for the press, as it now stands, was sbewn to Fre- 
deric prince of Wales, by general Oglethorpe and lord 
Middlesex ; by whose interest he had permission to dedi^ 
cate it to prince George, his present majesty, when it was 
printed, in 1749, in 4to. On the 25th of September of 
the same year, sir Watkin Williams Wynne was killed by 
a fall jfrom his horse ; and in the following month Rolt 
published a poem to his memory, which was highly ad- 
inired, and very popular among his countrymen. 

By the above-mentioned, and some other eminent per« 
sons, Rolt was encouraged to undertake his *^ History of 
the general War" which terminated in 1748. This was 
published in four successive vplumes, octavo, and procured 
him a correspondence with Voltaire, who sent bim some 
flattering letters. He was also engaged to write the '^ Life 
of John earl of Craufurd," an officer of distinction. The 
above publications do him no discredit ; and he shewed 
considerable ability in defending the case of Clifford against 
ihe Dutch West India company, and in a reply to the 
answers of the Dutch civilians in that case ; as also in a 

1 Mackenste't Scotch Writers, vol. til.-— MelcKior Adam.-^Dr. Gleig^s'Sup- 

Pnent to the Eacycl* BriU--*PaUer'ft Abel Redi?iTui«~SpoU«ood'i History, 

Vol. XXVI. A a 

iS4 fe O L T* 

series of letters concerning the Untigallican privateer and 
prize, which had been illegally seized and confiscated by 
the Spaniards. 

Being an author by profession, be was constantly em* 
ployed by the booksellers in successive compilations, bisto- 
1-ical, commercial, &c. and in periodical publications, in 
which he was concerned with Smart and others. In one of 
these, " The Universal Visitor," be and Smart are said to 
have been bound by a contract to engage in no other un* 
dertaking, and that this contract was to remain in force 
"for the term of ninety-nine years." So absurd an en- 
gagement, if it ever existed; could not be supposed to 
last long. Rolt, who had no other resources but from his 
pen, was not to be confined in his employment^ which in 
one instance was thought rather singular, but more recent 
times have afforded many similar impositions. Mr. Wood- 
ington, a relation of his wife, being in India, became ac« 
quainted with captain John Nortball, of the royal regiment 
of artillery, the second in command at the siege of Surat, 
where be died of an apoplectic fit in the march to that 
city in February 1759. This gentlen()an, having been sta- 
tioned at Minorca, had made an excursion, in 1753, td 
Italy, of which be completed an entire tour; and being a 
man of curiosity and taste, noted down in his pocket-book 
all the fine pictures, statues, &c. with such reniarks as 
everj'wher^ occurred to him. This pocket-book fell into 
the hands of Mr. Woodington ; who, at his return to 
England, gave it to Rolt, and he from this manuscript 
journal, with the help of former printed travels, compiled 
a large octavo volume, which be published under the titl« 
of " Travels through Italy ; containing new and curious 
Observations on that country : with the most authentic Ac- 
count yet published of capital Pieces in Painting, Sculp«- 
ture, and Architecture, that are to be seen in Italy. By 
John Nortball,* esq.*' &c. &c. &c. 1766. 

But Rolt's chief supplies were by writing cantatas, songs, 
.&c. for the theatres, Vauxhall, Sadler's-wells, and other 
places of public resort. Of these he composed above an 
liundred, supplying, at the shortest notice, the demands 
of musical composers for those diurnal entertainments dur^ 
ing many years. He also produced two dramatic pieces, 
viz. ** Eliza," an English opera, in three acts, 1754, and 
>^ Almena," an English opera, in threq acts, 1764. For 
the former of theie the music was i^ompose^ by Dr. Arne^ 

R O L T. iSS 


and for the latter by his son ; and they were both per* 
formed with good success at Drury-lane theatre. In 
the '* Biographia Dramatica** is ascribed to him another 
opera, " The Royal Shepherd," 1763 ; but as he omitted 
it in a list of bis works, which he drew up to accompany 
proposals for a subscription in October 1769, it is doubted 
whether that omission must be ascribed to his not being the 
author, or to its having been ill received by the public^ a9 
is related in <* Biographia Draraatica." 

The proposals for printing, by subscription, his poetical 
works, was the last attempt of Mr. Rolt, who died March 2, 
1770, aged 45 ; having had two wives, by each of whom 
he left a daughter. To his second wife, who survived him 
many years, and who, by her mother, was descended from 
the Percys of Worcester, the late bishop of Dromore, . 
to whom she was thus related, allowed a pension to her 

The following catalogue of Mr. Holt's publications^ i» 
subjoined to his proposals in 1769. But many of themi, 
were published without his name, and in weekly numbers. 
Infolio> he published, I. "A Dictionary of Trade and Com- 
merce ; dedicated, Jby permission, to George Lord Anson.'* 
To this Johnson wrote the preface. 2. ^^ Lives of the Re- 
formers ; dedicated to the Princess Dowager of Wales ;'^ a 
decent compilation, but most valued for a fine set of mez* 
2otinto heads. In quarto, 3. *^ Life of John earl of Crau« 
furd; dedicated to his grace James duke of Hamilton.'^ 
In octavo, &c. 4. " History of the General War from. 1739 
to 1748,'' 4 vols. 1st volume dedicated to admiral Ver-* 
non ; 2d, to John earl Grenville ; 3d, to his grace Charle« 
duke of Marlborough ; 4th to George Dunk, earl of Hali- 
fax. 5. "Universal Visitor, with several Songs." (la 
this he joined with Christopher Smart, as is before-men- 
tioned.) 6. " Account of capt. Northall's Travels through 
Italy." 7. ** Letters concerning the Antigallican priva- 
teer." 8. " Case of Clifford against the Dutch West In- 
dia Company." 9. " Reply to the Answer of the Dutcl|L 
Civilians to Clifford's Case." 10. " History of England," 
4 vols. 11. " History of France," »l vol. 12. " History 
of Egypt," 4 vols. 13. *« History of Greece," 6 vols* 
14. ** Cambria; inscribed to Prince George" (bis present 
majesty.) 15. "Eliza," an English opera. 16. " Al- 
mena," an English opera. 17. "A Monody on the D^th 
q£ Frederic Priace of Wales." 18. ^* An Elejgiac Ode ta 

I I 

^56 R O L t. 

the mempry of Edward Augustus, Duke of York." l^* 
" A Poem on the Death of sir Watkin Williams Wynne, 
bart/' 20. *^ Shakspeare in Elysium to Mr. Garrick.*' 
21. ** The Ancient Rosciad/' published in 1753. 

At the time of his decease, he had projected the follow** 
ing : '^ History of the Isle of Man/' in 1 vol. afterwards 
. published in 1773, 8vo; and <' History of the British Empir^ 
in North America/' in six volumes. And after his death 
were published, for the benefit of bis widow, ** Select 
Pieces of the late R. Rolt (dedicated, by permission, to 
the Right Hon. L^dy Sondes, by Mary Rolt), 1772," 
small 8vo. 

This lady Sondes, who was daughter of the right hon. 
Henry Pelham, was one of the most charitable persons of 
quality in her time. She had a little French woman^ who 
was her almoner^ and whose whole life was spent in find- 
ing out proper objects for her lady's bounty, which she 
distributed with a zeal for their welfare, and a delicacy for 
their feelings, which makes it the subject of regret, that 
the name of this excellent creature is not recollected. 
They, unsolicited, discovered and applied to Mrs. Rolt 
the protection of lady Sondesj on the death of her bus- 
band. ' 

ROMAINE (William), an English divine aod writer of 
great popularity, was born at Hartlepool in the county of 
Durhanh, Sept. 25, 1714. His father, one of the French 
protestants who took refuge in England upon the revoca- 
tion of the edict of Nantz, resided at Hartlepool as a mer- 
chant, and particularly as a dealer in corn. He had two 
sons and three daughters, whom he educated in the strict 
doctrines and discipline of the church of England, and 
lived to see well settled in the world before he left it in 
1757. His second son, William, gave indication, at a 
very early age, of considerable talents, and a laudable 
eagerness to improve them. This induced his father to 
send him to the grammar-school, at Houghton-le>Spring, 
a village in the road from Durham to Sunderland. This 
School was founded by the celebrated Bernard Gilpin, rec- 
tor of that parish at the memorable sera of the reformation. 
At this seminary Mr. Romaine remained seven years, and 
in 1730 or 1731 was sent to Oxford, where he was entered 
first at Hertford-college, and thence removed to Christ^ 

* £ttropeao Maf. for 1803,— 6iog« Dram.— BoswcU't Lift of J<>hnf9a. 

R M A I N E. 351 

diurcb. tie resided principally at Oxford till he took his 
degree of master of arts^ Oct. 15, 1737, having been or- 
dained a deacon at Hereford, a year before, by Dr. Eger* 
ton, bishop of that diocese. 

, His first engagement was the curacy of Loe Trenchard, 
Dear Lidford in Devonshire. In tl)e year following he ap* 
^ears to have been resident at Epsom in Surrey, from the 
elate of a letter from him, Oct. 4, 1738, to rev. William 
Warburton, upon the publication of his ^< Divine Legation 
»f Moses." In the same year he was ordained a priest by 
Dr. Hoadly, bishop of Winchester. His title for order* 
was probably a nomination to the church of Banstead, 
which he served some years, together with that of Horton^ 
near Epsom, being curate to Mr. Edwards, who had both 
the^e livings. At Banstead he became acquainted with sir 
Daniel Lambert, lord-mayor of London in 1741, whp had 
a country-house in this parish, and appointed Mr. Romaine 
to be chaplain during his mayoralty. 

The first seripon which he printed had been preached 
before the university of Oxford, March 4, 1739. It wa» 
entitled ^* The Divine Legation of Moses demonstrated^ 
from his having made express mention of, and insisted sa 
much on, the doctrine of a future state; whereby Mr. 
Wariiurton's attempt to prove the Divine Legation of 
Moses from the omission of a future state, is proved to b^ 
absurd, and destructive of all revelation." This was fol- 
lowed by a second sermon, preached also before the uni- 
versity, entitled ^* Future rewards and punishments proved 
to be the sanctions of the Mosaic dispensation." These 
sermons and the letter above-mentioned to Mr. Warburton 
involved him in a personal dispute^ with that gentleman ^ 
Mr. Romaine in his letter attempted to be witty and sar- 
castic ; Warburton used the same weapons and could han- 
dle them better. The controversy, however, did not last 
long. Mr. Romaine appeared to more advantage iti 1742, 
in another sermon before the university, entitled ^' Jep- 
thah's Vow fulfilled, and his daughter not sacrificed." 
The ingenuity with which he proved this opinion obtained 
him much credit, and was by many looked upon as a new 
discovery, which it certainly was not, as the same point was 
contended for in a sermon printed in the works of Dr. 
Thomas Taylor, of Aldermanbury, an eminent puritan 

• See an account of it in *' Tbe Works of the Learned," for Aagoit 1739. 

358 R'O M A 1 N E. 

divine, v^ho died in 1632. Besides other sermons before the 
university, be preached one in 1757, entitled ^* The Lord 
oi|r Righteousness,*' in consequence of which he was re- 
fused any future admission into the university pulpit. He 
interpreted the articles of the church in the strict Calvi- 
' nistic sense, which at this time gave great offence. 
, Mr. Romaine had been engaged in superintending for 
the press a new edition of '^ Galas io's Hebrew Concord- 
ance and Lexicon,*' in four volumes folio, a work which 
employed him seven years, and in 1747 he publi^ed the 
first volume. The original of this work was the concord* 
ance of Rabbi Nathan, a Jew, entitled ^^ Meir Nethib," 
published at Venice in 1523, fol. with great faults and de-. 
fects. A second edition was published at fiasil by Fr6ben, 
much more correct, in 158J, fol.. The third edition i» 
this of Calasio, which he swelled into four large volumes 
by adding, I . A Latin translation of Rab. Nathan's expla-*. 
nation of the several roots, with the author's own enlarge^ 
ments. 2. The Rabbinical, Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic 
words, derived from, or agreeing with the Hebrew root in 
signification. 3. A literal version of the Hebrew text, 
4. The variations of the Vulgate and Septuagint 5. The 
proper name^ of men, rivers, mountains. Mr. Rx)maine's 
work is a very splendid and useful book, improved from 
that of Calasio, but in point of usefulness thought greatly 
inferior to Dr. Taylor's Hebrew concordance. The hon. 
and rev. Mr. Cadogan, in the life of Mr. Romaine, censure^ 
him for having omitted his author's account of the word 
which is usually rendered God, and having substituted his 
own in the body of the work ; a liberty which no editor i$ 
entitled to take, although he may be justified in adding, 
by way of note, to what his author has advauced. 

The theological sentiments of Mr. Romaine were not so 
common in bis early d<ays as they are now, and therefore 
rendered him more conspicuous. As a clergyman of the 
church oPEngland he adhered to the most rigid interpre- 
tation of the thirty-nine articles. The grand point which 
)ie laboured in the pulpit, and in all his writings, was the 
doctrine of the imputed righteousness of Christ. He was 
also a zealous disciple of the celebrated Hutchinson, at a 
time when he had not many followers in this kingdom* 
From some dissatisfaction, however, or want of success in 
his ministry, he appears to have formed an intention of 
leaving England, and settling in the country of bis ances-* 

B. O M A I N E. 359 

y^n, Hq wat prevented from executing this desigD^ by 
what he pioiTsIy deemed a providential interposition. He 
bad actually made the necessary preparations, and waa 
going to the water-side, in order to secure his passage, 
when be was met by a gentleman, a total stranger to him, 
who asked him if his name was not Romaine. He answered 
that it was. The gentleman had fbrmerly been acquainted 
with his father, and^ observing a strong resemblance to 
bim in bb son, was induced to make the inquiry. After 
some introductory conversation, he told him, that the lee-- 
turesiiip for the united parishes of St. George's Botolph- 
lane and St, Botolph's Billingsgate was then vacant ; and 
that, having some interest in those parishes, he would 
exert it in his behalf, if he would become a candidate for 
the lectureship. Mr. Romaine consented, provided he 
9hould not be obliged to canvass in person ^ a custom 
which he always thought inconsistent with the character of 
a clergyman, and against which he openly protested many 
years afterwards, when he was candidate for the living of 
Blackfriars. He was chosen lecturer of St. Botolph*s in 
1748, and the year following lecturer of St. Dunstan's in 
the West. In the person of his predecessor in the latter 
(Dr. Terrick), two lectureships were united: theonefounded 
by Dr. White, for the use of the benchers of the Temple i 
the other a common parish lectureship. Mr. Romaine wa%. 
elected to both, and continued some years in the quiet 
exercise of his office, until an opposition arose which ended 
in a law-suit that deprived him of the parish-lectureship^ 
but confirmed him in that founded by Dr. White, and en- 
dowed with a salary of eighteen pounds a-year. Lest thi^ 
should be removed from the parish, the use of the church 
was granted to him, but as lord Mansfield's decision was, 
that seven o'clock in the evening was a convenient time tQ 
preach the lecture, the church-wardens refused to open 
the church till that hour, and to light it when there was 
occasion. His predecessor, however. Dr. Terrickf then 
become bishop of London, interposed so effectually, and 
gave such a character of Mr. Romaine, that this ungenet- 
rous opposition ce^ed, every proper accommodation was 
allowed to his congregation, and he continued quietly to 
exercise his ministry here to the end of his life. 

In 1750 he was appointed assistant morning preacher in 
the church of St. George, Hanover-square. The rector, 
•who both appointed him to this place, and removed him 

360 R O M A I N E. 

from it, was Dr. Trebeck. Mr. Cadogan informs us that 
'^ the first act originated not in personal friendship, but in 
the recommendation of his character : the latter arose from 
the popularity and plainness of his ministry. He preached 
Christ crucified among those who are least disposed to re- 
ceive him. The church was filled with the poor, >^and for- 
saken by the rich : and that which (as a nobleman is said to 
have observed) was never' complained of in aplay-house» 
was admitted as a just cause of complaint in the house ' of 
God. When notice was given him that the crowd t>f peo- 
ple attending from different parts caused great inconveni- 
ence to the inhabitants, who could not safely get to their 
seats, he received it in the most placid manner, and said, 
he was willing to relinquish an office which he had faithfully 
performed, hoping that his doctrine had been Christian^ 
and owning the inconvenience vvhich had attended the pa- 

About 1752, he was appointed professor of astronomy in 
Gresham college. His knowledge of the subject was sufB* 
cient to qualify him for this situation, but his zeal for Hut- 
chinsonian principles led him to dispute some parts of th6 
^Jewtonian philosophy in a way which did not greatly ad- 
vance his reputation, atid he did not retain his professor- 
ship long. He was far more popular afterwards in his op- 
position to the Jew Bill. All his , writings on this subject 
were collected by himself, and printed by the city of Lon- 
don. On quitting his situation in St. George's, Hanover- 
square, in 1756, be became curate and morning preacheir 
at St. Olave's, Southwark, and when he left it in 1759, he 
became morning preacher, for nearly two years, at St. Bar- 
tholomew the Great, near West Smithfield. In 1764, he 
was chosen by the inhabitants of St. Andrew, Wardrobe, 
and St. Anne, filackfriars, to be their rector, the right of 
presentation, which is vested in the crown and in the pa- 
rishioners alternately, then belonging to the latter. This 
produced a suit in chancery, which was decided in his fa- 
vour in 1766. In this situation he continued during thirty 
years, and was probably the most popular preacher of hia 
day. It was noticed in the newspapers that on the Good 
Friday after bis being settled here, be administered the 
sacrament to upwards of five hundred persons, and on the 
Sunday following to upwards of three hundred, numbers 
which had never been remembered by the oldest inhabit- 
ant. From this time be devoted himself to the service of 

R O M A I N E. Z6V 

his parishiDtiers an^ hb hearers at St Dunstan^s, hdt was 
frequently solicited to plead the cause of charity for various 
institutions, and few preachers ever produced more money 
on such occasions. 

His useful labours at length terminated on Sunday, July 
26f 1795. During his illness, which lasted seven weeks, 
bis zeal, his faith, his animated views of immortality, ac- 
corded with the uniform example of his life, and evinced, 
in the gradual approaches of death, the hope, and conso- 
lation, and triumph of a Christian. His character through- 
out life was uniform and regular : his surviving friends 
have dwelt on it with pleasure, and it certainly was as free 
from frailty as the imperfect state of human nature can ad- 
mit. The only prominent objection was a degree of hasti- 
ness of temper, or occasional irritability, but even that he 
had conquered, in a great measure, many years before his 
death. By tlvem to whom bis preaching was acceptable, 
and to whom his memory is yet dear, his printed works are 
'^held in high estimation, and have gone through various 
editions. Besides the single Sermons, Calasio's Concord- 
ance, atid a Comment on the 107th Psalm, Mr. Romaine 
published, in the cours^ of his life, 1. ** Twelve Sermons 
upon Solomon's Song," 1759. 2. "Twelve Discourses upon 
the Law and Gospd," 1760. 3. "The Life of Faith," 1763. 
4. ** The Scripture Doctrine of the Sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper," 1765. 5. « The Walk of Faith," 1771, 2 vols. 
6. " An Essay on Psalmody," 1775. 7. " The Triumph 
of Faith." 

These were collected soon after his death, in a uniform 
edition, with some additional pieces and a life, in which a 
very full account is given of his religious principles and 
ministerial labours. He appears to have been in some re- 
spects an extraordinary character. Although usually re- 
proached with being a methodist, a word which is not al- 
ways very clearly understood by those who employ it in 
the service of controversial animositv. he was one of the 
raost zealous advocates for the church of England that has 
appeared in nK)dern times. His attachment to her doctrines 
and discipline, indeed, was such as left him but a moderate 
share of respect for the dissenters, by whom he was often 
accused of intolerance and bigotry. Towards the close of 
life,, however, it is salid, he entertained more caudour to- 
wards the Calvinist dissenters, although he was to the last a 
strenuous advocate for the service and forms of the church; 

«62 RO MAINE. 

and it is certain that tnany dissenters of the stricter sort 
contributed to increase Ins audiences, which were in gene-, 
tal the fullest ever known in London. Nor ought it to b« 
forgotten in the catalogue of his virtues that he evinced^ in 
money matters, a great share of independent spirit. He 
refused large offers from the booksellers for the use of hi' 
Dame to religious compilations, and on one occasion no les^ 
than 500/. when his annual income did not amount to half 
the sum* His funeral, besides being attended by a very 
numerous concourse of friends, and a long train of carriages 
^f persons of considerable rank, was honoured with the pre- 
tence of the city marshals and other officers, and funeral 
sermons were preached on the occasion in various churches^ 
some of which were afterwards published* ^ Mr. Komaioe 
married in 1755, a Miss Price, who survived him about 
&ix years, by whom he had a daughter who died young, 
and two sons, the eldest. Dr. Romaine of Reading, now 
living, the second, capt. Romaine, who died in 17812, a| 
Trincomale, in the island of Ceylon.^ 


ROME DE LUSLE (John Baptist Louis), a distin- 
guished French mineralogist, was born in 1736, at Gray 
in Franche-Comt4, and had scarcely acquired some know- 
ledge of Latin, before he was sent to India in quality of 
secretary to a corps of engineers. It is not certain at 
what period he returned, but he went again to India iu 
1757, was taken prisoner at Pondicherry, and came to 
Europe in 1764, after suffering five years' captivity, Al 
this period, in his twenty-ninth year, he directed his at- 
tention to natural history in company with M. Sage, who 
appears to be the first Frenchman who directed his chemi- 
cal knowledge to the explanation of mineralogy. In n6&^ 
he published a^' Letter to M. Bertrand on fresh-water po- 
lypes;'' The polypus he considered as a hive, a recep- 
tacle for an infinity of small isolated animals, directed to 
the same purpose, that of repairing any loss in the parent ; 
but this opinion was supported only by its ingenuity, with- 
out the aid of experiments. His nrst step in iuineralogy 
was the publication of a ^' Catalogue raisonn^e" of M. Dar 
Vila's collection, which he wished to dispose of. It was 
published in 1767, 3 vols. 8vo, and thence arose his eager 
wish to examine the forms of crystals, and to construct a 

1 Life prefixed to his works by the hon. and re?. William Bromley Cadoi^n. 

ROME D E L*I S L E. 3dS 

igrstem on ^bis pliifi* His first essay on crystallography was 
publUbed in 1771} and contains 110 species of crystals, of 
wjiicb Linnasus knew only about 40, though the number 
has be«n since extended to above 400. From this work 
M. de L'lsle^s fame arose ; his ^correspondence was culti«* 
vated, and Linnaeus added his warmest praises to the ap* 
plause of philosophers. Our author's fame from this time 
rapidiy increased, and he was judged worthy of a seat in 
almost every academy but that of his own country. . By 
the academicians of Paris he was styled contemptuously a 
maker of catalogues, and in reality, from a scanty fortune, 
as well m a wish to extend his knowledge of specimens, he 
was much employed in this business; and from 1767 to 
1782, be published eight explanatory catalogues of diffe^ 
rent collections. In 1778 he published an explanation of 
M. Sage's theory of chemistry ; and in the following ye^r 
a memoir against the central fire under the title of ** L'Ac* 
tton de Feu central banni de la surface du globe, et le 
Soleil retabli dans ses droits.'' . But in the interval his great 
work was constantly kept in view, and his new edition ap- 
peared in 1783, ^* Christailographie, ou description dea 
formes propres a tons les corps du regno minerale," 4 vols. 
Of this elaborate work, it has been justly said that those 
only who have examined it frequently, can judge of the 
great labour which it must have cost, the extent of the 
author's erudition, and the information to be collected from 
it, independent of the science of crystallization, which baa 
here attained a state approaching to peifection. 

As executor to M. d'Ennery, who possessed a very rich 
collection of medals, he was induced to examine the rela-^ 
tion of the Roman pound to the French marc, and the value 
of the money of the different nations of European and 
Asiastic Greece. This produced his " Metrologie, ou Ta-i 
bles pour servir a I'intelligence des poids et des mesures. 
des anciens d'apres leur rapport avec les poids et les me^ 
. sures de la France," which was published in 1789, and ad« 
dressed to the national assembly to guide their new regu- 
lations of weights and measures. From the immense la- 
bours of his various works, his eyes soon failed, and his 
later enjoyments arose from the fanciful prospects of the 
great good bis country and the whole world was to derive 
from the revolution. He died of a dropsy, at Paris, March 
10, 1790.* 

> CiiU Rev^vol. LXX —Die!. Hist. 

j6* n o M N E r. 

ROMNEY (George), an eminent ipodern artist, wat 
born at Dalton, in Lancashire, Dec. 26, 1734, where his 
father was a merchant, builder, and farmer, but derived 
from none of his occupations more than what yielded s 
bare maintenance to his numerous family. In his twelfth 
y^ar, George was taken from the village school, and en- 
gaged to superintend his father*s workmen ; his leisure 
hours he employed in carving ; and being fond of music, 
made a violin for himself, which be preserved till his deatb. 
He was first tempted to draw, from seeing some ordinary 
prints in a magazine, which he imitated with considerable 
success : and his first attempt at portrait was from memory, 
when endeavouring to describe the features of a stranger 
whom be had seen at church. After some attempts by his 
fiither to place him in trade, be consented to let him be- 
come a painter, and his first master was an artist of the 
name of Steele, who taught him, to a certain extent, the 
knowledge and use of the materials of the art. Leaving 
this master, he began to practise portrait-painting in the 
country, and being ambitious to try his fate in the metro* 
polis, as soon as he had acquired nearly an hundred gui- 
neas, he took thirty for his travelling expences, and leav- 
ing the remainder with his wife, set out for, and arrived in 
London in 1762. 

He fi^st resided in the city, where he painted portraits 
at five guineas a head, and acquired considerable practice 
through the friendly assistance of that worthy and benevo- 
lent man, Daniel Brathwaite, esq. then comptroller of the 
foreign post-office. In 1764 he visited France, and sur- 
veyed the various repositories of art at Paris, and on his 
return resided in Gray's-inn, where his practice encreased, 
especially among the gentlemen of the long robe. In 1765, 
be obtained a prize from the Society for the Encourage- 
ment of Arts and Sciences, for an historical picture, the 
<* Death of king Edmund.** In 1768 he removed to Great 
Newport- street, still increasing in practice and fame ; but, 
consoious of the necessity of cultivating his taste by an in- 
spection of the great works of art in Italy, he set out thi- 
ther in March 1773, with Mr. Ozias Humphrey, a minia- 
ture painter of celebrity, and remained two years, leading 
a studious and recluse life, and making some few copies. 

On his return in July 1775, he took a house in Caven- 
dish-square, where he resided, until be retired in 1798, 
from public practice, to Hampstead, for the sake of purer 

R O M N E Y. S65 

air. During the preceding twenty years, he enjoyed un- 
interrupted success in bis profession, to which he was so 
ardently attached, that his whole delight was in it. His 
talents, in return, were highly esteemed, and encouraged 
by an ioimense influx of employn^ent. In one year only 
(1785), be painted portraits to the value of 363 5^. His 
prices now were, for a, whole-length, eighty guineas ; half 
whole-length, sixty; half-length, forty ; a kit-cat, thirty; 
Bnd for a head, twenty guineas. It is very remarkable, 
however, that be never became a member of the Royal 
Academy, nor ever exhibited in its rooms. When the 
Boydeil Sbakspeare was projected, Romney contributed 
bis aid. He had a quick and keen relish for the beauties. 
of that poet, although his own fancy was so volatile, and 
his mode of reading so desultory, that it may be questioned 
if he ever read, without interruption, two acts of the dra- 
mas that he most cordially admired. After be had fini&bed 
his fine picture for *' The Tempest," he was induced ia 
1790 to visit Paris again, with his biographer Mr. Hayley 
find another friend ^ but on his return in 1791 resumed bis 
labours for the Sbakspeare gallery, and painted some pic* 
tures for the prince of Wales. In 1797 he felt a «light 
paralytic stroke, which affected his eye and his hand, and 
prevented him from continuing bis professional labours* 
It was then he retired to Hampsteaci,but, finding his health 
still decline, he, in 1799, revisited his native country, where^ 
he died Nov. 15, 1802. 

. Of Romney, as an artist, it is by no means easy to ap- 
preciate the just character. That he possessed genius and 
talents in an eminent degree, no one can deny. Fuseli, in 
his edition of Pilkington^s Dictionary, has said, ^^ that be 
was made for the times, and the times for him*/' It had 

* ** To Romney as a portrait-pain- position of odour witfiotit decided 

ter the pubMc have borne ample testi- masses of light and shade, he is not 

mooy ; he was made for the times, and always happy in the balance : he be«- 

the times f»r him. If he had not ge* comes livid without freshness, and foxy 

iiius to lead, he had too much origin- without glow. Those who wish to fo'rni 

ality to follow, and whenever be chose an idea of his historic powers may 

was nearer to the first than to the last consult the pictures of the Storm from 

of his competitors. Practice had given the Tempest, the Cassandra from Trol- 

bim rapidity of execution, and nature las and Cressida, and the Infant Shak- 

an eye sufficiently just for form, and speare of the Boydeil gajlery. Rom- 

not ungenial for colour. His women ney, as artist and as man, is entitled 

have often naiW/e, sometimes elegance, to commendation and esteem; but tiis 

with an artless bloom and freshness of life fumivhes a signal proof of the f^* 

tint. His men in general have more tility of the idea that genius is of z, 

spirit than dignity, and more of pre- passive quality, and may be laid by 

ience tbaa reality of character* When . or taken up as a man pleasea.*' Pi& 

' be attewpii w |'r9duc« effects by op« kington, by Fuseli. 

366 ft O M N E Y. 


perhaps, says the critic in the Cyclopsedia, been cnofe 
just to have observed that llomney was made for better 
times than those in which he lived. His perception of art 
was far purer than most of his contemporaries, at ieast id 
this country, were capable of enjoying; and it must be 
remembered, that no one ever set forth in the career of an 
artist under greater disadvantages than he did. The taste 
he imbibed for simplicity and grandeur, on seeing, at an 
advanced period of his life, the works of the ancient artists, 
prove what might have been fairly expected of him, had 
he been sooner initiated in the mysteries of his art. With^ 
out this aid, Romney had to separate for himself the par- 
tial, from the general effects of nature ; and the inequality 
with which he, in this point, met the rivafry of more for- 
tunate artists, is too evident in most of his productions^ 
Frequently, his chiaroscuro is ill conducted, and his har- 
mony of forms and colours imperfect, even in pictures pro- 
duced when enjoying the height of his intellectual power, 
and at the happiest period oJF his executive skill : at the 
fame time they exhibit great fertility of invention, witb 
sweetness and delicacy of sentiment. 

He was happily endowed with an inquisitive mind, that 
delighted in science, and pursued it warmly, with the best 
means he had ; and he possessed a versatility of genius, 
which is exemplified by the variety of subjects he chose for 
representation. Both the comic and serious impressions of 
the mind had charms for him. Early in life he painted two 
pictures from Tristram Shandy ; one, of the arrival of Dr. 
Slop at Shandy-hall, after the unlucky catastrophe he met 
with on the road ; which afforded scope for sentimental 
comic humour j the other from the affecting story of the 
death of Le Fevre ; both of them were highly approved for 
truth and propriety of feeling and expression, though dif- 
fering so widely in their effects upon the mind. His jour-* 
oey to Italy expanded bis view of art ; new scenes, and 
new sources of information, were presented to him, of wbicb 
he did not neglect to avail himself. The works of fancy 
be produced after his return home exemplify the use he 
made of the two years he spent among the unrivalled pro*< 
ductions of art he there met with. The purity and per- 
fection of ancient sculpture appear to have made the deep«i 
est impression upon bis mind; and he afterwards assi- 
duously cherished the taste be then imbibed, by procuring 
a collection, of casts from the best oiodels of aneient ata-^ 

R O M N E Y. »6t 

tues, groups, basso-relievos, &c. which he would sit by the 
hour to contemplate; examining their appearances under 
all changes of sun-shine, and common day-light; and with 
lamps, prepared on purpose, he would try their effects in 
various modes of illumination, with rapturous delight* 
Hence, grandeur and simplicity became the principal ob* 
jects of bis ambition ; he perceived these qualities dis- 
tinctly, and employed them judiciously; even whilst imi-« 
tating nature in his most usual occupation, — portrait paint«i 
lug. To present his figure, or tell his story, with simple 
undisturbed effect, rejecting all unnecessary minutias, wzn^ 
the point he aimed at and obtained. 

On bis return from the continent his zeal for historical 
painting revived, or rather became strengthened. In se- 
veral epistles to Mr. Hayley, he laments his confinement to 
portraits : in one he says, '^ this cursed portrait paintings 
how I am shackled with it ! I am determined to live fru- 
gally, and cut it short as soon as I can.^* In another, he 
chentions his ** wish to bet retired, in order to compose with 
more effect and propriety." And whenever he returned to 
London from Eastham, the hostpitable retreat of bis admir- 
ing correspondent and friend, whose playfulness of fancy was 
a constant and useful stimulus to Komney's dejected and 
desponding mind, he felt it a weight of drudgery again t6 
fail into the trammels' of portraiture ; yet from the enjoy- 
ment he by nature found in the practice of his profession, 
a short time inured him afresh to it, and still he felt plea^ 
sure in tracing the features of each uew face that presented 
itself; till again bis exhausted fraine required the exhilara- 
tion of retirement, and the refreshment afforded by pure 
uncontaminated air, free from the gross vapours of a great 
and populous city. It is not a little surprising that amidst 
fais continual labours in that branch of the art he more im- 
mediately professed, be should have found time to product 
so great a number of fancy pictures as he left behind bim. 
Hie also frequently spent bis evenings in making large carr 
toons in charcoal, of subjects which suited bis fancy ; — ge* 
nerally of a sublime cast. Amongst these was one of the 
dream of Attossa, from the Persian of ^schylus, which * 
was conducted with the taste and feeling of the ancieri't 
Greek artists. ' , 

He was in general fortunate in the choice of his histonqal 
subjects; and certainly, in this respect, had far the ad - 
yaaia^e of bis great rival, sir Joshua Reynolds ; and n* 

868 R O M N E y. 

less so in the power of expression, which he scarcely eret 
failed to obtain; whilst the latter, in his historical picture^ 
has rarely been so happy. Reynolds gave beauty and grace 
to his figures : Romney imparted souL The former de** 
lights the eye with, the harmony and richness of colour^ 
and beauty of effect ; the latter thrills and gratifies . tbf! 
heart with truth and force of expression, in action find 
countenance; wrpught with more simplicity^ but with less 
art. His picture of Ophelia seated upon a branch of atree^ 
the breaking of which threatens her destruction in the 
stream below^ whilst the melancholy distraction visible 19 
her lovely face accounts for her apparent insensibility, t^ 
danger, is a sufficient proof of this assertion. His com- 
position also of *^ Titania and her Indian Votaress,!' in th« 
possession of Mr. Beckford ; ^^ Titania, Puck, and tb^ 
Changeling,'' at sir John Leicester's, and others of bis works 
of the like playful and interesting kind, might bf brought 
forward to support iu In portraiture, however^ the justljf 
exalted president of the royal academy stood alone, ajn^ 
Romney was not able to cope with him. In the compoT 
sition of his figures, our artist exhibited the taste he had 
acquired by the study of the antique ; and h^ adH^irably 
varied the characters of .his heads. The arrangement of 
drapery which he adopted, partook largely of the same 
ftyle ; and being well understood, was painted, with great 
dexterity ; though it noust be confessed, that in fori^, it 
was not unfrequently better adapted to sculpture than tq 
painting. His style of colouring was simple and broad* , 
in that of his flesh he was very successful ; exhibiting a 
great variety of complexion, with much wajrmth an^TJcb? 
ness. It was not always; however, that his piqtures were 
€U)mplete in the general tone; but crude discordfi.ip^tcol9ur^ 
were sometimes. introduced in the back-grounds, which np( 
being blended or broken into unison with the hue of th§ 
principal figures, interrupted the harmony of the whole. 
The executive part of bis works was free, learned, and 
precise, without being triBing or minute, possessing great 
simplicity, and exhibiting a purity of feeling consonant 
with the style of his compositions. He aimed at the .bes( 
of all principles in the imitation of nature, viz. to generalize 
its effects ; he even carried it so far as to subject himself 
to the charge of negligence in the completion of his forms : 
but the truth of his imitation is sufficiently perfect to satisfy 
the miada of those who regard nature systematically, and 

Mt iitdividuallvy or too minutely. In a word^ adds the 
eritic whom we have ptincipally followed ifn this character^ 
every lover of art who knows how to appreciate truly what 
k most valuable in painting, will hold the nameof Romney 
in increasing estimationi the more frequently and impar- 
tially he examines his productions.' 

RONDELET (William), a celebrated professor of phy-» 
tic at Montpellier, was born in that city, September 27, 
1507. - After having practised in various places of inferior 
note, he went to Parisi learned Greek there, and returning 
to his native city, practised physic with great credit. So 
ardent was M. de Rondelet^s application to anatomy, that 
be dissected one of his own children, which gained him the 
character of an unnatural father. He died at R^almont, in 
Albigeois, July 18, 1566. He is principally celebrated for 
his treatise on 6shes, in Latin, 1554, 2 torn. fol. and 1558, 
fol« in French* Of his medical works there is a collection 
printed at Geneva, 1628, 8 vo, but they are not equaLto 
the high reputation their author had acquired. It is this 
physician whom Rabelais ridicules under the name of Ron-* 
dibilis. His life may be found in Joubert's works. * 

RONSARD (Pbter de), a French poet, of a noble far 
nily, was born in Vendomois, the same year that Francis 
I; was taken prisoner before Pavia ; that is, in 1524. This 
circamstance is what he himself affixes to the time of his 
birth ; though from other passages in his works it might 
be concluded that he was not born till 1526. He was 
brought up at Paris, in the college of Navarre ; but, taking 
some disgust to bis studies, became a page of the duke of 
Orleans. This duke resigned him to the king of Scotland, 
James V. whom he attended from Paris into Scotland iu 
1537, and continued there two years, after which he re** 
aided about half a year in England. But the duke of Or-* 
leans took him again, and employed him in several nego- 
tiations. Ronsard accompanied Lazarus de Baif to the 
diet of Spire; and, in his conversations with that lesrned 
ihan, conceived a passfon for letters. He learned Greek 
under Doraf with Antony de Baif, the son of Lazarus ; and 
afterwards devoted himself entirely to poetry, in which he 
acquired great reputation. The kings Henry U. Francis 
IL Charles IX. and Henry UL had a particular esteem for 

< Life by Hftyley.— Reet*t CyclopaBdia. 

t £loy Diet. HUU deMedceine.— Ualltfr, BibU M«d. «t Aaaton. 

VouXXVI. B a : 

370 • R O N S A E|). 

biro, and became his. liberal patrons. In 1 562 h0 put him«t 
self at the head of some soldiers in Vendomois, and foiigbt 
against the protestants, which occasioned the publicatioa 
of some very satirical pieces against him at Orleans, ia 
which he was represented as a priest : but he defended 
himself in verse, and denied his being an ecclesiastic. He 
had, however, some benefices in commendam ; and, among 
others, the priory of St. Cosmas near Tours, where he died 
in 1585. Du Perron, after wai*ds cardinal, made his fu- 
neral oration ; and a noble monument was erected there to 
his memory some years after. He was much afBicted with 
the gout, which, it is said, was owing to his debauched 
way .of life. His poems consist of odes, hymns, elegies^ 
sonnets, epigrams, and pieces of amatory poetry, not o£ 
the most chaste description. He was considered in his day 
as possessing great talents for poetry ; but these are not aa 
visible to the eye of modern criticism. His style is ex-i 
tremely harsh and obscure, which, it is ,said, would have 
been more excusable, bad he not been preceded by Marot. 
What learning he had appears in a pedantic aflectation of 
allusions, examples, and words, drawn from Greek and 
Latin, which increase the obscurity of his style« Boileau 
justly says ^* It is the approbation of posterity alone which: 
must establish the true merit of works. Whatever eclat a 
writer may make during his life, whatever eloges he may> 
receive, we cannot conclude infallibly from this, that his? 
works are excellent. False beauties, novelty of style, and. 
a particular taste or manner of judging,, which happens to! 
prevail at that time, may raise a writer into high credit and-, 
esteem,; and, in the next age, when the eyes of men are 
opened, that which was the object of admiration, shall he. 
the object of contempt. We have a fine example of this 
in Ronsard, and his imitators, Du Bellay, Du Bartas, Des«. 
portes, who in the last age were admired by all the world, 
in this are read by nobody." The best editions of Ron^r 
«ard's works are those by Binet, Paris, 1587, or L 604, 5> 
vols. 12mo, and by Richelet, 1623, 2 vols. foL^ 

ROOKE (sir George), a brave naval oHicer, was borni 
in Kent, 1650, of an ancient and honourable family. His. 
father, sir William Rooke, knight, qualified him by a pro-, 
per education for a liberal profession ; but was at last, 
obliged to give way to his inclination to the navy. His 

} Gen. Di(;t— Mortji.-^Dict. HifU 

R o o K £r. $n 

first station was that of a volunteer, from which hid merit 
raised him by regular steps to be Tice-admiral, and one of 
the council to prince George of Denmark, lord high ad« 
miral. He had the command of several expeditions in the* 
reigns of William and Anne, in which bis conduct and 
courage were eminently displayed. The former appeared 
in his behaviour on the Irish station, when he was serit as 
commodore with a squadron to assist in the reduction of 
that kingdom ; in his wise and prudent management when 
he preserved so great a part of the Smyrna fleet, which" 
fortune bad put into the hands of the French, who sufiered 
themselves to be deprived of an immense booty by the 
superior s